Article

Trust and communicated attributions in close relationships

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Abstract

The attributional statements intimate partners communicate to one another were examined as a function of trust. In discussions by 35 married couples, 850 attributions and corresponding events were coded on dimensions of valence, globality, and locus. Results of regression and contingency analyses indicate that attributional statements expressed in high-trust relationships emphasized positive aspects of the relationship. Medium-trust couples actively engaged issues but focused more on negative events and explanations. Low-trust couples expressed more specific, less affectively extreme attributional statements that minimized the potential for increased conflict. Results could not be accounted for by relationship satisfaction. These findings also highlight the importance of focusing on features of the events for which attributions are expressed.

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... Tourists' positive perceptions may determine their decision to visit a tourism destination (Ye et al., 2019). However, customers' perceptions can further be linked to their behaviors around trust and emotional attachment (Rempel et al., 2001;Thi et al., 2002;Ye et al., 2019). Research investigating tourists' perceptions of CST and the role of value cocreation in creating valuable CST experience and their decision-making to visit a CST destination is scant. ...
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Thesis
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The effect of marital education on marital and sexual satisfaction.
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When, why, and how does interpersonal forgiveness occur? These questions guided recent research that compared the relative abilities of empathy versus motivated reasoning models to account for the influence of relationship closeness on interpersonal forgiveness. Consistent support was provided for the Model of Motivated Interpersonal Forgiveness. This model hypothesizes that, following relationship transgressions, relationship closeness leads to a desire to maintain a relationship. Desire to maintain a relationship leads to motivated reasoning. And motivated reasoning fosters interpersonal forgiveness. The goal of the present research was to examine two concerns that emerged from the initial support for the Model of Motivated Interpersonal Forgiveness. First, were the measures of motivated reasoning and interpersonal forgiveness conflated, thus reducing the potential for empathy to account for interpersonal forgiveness? Second, did the analytic estimation used reduce the power to detect the mediational role of empathy? The present research examined these questions. When motivated reasoning was measured by thought listings (in addition to the original questionnaire items) and when the analytic estimation provided greater power, the Model of Motivated Interpersonal Forgiveness was replicated.
... Trust plays a significant role in developing bonds with consumers and it could be unidimensional as well as multidimensional (Gefen et al., 2003). A study by Rempel et al. (2001) highlighted the "dependability" factor of trust leading to a reduction in risk. Morrow et al. (2004) confirmed trust as a combination of rational thinking (cognitive) and emotions, feelings, and instincts (affective). ...
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The present research study has examined social media constructs, pay‐on‐delivery (POD) mode of payment, and its relationship with purchase intentions while making online purchases. The data were collected through an online as well as an offline survey from respondents in North Indian states. An online survey questionnaire link was shared on different social media platforms and social networking sites. A total of 385 responses were received, of which 354 responses were considered for the study. Results revealed that ratings and reviews and recommendations and referrals are significant social media constructs. Social media constructs had a positive association with trust. Furthermore, the POD mode of payment also emerged as a strong and significant antecedent of trust which in turn leads to an increase in purchase intentions. The present study contributes to the literature by analyzing the impact of the POD mode of payment and social media constructs on trust. There is sparse research on the impact of payment mechanisms in generating trust toward online shopping a gap which the study has tried to fill up.
... However, as Ballinger and Rockmann (2010) note, because many of our relationships are long term, they are better characterized by an ongoing cycle of adjustment and repair. Viewing fracture-repair episodes as embedded within a relationship's history suggests that how dyads make sense of an abrupt shock will depend upon relational foundations and how they resolve that shock will redefine the relational foundation going forward (e.g., Miller & Rempel, 2004;Rempel et al., 2001). The impact of gradual strains is less well understood, and there is a need for the analysis of how small violations accumulate to the point that they are noticed and result in fracture; there is also a need to better understand whether the relational injury and subsequent repair efforts differ for fractures triggered by gradual drifts and abrupt shocks. ...
... This postulated role of trust has made a sophisticated understanding of the processes by which it can be increased and maintained particularly important. Scholars working on close, interpersonal relationships (e.g., Rempel et al., 2001); small, temporary groups (e.g., Meyerson et al., 1996); and large, international institutions (e.g., Arnold et al., 2012) have all expended considerable energy in working to identify trust's most critical antecedents. Most of these can be grouped into a broader notion of trustworthiness-that is, the trustor's evaluations of the characteristics of the target that make it more or less worthy of being trusted (see Sharp et al., 2013). ...
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Discipline and context specific inquiries into the nature and dynamics of trust are beginning to give way to cross-boundary understandings which seek to outline its more consistent elements. Of particular note within these is an argument that trust is premised on vulnerability; that it has an important nexus with assessments of the ability, benevolence, and integrity of the trust target; and that it can also be motivated. The current work seeks to shed preliminary light on the applicability of this argument to a context in which it has not previously been examined: community-based water management in southwestern Uganda. Using a deductive, theory-driven analysis of focus group discussions with residents, we show that when our participants were simply asked to discuss their relationships with local management committees, vulnerability, ability, benevolence, and integrity consistently emerged as salient themes. Motivation, however, emerged as most salient for women. Further analysis suggests that this may have been because women are more directly involved in water provision, thereby increasing their perceived need for the resource. Our results, therefore, lend credence to the cross-boundary nature of this increasingly nuanced theoretical understanding of trust but also suggest some general guidance for improving community-based resource management efforts by providing preliminary evidence regarding the relative roles of trustworthiness and motivation.
... This postulated role of trust has made a sophisticated understanding of the processes by which it can be increased and maintained particularly important. Scholars working on close, interpersonal relationships (e.g., Rempel et al., 2001); small, temporary groups (e.g., Meyerson et al., 1996); and large, international institutions (e.g., Arnold et al., 2012) have all expended considerable energy in working to identify trust's most critical antecedents. Most of these can be grouped into a broader notion of trustworthiness-that is, the trustor's evaluations of the characteristics of the target that make it more or less worthy of being trusted (see Sharp et al., 2013). ...
... A symbolic depiction of trust is what researchers associate with romantic relationships. The literature on relationship conflicts also highlights that a lack of trust leads to more significant conflict, confusion and misunderstandings (Rempel et al., 2001). Thus, trust is a vital component in building intimacy in romantic relationships. ...
Article
Purpose The behavioural changes embraced by the current generation has prompted researchers to revisit the paradigm of human relationships, especially romantic liaisons. The present study revisits the construct of romantic relationships steered by social media platforms, through the dimensions of self-disclosure, social intimacy and trust. The role of trust as a mediator to determine the success of online dating is also explored in this study. Design/methodology/approach The study uses the data collected from 225 respondents (86 females and 139 males) in the age group of 18 to 30 years. The respondents were asked to fill a questionnaire (provided they fulfilled the necessary conditions and expressed their consent to be a participant in this study). Findings The study validates that the extent of self-disclosure propels the degree of social intimacy. The results also confirm a significant partial mediation effect of trust on the relationship between social intimacy and the success of online dating. Thus, practitioners need to keep in mind that the probability of online dating success is higher when individuals disclose more and engage in an intimate relationship driven by trust. Research limitations/implications The study sample is restricted to young adults ranging from 18 to 30 years, based on the author’s convenience. The study was restricted to three most popular social media platforms in India where disclosure is limited to private timelines or messages. Another limitation of this study is that a multi-variate model of analysis could not be used due to the lack of parallel variables. Further studies can also compare online versus offline dating behaviour and determinants that influence the romantic relationship between two partners. Practical implications The new perspective could be to ascertain specific built-in mechanisms providers should develop to ensure that the new generation benefits from new technology rather than falling victim to its toxins. Social implications The study re-establishes the importance of the role of trust in any romantic relationship – may it be online or the more traditional, offline or face-to-face mode. Originality/value The study delves into the domain of existing romantic relationships established through the modernistic viewpoint of online social media platforms. The findings bring a fresh perspective on the dynamics of online romantic relationships through the mélange of self-disclosure, social intimacy and trust. Previous literature suggests that trust is dependent on self-disclosure, which is in contrast with the results of the current study. The present study corroborates that trust leads to the success of online dating.
... Thus, in order to gain a more ecologically sound understanding of the implications of BS in the real world, additional work should be done to see whether BS feedback is equally insidious when coming from a woman as a man. Second, people tend to wear rose-colored glasses when it comes to people whom they trust (Murray, Holmes, & Griffin, 1996), and they are more likely to make external attributions (e.g., "they're from a different era", "they didn't mean it like that") for negative behaviors (Kim, Dirks, Cooper, & Ferrin, 2006;Rempel, Ross, & Holmes, 2001;Tomlinson & Mryer, 2009). People may be more able or willing to downplay and disregard the implications of BS feedback if it comes from someone trusted versus an unknown other. ...
Article
Benevolent sexism is a double-edged sword that uses praise to maintain gender inequality, which consequently makes women feel less efficacious, agentic and competent. This study investigated whether benevolently sexist feedback that was supportive could result in cardiovascular responses indicative of threat (lower cardiac output/higher total peripheral resistance). Women received either supportive non-sexist or supportive yet benevolent sexist feedback from a male evaluator following practice trials on a verbal reasoning test. As expected, women receiving benevolent sexist feedback exhibited cardiovascular threat during a subsequent test, relative to women receiving non-sexist feedback. There was no support for an alternative hypothesis that benevolent sexist feedback would lead to cardiovascular responses consistent with disengaging from the task altogether (i.e., lower heart rate and ventricular contractility). These findings illustrate that the consequences of benevolent sexism can occur spontaneously, while women are engaged with a task, and when the sexist feedback is intended as supportive.
... Trust in a marketing context can be defined as the fulfillment of expectation perceived by customer from the firm/producers. Expectations are believed to offer a sense of confidence where consumer believes that the product will consistently act as consumer's best interests (Rempel et al., 2001). Trust is a variable that evolves over time. ...
... Viewing fracture-repair episodes as embedded within a relationship's history suggests that how dyads make sense of an abrupt shock will depend upon relational foundations and how they resolve that shock will redefine the relational foundation going forward (e.g., Miller & Rempel, 2004;Rempel et al., 2001). The impact of gradual strains is less well understood, and there is a need for the analysis of how small violations accumulate to the point that they are noticed and result in fracture; there is also a need to better understand whether the relational injury and subsequent repair efforts differ for fractures triggered by gradual drifts and abrupt shocks. ...
... Scholars have argued that trust "may be the single most important ingredient for the development and maintenance of happy, well-functioning relationships" (Simpson, 2007, p. 264). Trust decreases conflict (Zaheer, McEvily, & Perrone, 1998), promotes positive perceptions of one's relationships (Luchies et al., 2013;Rempel, Ross, & Holmes, 2001) and increases forgiveness after interpersonal transgressions (Molden & Finkel, 2010). Because of trust's central role in social life, a substantial body of research has investigated when and why individuals decide to trust others (e.g., Dunn, Ruedy, & Schweitzer, 2012;Dunning, Anderson, Schlösser, Ehlebracht, & Fetchenhauer, 2014;Kim, Ferrin, Cooper, & Dirks, 2004;Lewicki, & Bunker, 1995;Lewicki, McAllister, & Bies, 1998;Lount, 2010;Lount & Pettit, 2012;Lount, Zhong, Sivanathan, & Murnighan, 2008;Pillutla, Malhotra, & Murnighan, 2003;Tomlinson & Mayer, 2009). ...
Preprint
Existing trust research has disproportionately focused on what makes people more or less trusting, and has largely ignored the question of what makes people more or less trustworthy. In this investigation, we deepen our understanding of trustworthiness. Across six studies using economic games that measure trustworthy behavior and survey items that measure trustworthy intentions, we explore the personality traits that predict trustworthiness. We demonstrate that guilt-proneness predicts trustworthiness better than a variety of other personality measures, and we identify sense of interpersonal responsibility as the underlying mechanism by both measuring it and manipulating it directly. People who are high in guilt-proneness are more likely to be trustworthy than are individuals who are low in guilt-proneness, but they are not universally more generous. We demonstrate that people high in guilt-proneness are more likely to behave in interpersonally sensitive ways when they are more responsible for others’ outcomes. We also explore potential interventions to increase trustworthiness. Our findings fill a significant gap in the trust literature by building a foundation for investigating trustworthiness, by identifying a trait predictor of trustworthy intentions and behavior, and by providing practical advice for deciding in whom we should place our trust
... Brand trust refers to the confidence that the brand will demonstrate benevolence by forgoing self-interest in future (Murray and Holmes, 2009). Therefore, through the mediation of brand trust only desirable brand relationship outcomes will be realised (Rempel et al., 2001). Givertz et al. (2013) maintain that the relationship involving individual's attachment style and his/her relationship quality is mediated by trust such that securely attached style characterised by low anxiety and low avoidance positively impacts trust, and trust in turn predicts positive relationship outcomes. ...
Purpose This paper aims to investigate how consumers’ satisfaction and commitment towards hotel brands can be impacted by the consumers’ prevailing brand relationship norms. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected through experimental design and analysed using MANCOVA, structural equation modelling and Preacher and Hayes’ (2008) techniques. Findings The study findings indicate that the egoistic norms positively impact brand attachment styles/orientations, and the attachment orientations in turn negatively impact hotel brand satisfaction and commitment through the mediation of brand trust. Findings also reveal that altruistic norms have no significant impact on the attachment styles, but altruism impacts brand trust positively, which in turn positively impacts satisfaction and commitment. Originality/value This research adds value by examining how different consumer–brand association norms differently impact final brand satisfaction and commitment outcomes through creating healthy versus detrimental consumer–brand attachments.
... Across categories, low and high trust parents' statements were consistent with the communicated attributions reported by Rempel et al. (2001), i.e. that high trust emphasise the positive aspects of the relationship. However, in low trust relationships there was no parallel between private attributions which were negative and public statements which were 'deceptively benign'. ...
Article
Positive relationships between home and school are important for providing consistent support for pupil academic progress and behaviour. This paper explores the central role of trust between parents and teachers as an element of successful parent-teacher partnerships. Perspectives of 35 parents, defined as low or high trust, and 25 teachers in 4 schools were sampled through telephone interviews and focus groups. The format of the interviews was semi-structured and questions were asked about what schools need to do to build trust with parents. Transcripts were analysed using a qualitative procedure and commonalities and differences of view identified. The results highlighted a range of features that are consistently indicated in the development of trust. The central importance of communication was identified by teachers and parents (low and high trust). There was a high frequency of teacher statements across categories citing factors external to the school (such as child, family or societal factors) as being at the root of difficulties in establishing trusting home-school relationships. High trust parents were more likely to commend the school on the consistency of its procedures in managing behaviour. However, difficulties relating to discipline and dissatisfaction with the school’s approach to tackling bullying and disruption were more likely to be raised by less trusting parents. The results are discussed in relation to theory and research and implications for school policy and practice are outlined.
... In marketing context, trust is a belief of compassion and expectation of receptivity to one's fundamentals from the end of the business firm (Holmes and Rempel, 1989;Wieselquist et al., 1999). It's the confidence about the consistency in the bonafide act in future also that would serve the best interest of the customer-firm relationship (Rempel et al., 2001). The consumers who put more trust in the firm, have been observed to be more emotionally attached to its brand. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the relationship of consumers’ engagement on social networking sites (SNSs) and their brand attachment behavior in the presence of a mediator, brand communication. Further, this mediation has been studied with presence of emojis as one of the significant moderator. Design/methodology/approach Following a descriptive research design, an empirical investigation was carried out by approaching 252 respondents from India to collect data through online survey forms as well as physical questionnaires. The research instrument was developed using a five-point Likert-type scale and items for the constructs in study were taken after literature review. The SPSS 22.0, AMOS 24.0 and Process (Prof A. Hayes) and Daniel Soper’s statistical tool called “Interaction” for moderation graph were employed for data examination and hypothesis analysis. Findings It was found that brand communication mediated the relationship between consumer engagement on SNSs and brand attachment significantly. The availability of emojis for a company during a conversation or in digital ad campaigns on SNSs acts as a mediating moderator and its impact on consumers’ brand attachment behavior is very strong through brand communication. Originality/value The study is original in the sense it provides insights into understanding consumer brand attachment behavior on SNSs.
... Trust research has extraordinarily broad intellectual origins in diverse fields such as philosophy, sociology, social psychology, behavioral economics, political science, and neurobiology, among others. The interplays of trust, trustworthiness, and distrust form a critical emotional and cognitive infrastructure for all forms of political, economic, work, social, and interpersonal relationships (Butler, 1986;Mikulincer, 1998;Norris & Zweigenhaft, 1999;Rempel, Ross, & Holmes, 2001;Rousseau, Sitkin, Burt, & Camerer, 1998;Simpson, 2007). Trust is among the most commonly cited cognitions associated with interpersonal sexual relations (Brady, Tschann, Ellen, & Flores, 2009); in recent years, trust has become synonymous with fundamental aspects of attachment, pair-bonding, love, and the neurocognitive basis of monogamy (Carter, 2014). ...
Article
Trust is experienced almost constantly in all forms of social and interpersonal relationships, including sexual relationships, and may contribute both directly and indirectly to sexual health. The purpose of this review is to link three aspects of trust to sexual health: (1) the role of trust in sexual relationships; (2) the role of trust in sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, particularly condom use; and (3) the relevance of trust in sexual relationships outside of the traditional model of monogamy. The review ends with consideration of perspectives that could guide new research toward understanding the enigmas of trust in partnered sexual relations in the context of sexual and public health.
... Scholars have argued that trust "may be the single most important ingredient for the development and maintenance of happy, well-functioning relationships" (Simpson, 2007, p. 264). Trust decreases conflict (Zaheer, McEvily, & Perrone, 1998), promotes positive perceptions of one's relationships (Luchies et al., 2013;Rempel, Ross, & Holmes, 2001) and increases forgiveness after interpersonal transgressions (Molden & Finkel, 2010). Because of trust's central role in social life, a substantial body of research has investigated when and why individuals decide to trust others (e.g., Dunn, Ruedy, & Schweitzer, 2012;Dunning, Anderson, Schlösser, Ehlebracht, & Fetchenhauer, 2014;Kim, Ferrin, Cooper, & Dirks, 2004;Lewicki, & Bunker, 1995;Lewicki, McAllister, & Bies, 1998;Lount, 2010;Lount & Pettit, 2012;Lount, Zhong, Sivanathan, & Murnighan, 2008;Pillutla, Malhotra, & Murnighan, 2003;Tomlinson & Mayer, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Existing trust research has disproportionately focused on what makes people more or less trusting, and has largely ignored the question of what makes people more or less trustworthy. In this investigation, we deepen our understanding of trustworthiness. Across six studies using economic games that measure trustworthy behavior and survey items that measure trustworthy intentions, we explore the personality traits that predict trustworthiness. We demonstrate that guilt-proneness predicts trustworthiness better than a variety of other personality measures, and we identify sense of interpersonal responsibility as the underlying mechanism by both measuring it and manipulating it directly. People who are high in guilt-proneness are more likely to be trustworthy than are individuals who are low in guilt-proneness, but they are not universally more generous. We demonstrate that people high in guilt-proneness are more likely to behave in interpersonally sensitive ways when they are more responsible for others’ outcomes. We also explore potential interventions to increase trustworthiness. Our findings fill a significant gap in the trust literature by building a foundation for investigating trustworthiness, by identifying a trait predictor of trustworthy intentions and behavior, and by providing practical advice for deciding in whom we should place our trust.
... Beyond economic exchanges and the organizational context, trust has important implications for the initiation, commitment, and longevity or dissolution of close relationships (see Fletcher, Simpson, & Thomas, 2000;Larzelere & Huston, 1980;Mikulincer, 1998;Miller & Rempel, 2004;Rempel, Ross, & Holmes, 2001;Simpson, 1990). Specifically, the present findings support the conclusion of past research that has suggested that situations where partners face a strong conflict of interests (so called strain-test situations) enables partners to communicate trust and trustworthiness that can result in a multitude of positive outcomes for a relationship (e.g., Holmes & Rempel, 1989;Van Lange et al., 1997;Wieselquist et al., 1999). ...
Article
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Many theories of trust emphasize that trust is most relevant to behavior in situations involving a conflict of interests. However, it is not clear how trust relates to behavior across situations that differ in the degree of conflicting interest: Does trust matter more when the conflict of interest is small or large? According to an interdependence perspective, trust becomes an especially important determinant of behavior in situations involving larger, compared to smaller, degrees of conflicting interests. To examine this perspective, we conducted a meta-analysis involving 212 effect sizes on the relation between trust (both state and dispositional trust in others) and cooperation in social dilemmas—situations that involve varying degrees of conflict between self-interest and collective interest. Results revealed that the positive relation between trust and cooperation is stronger when there is a larger, compared to smaller, degree of conflict. We also examined several other possible moderators of the relation between trust and cooperation. The relation between trust and cooperation was stronger during individual, compared to intergroup, interactions but did not vary as a function of the situation being either a one-shot or repeated interaction. We also find differences across countries in the extent that people condition their own cooperation based on their trust in others. We discuss how the results support an emerging consensus about trust being limited to situations of conflict and address some theoretical and societal implications for our understanding of how and why trust is so important to social interactions and relationships.
... Entretanto, é possível considerar que atitudes de desconfi ança podem impactar o relacionamento conjugal, principalmente se estas atitudes forem dirigidas ao cônjuge. A confi ança é apontada por alguns autores como importante variável para a comunicação positiva entre os casais (Rempel, Ross, & Holmes, 2001). Deste modo, pode-se considerar a hipótese de que indivíduos com característica de desconfi ança podem infl uenciar os comportamentos violentos no cônjuge através do chamado efeito parceiro. ...
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Family-of-origin experiences and personality disorder characteristics are considered risk factors in relation to intimate partner violence. The present study's objective is to examine the predictive power of experiences in the family of origin and of pathological personality traits with respect to intimate partner violence, committed and suffered. Our sample consisted of 170 heterosexual couples from the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, who answered the following questionnaires: Clinical Dimensional Personality Assessment (CDPA), Family Background Questionnaire, and Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2). The stepwise method of multiple linear regression analysis was employed. Our findings identified the "mood instability" and "impulsiveness" personality traits as predictors of violence committed by women; the "paternal physical abuse" and "aggressiveness" factors as predictors of violence committed by men; the "distrust" and "maternal decision-making approach" factors as predictors of violence suffered by women; and the "sexual abuse," "social avoidance" and "paternal psychological adjustment" factors as predictors of violence suffered by men. Only the individuals' traits displayed connections with intimate partner violence; none of the traits of the individuals' spouses exhibited a correlation. The study's results have implications for future research, indicating the existence of different explanatory models for men and women.
... Nonetheless, one can see that distrustful attitudes can infl uence a marital relationship, especially if such attitudes target the incredulous partner's spouse. Several authors consider trust an important variable for positive communication between spouses (Rempel, Ross, & Holmes, 2001). We may thus consider the hypothesis that distrustful individuals are capable of infl uencing the violent behaviors of their spouses via the so-called partner effect. ...
Article
Family-of-origin experiences and personality disorder characteristics are considered risk factors in relation to intimate partner violence. The present study's objective is to examine the predictive power of experiences in the family of origin and of pathological personality traits with respect to intimate partner violence, committed and suffered. Our sample consisted of 170 heterosexual couples from the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, who answered the following questionnaires: Clinical Dimensional Personality Assessment (CDPA), Family Background Questionnaire, and Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2). The stepwise method of multiple linear regression analysis was employed. Our findings identified the “mood instability” and “impulsiveness” personality traits as predictors of violence committed by women; the “paternal physical abuse” and “aggressiveness” factors as predictors of violence committed by men; the “distrust” and “maternal decision-making approach” factors as predictors of violence suffered by women; and the “sexual abuse,” “social avoidance” and “paternal psychological adjustment” factors as predictors of violence suffered by men. Only the individuals' traits displayed connections with intimate partner violence; none of the traits of the individuals' spouses exhibited a correlation. The study's results have implications for future research, indicating the existence of different explanatory models for men and women.
... People in close relationships are more willing to forgive because they are highly motivated to preserve relationships in which they have typically invested a considerable amount of resources (Fincham, Hall, & Beach, 2006). In such cases, those who trust their partner typically retain a more positive evaluation of the offender despite their ethical transgression (Rempel, Ross, & Holmes, 2001). ...
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In three experiments, we show that a participant's parasocial relationship with a sports celebrity, ethical intent and regulatory focus orientation influence their forgiveness towards a celebrity's ethical transgression. First, people with a strong (vs. weak) positive parasocial relationship with a sports celebrity were more forgiving after a protective-intent motivated transgression, but were less forgiving after an acquisitive-intent motivated transgression. We then show promotion-focused individuals with a strong parasocial relationship in acquisitive-intent condition were more forgiving than prevention-focused individuals. Finally, even when subjects had a negative parasocial relationship with a celebrity, promotion-focused (vs. prevention-focused) individuals were more forgiving towards a protective intent-motivated transgression. Together, the results shed light on people's inclination to forgive sports celebrities that have committed ethical transgressions.
... Attribution theory has been the basis of thousands of social psychological studies (e.g., Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;Canary & Spitzberg, 1990;Choi, Nisbett, & Norenzayan, 1999;Rempel, Ross, & Holmes, 2001), yet no studies to date have used this theory to examine variations in judgments of infidelity. Studying interpersonal attributions within the context of romantic relationships is valuable because the attributions we make for events, particularly negative events, have been shown to influence behavior in many social contexts, including romantic relationships (Bradbury & Fincham, 1990;Kearns & Fincham, 2005;Pearce & Halford, 2008). ...
Article
The current program of research examined how the four dimensions of the attribution (locus of causality, controllability, stability, intentionality) influenced judgments of a partner’s hypothetical infidelity and actor-observer discrepancies associated with judgments of real-life infidelity. The results from Study 1 (N ¼ 396) revealed that the dimensions of the attribution affected the extent to which adults’ judged a partner’s hypothetical behavior as indicative of infidelity differently depending on the type of behavior. When reporting on real-life behavior (Study 2, N ¼ 802), adults attributed the cause of their partner’s infidelity as being a result of internal, controllable, stable, and intentional causes to a greater extent than when judging their own infidelity.
... A trustworthy brand, in fact, reduces consumers' perceived risk, thereby increasing perceived benefits the brands stand to deliver (Hauser and Wernerfelt 1990). A trustworthy and credible brand also invokes a sense of honesty or sincerity, two personality dimensions closely linked to brand emotional attachment (Aaker 1997; Morhart et al. 2015;Rempel et al. 2001). Further, in line with psychology literature, marketing studies have argued that consumers will exhibit attachment avoidance to brands which they mistrust (Mende et al. 2013;Swaminathan et al. 2009). ...
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This research proposes an augmented conceptual model which traces the role of perceived brand trustworthiness (PBT) and emotional attachment to the brand (EAB) on the formation of brand immunity (BI) and tests it for the moderating influence of generational cohort membership. Test results of the model with an Indian sample of Gen Y and Gen X consumers validate all the propositions except one, thereby enriching BI theory in the backdrop of generational differences. We contribute to the branding literature by showing that the proposed model holds good for consumers belonging to both Gen X and Y, though the strength of the relationships varies based on the specific cohort membership. Gen Y falls slightly short of the overall strength exhibited by Gen X, thereby supporting the moderating influence of cohort difference. We also demonstrate the partially mediating role played by EAB in the formation of BI originating from PBT. Our findings provide brand custodians with useful insights to make better decisions taking into cognizance the psychological process behind how Gen Y and X consumers develop BI.
... Likewise, trust helps explain how attributional activity influences close relationships. Rempel, Ross, and Holmes (2001) showed that married individuals in high-trust relationships were more likely to use positive attributions than those in medium-or low-trust relationships and that the behaviors underlying these attributions were also influenced by trust levels. Others have shown that attachment-related anxiety is related to the use of higher levels of relationship-threatening attributions, each of which is associated with emotional distress (Collins, Ford, Guichard, & Allard, 2006). ...
Article
Relationship maintenance encompasses a broad array of activities that partners may use to preserve their romantic partnerships. For this article, we systematically review the vast literature (N = 1,149 articles) on relationship maintenance in romantic relationships. We first identify the relevant constructs and propose a conceptual model to organize the literature. Then we turn our focus to the empirical research on the processes and social context of relationship maintenance. We conclude by highlighting the lingering questions in the study of relationship maintenance and offering recommendations for future research.
... This is consistent with research on the role of trust in attribution of positive or negative intent in relationship research. 14 Betrayal occurs when an individual is harmed by someone they trust or depend upon. Themes of betrayal arise in the context of medical research on trust: when patients realize that their physician has acted counter to their best interests or taken advantage of them (a betrayal of fiduciary trust), their reaction is closer to moral outrage and indignation than mere disappointment. ...
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Purpose Patients’ trust in health care is increasingly recognized as important to quality care, yet questions remain about what types of health care experiences erode trust. The current study assessed the prevalence and impact of institutional betrayal on patients’ trust and engagement in health care. Participants and methods Participants who had sought health care in the US in October 2013 were recruited from an online marketplace, Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Participants (n = 707; 73% Caucasian; 56.8% female; 9.8% lesbian, gay, or bisexual; median age between 18 and 35 years) responded to survey questions about health care use, trust in health care providers and organizations, negative medical experiences, and institutional betrayal. Results Institutional betrayal was reported by two-thirds of the participants and predicted disengagement from health care (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). Mediational models (tested using bootstrapping analyses) indicated a negative, nonzero pathway between institutional betrayal and trust in health care organizations (b = −0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [−0.07, −0.02]), controlling for trust in physicians and hospitalization history. These negative effects were not buffered by trust in one’s own physician, but in fact patients who trusted their physician more reported lower trust in health care organizations following negative medical events (interaction b = −0.02, 95%CI = [−0.03, −0.01]). Conclusion Clinical implications are discussed, concluding that institutional betrayal decreases patient trust and engagement in health care.
... According to Morgan and Hunt (1994, p. 23) trust exists "when one party has confidence in an exchange partner's reliability and integrity". In line with Doney and Cannon (1997) and Rempel et al. (2001), trust derives from a mechanism wherein characteristics, motives and intentions are attributed to exchange partners, with the evaluation of their potential being facilitated by the assumption that their behaviour is predictable and corresponds to what has been promised. ...
Thesis
p>In what circumstances do individual sacrifice direct self-interest for the good of their partner or their relationship? The research presented in this thesis used interdependence theory (Kelley & Thibaut, 1978; Thibaut & Kelley, 1959) as a theoretical framework for examining willingness to sacrifice in intimate relationship dilemmas. Two person specific variables, commitment and personal relationship needs, were examined alongside three situation specific variables, the cost of sacrificing, partners’ relationship needs, and partners’ strategy. The research had a varied methodological base consisting of two laboratory-based studies (outcome matrices represented relationship dilemmas), a scenario based paradigm, and a recall paradigm. The situation specific variables revealed tendencies for individuals to strive to maximise personal outcomes rather than joint outcomes. Individuals were consistently found to sacrifice less in dilemmas involving a high level costs and rewards, exhibited less sacrifice with a selfish partner as opposed to a sacrificial partner, and less sacrifice when paired with a partner who was described as being high in relationship needs. However, the person specific variables demonstrated factors within intimate relationships that may restrict this pursuit of self-interest. In line with previous research (e.g. Van Lange, Agnew, Harinck & Steemers, 1997) a positive relationship was found between commitment and willingness to sacrifice. However the current research demonstrated that this relationship is only found in dilemmas that involve a high level of costs and rewards (e.g. moving home). When the costs and rewards involved are low (e.g. washing up), individuals classified as low in commitment exhibit similar levels, or sometimes even greater sacrifice, than individuals classified as high in commitment. It was demonstrated that individuals who are highly committed to their relationship hold more dyad-focused motives (e.g. concern for partner’s well-being and needs) than less committed individuals.</p
Article
Three experiments evaluated a novel motivated response to alternative threat for committed people, known as perceptions of the partner's devaluation of alternatives (PPD). By being led to perceive lower partner commitment (Study 1a and 1b) or that the partner was favorably evaluating a highly attractive alternative (Study 2), we found a consistent threat effect across the studies with perceivers reporting lower levels of PPD. However, perceivers reporting greater relational trust or greater perceived partner commitment reported greater PPD, with some evidence of buffering (Study 2). These studies provide preliminary insight into how committed people use perceptions of the partner's commitment to navigate situations involving their partners and threatening alternatives, beyond their own commitment and projective effects.
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Intimacy and couple satisfaction are some of the main factors related to relationship quality. Likewise, intimacy has long been associated with couple satisfaction as it is one of its most important predictors. Another meaningful correlation of couple satisfaction is supportive dyadic coping, which correlates with the satisfaction in marital and non-marital couples. This present study is aimed to investigate the associations of intimacy and couple satisfaction and to explore the mediating role of supportive dyadic coping. The sample is composed of 105 emerging adults involved in a romantic relationship, who filled up three self-reporting scales. The results indicate that intimacy predicts both couple satisfaction and supportive dyadic coping. Moreover, supportive dyadic coping fully mediates the relationship between overall intimacy / intimate commitment and couple satisfaction. Also, supportive dyadic coping partially mediates the relationship between intimate openness / affection and couple satisfaction. The possible explanations and implications for therapeutical interventions are discussed.
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This thesis seeks to improve the classification of laughter by uncovering its purpose in communication, identifiability, and acoustic features. Reviewing the existing literature, this paper identifies three main types of laughter: affiliative, de-escalative, and power. Consulting with research assistants, this paper then classifies 113 instances of laughter from 62 Congressional Committee meetings published on C-SPAN. The interrater classification agreement suggests individuals can identify and categorize the different types of laughter with context. Additionally, 14 participants were recruited to complete exercises designed to elicit archetypes of the three laughter categories. These study recordings, which included 124 laughter bouts, were analyzed for acoustic features (pitch (Hz), energy (dB), duration, and proportion of voiced laughter vs. silence). The audio analysis indicates acoustic features of laughter are not overall significantly different amongst the three categories and therefore suggests social context, including proximal language and visual cues, predominantly explains the identifiability of the laughter types.
Article
Introduction: Social anxiety contributes to a variety of interpersonal difficulties and dysfunctions. Socially anxious adults are less likely to marry and more likely to divorce than are non-anxious adults. The present pre-registered study investigated incremental variance accounted for by social anxiety in relationship satisfaction, commitment, trust, and social support. Methods: Three independent samples of adults (N = 888; 53.7% female; M age = 35.09 years) involved in a romantic relationship completed online self-report questionnaires. Both social anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with relationship satisfaction, commitment, dyadic trust, and social support. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted with each sample to investigate the incremental variance accounted for by each of social anxiety and depression in relationship satisfaction, commitment, dyadic trust, and social support. Subsequent meta-analyses were run to determine the strength and replicability of the hierarchical models. Results: Results suggest that social anxiety is a robust predictor of unique variance in both perceived social support and commitment. Depression was a robust predictor of unique variance in relationship satisfaction, dyadic trust, social support, and commitment. Discussion: These results help to further understanding of social anxiety in romantic relationships and provide direction for future research and clinical intervention.
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In Bangladesh, customers are accustomed to electronic home appliances due to family structure, higher income levels, and technological affiliation. The huge customer base, increasing demand, emerging markets, acute competition among the brands, and changing customer behaviour are remarkable; nevertheless customer satisfaction and loyalty are not static, and are somewhat changeable. The lack of extensive research on satisfaction and loyalty in this context is the motivation for this research. This study attempted to inspect the role of customer satisfaction and its predictors on brand loyalty and the role of brand trust in these relationships. The study was conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with 486 respondents. The structured survey questionnaires were selected using the shopping mall-intercept sampling technique, where measurements were adapted from the literature. Elementary analyses were done using SPSS, and hypotheses were tested using PLS-SEM. The findings reveal that customer satisfaction fully mediates the impacts of the product's functional quality, customer perceived value, and customer-brand experience on brand loyalty; and various levels of brand trust signify customer satisfaction and loyalty relationship. The research framework was supported by the stimulus–organism–response theory, where product quality, customer value, and experience are successful stimuli, and satisfaction and brand trust are strong organisms. Marketing stimuli expose loyalty to the brand through the satisfaction and trust organism. The practising managers might concentrate on satisfaction by developing home appliances to make them loyal to the brand and build customer trust on that brand to strengthen this relationship. The findings signify contextual and methodological contribution.
Chapter
Trust is an integral part of interpersonal relationships. Achieving trust is a goal in most relationships, although there are occasions when wariness and distrust are warranted instead. This chapter presents a new model of trust called the “Spiral Model of Trust” which incorporates concepts from a wide range of disciplinary perspectives. The theory’s propositions are meant to shed light on the extent to which trust, once established, remains relatively fixed, or spirals over time in response to the verbal and nonverbal behaviors of participants. Contexts for the application of the Spiral Model of Trust are explored.
Article
Background Trust is an important component in romantic relationships. However, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) can alter an individual’s appraisal of others resulting in difficulties with interpersonal trust. Indeed, prior literature has established associations between PTSS and trust, and relations between trust and relationship distress. Even so, there is a dearth of research examining the association between PTSS and trust specifically within ones’ romantic relationship as well as how dyadic trust may help explain the relation between PTSS and overall relationship distress. Method This study examined a sample of 57 opposite-sex adult community couples where at least one partner had a lifetime history of trauma-exposure. Mediated actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIMeM) examined the intraindividual and interpersonal pathways in the association between PTSS and relationship distress as well as potential sex differences. Results Findings demonstrated actor and partner effects between dyadic trust and relationship distress; however, males’ dyadic trust was only marginally associated with their female partners’ relationship distress. Sex differences were demonstrated in the relation between PTSS and dyadic trust whereby females’ dyadic trust was related to their own and their partners’ PTSS. There was a partner effect between females’ PTSS on their male partners’ relationship distress but not from males’ PTSS to females’ relationship distress. Finally, females’ dyadic trust was supported as a full mediator between PTSS and relationship distress for all pathways in the model. Conclusion There is a unique effect of females’ dyadic trust on the relation of PTSS and relationship distress. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed.
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Abstrak Peneltian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara rasa syukur dan kepercayaan dengan komitmen pernikahan pada istri yang bekerja. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif korelasional. Responden penelitian terdiri dari 350 istri yang bekerja di Kota Makassar yang berada pada masa dewasa awal dibawah 40 tahun dengan usia pernikahan minimal 5 tahun. Penelitian ini menggunakan skala Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test – Short Form (GRAT), Trust In Close Relationship Scale dan Marital Components of Commitment Scale (MCC) yang telah diadaptasi ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Data kemudian dianalisis dengan menggunakan teknik analisis product moment dari pearson.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang positif, searah dan signifikan antara rasa syukur dengan komitmen pernikahan pada istri yang bekerja dengan nilai koefisien korelasi (r) cenderung lemah yaitu hanya sebesar 0.340 (p= 0.00). Selanjutnya, untuk hubungan antara kepercayaan dan komitmen pernikahan diperoleh nilai koefisien korelasi (r) sebesar 0.387 (p= 0.00) yang berarti terdapat hubungan yang positif, searah dan signifikan antara kepercayaan dengan komitmen pernikahan pada istri yang bekerja. da pada posisi relasi sejajar dengan orang-orang yang ada di sekKeywords: Rasa syukur, Kepercayaan, Komitmen pernikahan
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Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - Interdependence, Interaction, and Close Relationships - edited by Laura V. Machia
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Interdependence, Interaction, and Close Relationships - edited by Laura V. Machia June 2020
Chapter
Sexting (the sharing of sexual messages, images, and videos via communication technologies) emerged from the development of new communication technologies (CTs). As such, CTs are a vital component of sexting, and young adults continue to have more platforms to choose from to use for sexting. This chapter uses a relational approach to technological affordances and communication privacy management (CPM) theory to understand how technologies influence sexting among young adults. Empirical evidence is provided about how the affordances of a platform moderate the relationships between self-disclosure, partner trust, privacy, and risk. As such, an additional type of mediated dyadic privacy boundary is established where shared information can belong to one or both individuals and the medium used for sexting. Finally, the moderation results imply that the features of the platform matter in young adults' decisions to sext since the features can afford them more privacy, more trust, and less risk.
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This article presents the development of an instrument measuring relationship satisfaction, based on the theory that separates ‘relationship quality’ from ‘satisfaction’ concerning the semantic meaning of the concepts, and to evaluate psychometric properties of the new measure. Two studies were conducted in order to investigate the psychometric properties of the new scale, with 372 and 1,185 participants taking part in Study 1 and Study 2 respectively. Results revealed that the new scale has two-factor structure, adequate internal consistency reliability, and convergent, discriminant and known-groups validity.
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Two theoretical perspectives guide much of the research on adult romantic relationships: attachment theory and interdependence theory. Each of these theoretical perspectives acknowledges the importance of trust, or perceptions of partners' dependability and faith in the future of the relationship. Whereas attachment theory conceptualizes trust as a component of individual differences in attachment representations, interdependence theoretical approaches conceptualize trust as a unique construct that develops within new relationships. In this article we discuss the importance of considering this difference in conceptualizations of trust for future research, highlighting the need for longitudinal research to properly assess the development of trust as an individual difference as well as uniquely within the dyadic context.
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The aims of this research is to find out relationship between self-concept and self-disclosure with the social adjustment of them. This study population were 89 students of Class X and XI in the High School (SMAN 3 Surakarta). Collecting data use three scales: 1) Self-concept Scale, the validity of items ranged between 0,259-0,658, the reliability is 0.848; 2) Self-disclosure Scale, the validity of items ranged between 0,280-0,694, reliability is 0.872; and 3) Social Adjustment Scale, the validity of the items between 0,284-0,646, the reliability is 0.821. Analysis data in this study is using multiple regression analysis technique. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between selfconcept and self-disclosure with social adjustment of students with acceleration. Student who have a positive self-concept and accept themselves more positively will be open in accepting criticism and inprove ourselves, so that tends to adapt better. Positive self-concept of accelleration means that students have a positive outlook on his ability and circumstances, giving rise to the confidence to bring him to the wider social environtment. However, the student who have negative self-concept will be developed feelings of inadequacy, low self-esteem and tend to carry themselves in difficult social adjustment. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara konsep diri dan membuka diri dengan penyesuaian sosial siswa akselerasi. Populasi penelitian sebanyak 89 siswa, terdiri atas siswa Akselerasi Kelas X dan XI SMAN 3 Surakarta. Pengumpulan data mengunakan tiga buah skala, yakni : 1) Skala Konsep Diri, validitas item berkisar antara 0,259-0,658, reliabilitas alat ukur 0,848; 2) Skala Membuka Diri, validitas item 0,280-0,694, reliabilitas alat ukur 0,872; dan 3) Skala Penyesuaian Sosial, validitas item 0,284-0,646, reliabilitas alat ukur 0,821. Analisis data menggunakan Teknik Analisis Regresi Ganda. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa ada hubungan antara konsep diri dan membuka diri dengan penyesuaian sosial siswa akselerasi. Siswa yang memiliki pandangan positif dan menerima diri secara positif akan lebih bersikap terbuka dalam menerima kritik dan memperbaiki diri. Konsep diri yang positif berarti siswa akselerasi memiliki pandangan positif terhadap kemampuan dan keadaan dirinya, sehingga menimbulkan rasa percaya diri untuk membawa dirinya pada lingkungan pergaulan yang lebih luas. Sebaliknya, siswa yang memiliki konsep diri negatif akan mengembangkan perasaan tidak mampu, rendah diri dan cenderung sulit membawa diri pada lingkungan pergaulan yang lebih luas.
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Deception, in its many forms, is present in families and relationships across the globe. The impact of the presence and discovery of family secrets or deceptive acts on the individual, the family unit, and the therapeutic process, particularly in the field of marriage and family therapy, has not been thoroughly studied or discussed. Further, deceptive acts during the therapeutic process may have implications for effective treatment planning. This article defines the various forms of deception and its systemic effects on relationships and on the therapeutic process. Possible interventions to address deception in a family therapeutic setting are proposed.
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