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Core Affect and the Psychological Construction of Emotion

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Abstract

At the heart of emotion, mood, and any other emotionally charged event are states experienced as simply feeling good or bad, energized or enervated. These states - called core affect - influence reflexes, perception, cognition, and behavior and are influenced by many causes internal and external, but people have no direct access to these causal connections. Core affect can therefore be experienced as free-floating (mood) or can be attributed to some cause (and thereby begin an emotional episode). These basic processes spawn a broad framework that includes perception of the core-affect-altering properties of stimuli, motives, empathy, emotional meta-experience, and affect versus emotion regulation; it accounts for prototypical emotional episodes, such as fear and anger, as core affect attributed to something plus various nonemotional processes.

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... Metaphors such as "parting is such sweet sorrow", "right to the bitter end" exemplify the use of our experience of taste to express our emotional states, which is naturally a difficult task, given the internal and essentially subjective nature of emotions. One reason for this phenomenon might have to do with the affective attributes of hedonic valence and arousal (physiological activation), shared by both domains of experience (Young, 1966;Russell, 2003;Small et al., 2003;Barrett and Bliss-Moreau, 2009;Sakamoto and Watanabe, 2016). Current theories of emotion posit that, like taste and interoception, the perception of the internal state of the body, emotion fundamentally serves as a homeostatic signaling mechanism, with certain highly valenced emotions such as fear promoting bodily homeostasis and social emotions such as loss and heartache potentially signaling deviations from homeostasis within the context of social relationships (Damasio, 1999;Barrett and Simmons, 2015). ...
... The core dimensions of emotional concepts are valence and arousal (Russell, 2003;Barrett and Bliss-Moreau, 2009), which have been shown to largely account for the variance within semantic networks of emotional concepts (Jackson et al., 2019). One explanation for the relatively greater similarity of taste and emotion concepts, compared to color and emotion concepts, could be that taste and emotion concepts share a similar conceptual structure of valence and arousal. ...
... We next examined the associated valence and arousal of these concepts and confirmed that the similarity of emotion concepts was highly related to their similarity in valence, a relationship which accounted for over half of the variability in their semantic similarity. This finding underscores the importance of hedonic valence as one of the core features of emotional experience (Russell, 2003;Barrett and Bliss-Moreau, 2009) and echoes the prior finding that hedonic valence and arousal represent a source of universal structure for emotion semantics (Jackson et al., 2019). We also found that the similarity of taste and emotion concepts was also significantly related to their similarity in valence, which accounted for nearly 30% of the variance in the distribution (see also Zhou and Tse, 2020). ...
Article
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“Parting is such sweet sorrow.” Taste metaphors provide a rich vocabulary for describing emotional experience, potentially serving as an adaptive mechanism for conveying abstract emotional concepts using concrete verbal references to our shared experience. We theorized that the popularity of these expressions results from the close association with hedonic valence shared by these two domains of experience. To explore the possibility that this affective quality underlies the semantic similarity of these domains, we used a behavioral “odd-one-out” task in an online sample of 1059 participants in order to examine the semantic similarity of concepts related to emotion, taste, and color, another rich source of sensory metaphors. We found that the semantic similarity of emotion and taste concepts was greater than that of emotion and color concepts. Importantly, the similarity of taste and emotion concepts was strongly related to their similarity in hedonic valence, a relationship which was also significantly greater than that present between color and emotion. These results suggest that the common core of valence between taste and emotion concepts allows us to bridge the conceptual divide between our shared sensory environment and our internal emotional experience.
... In exercise psychology, the concept of affect has become the focus of recent research. Affect is an umbrella term for phenomena related to moods and emotions (Russell, 2003;Barrett, 2006). In particular, the term core affect is used to describe a "neurophysiological state consciously accessible as the simplest raw (non-reflective) feeling evident in moods and emotions" (Russell, 2003, p. 148). ...
... In particular, the term core affect is used to describe a "neurophysiological state consciously accessible as the simplest raw (non-reflective) feeling evident in moods and emotions" (Russell, 2003, p. 148). In the circumplex model (Russell, 2003), affective states are located on two dimensions that characterize core affect: valence (pleasure -displeasure) and arousal (deactivated -activated). Emotions are contextdependent and more complex than core affect (Russell, 2003;Barrett, 2006;Clore and Ortony, 2013). ...
... In the circumplex model (Russell, 2003), affective states are located on two dimensions that characterize core affect: valence (pleasure -displeasure) and arousal (deactivated -activated). Emotions are contextdependent and more complex than core affect (Russell, 2003;Barrett, 2006;Clore and Ortony, 2013). According to Ortony et al. (1988, p. 13), emotions are "represented as a set of substantially independent groups based on the nature of their cognitive origins." ...
Article
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Future-oriented emotions could influence our decisions in everyday life and help understand why some individuals are physically active whilst others are not. Current literature distinguishes between two future-oriented emotion constructs: anticipatory and anticipated emotions. While anticipatory emotions are currently experienced emotions about a future event, anticipated emotions refer to the emotions that a person is expected to experience when confronted with a future event. The main aims of the present study were (1) to identify and describe (a) categories of anticipatory emotions experienced before exercise, and (b) categories of anticipated emotions expected to be experienced during and after exercise, and (2) to develop a theoretical model of anticipated emotion categories. Sixteen participants (Mage = 26.03, SD = 6.66) were recruited for semi-structured interviews, and their statements were analyzed using principles of the Grounded Theory. In total, 13 different anticipatory and anticipated emotion categories were identified, such as enjoyment, anxiety, pride, self-anger, and relief. Anticipatory emotions seem to reflect the current affective valence of exercising and may be influenced by daily factors. With regards to anticipated emotions, the results show that regular exercisers anticipated also negative emotions such as anxiety, disappointment, and self-anger, and non-regular exercisers also anticipated positive emotions such as enjoyment, pride, and satisfaction. Therefore, future research should not only focus on the valence of future-oriented emotions, but should investigate the possible impact of specific anticipated emotions on exercise behavior. In addition, a theoretical model of anticipated emotion categories in exercise behavior derived from the interviews. The model outlines different categories of anticipated emotions based on appraisal processes. In conclusion, we assume that this developmental process of anticipated emotions may be embedded in a broader, cyclical process within the context of exercising.
... a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 [17]). However, another approach analyses emotions based on some of the dimensions underlying them (e.g., valence, arousal, origin and subjective significance), which shape and define the very nature of a particular emotional experience [18,19]. The first dimension that is important for the EST performance is the valence representing the pleasantness versus the unpleasantness of an emotional experience [18]. ...
... However, another approach analyses emotions based on some of the dimensions underlying them (e.g., valence, arousal, origin and subjective significance), which shape and define the very nature of a particular emotional experience [18,19]. The first dimension that is important for the EST performance is the valence representing the pleasantness versus the unpleasantness of an emotional experience [18]. However, valence effects in the EST have been explained by the arousal differences [4,15,16]. ...
... Another dimension-the first of two dimensions of activation which we decided to studythat is considered to be fundamental for every emotion is arousal, which can be defined as the level of energy or the activity experienced during affective states [18,26]. Emotional arousal allows us to engage in some action and react appropriately to the situation and it is an automatic, biologically programmed form of activation [27]. ...
Article
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The interference control measured in the Emotional Stroop Task is the phenomenon that gives us an insight into mechanisms of emotion-cognition interactions. Especially the role of dimensions of affect can be easily studied with this paradigm. In the current study, we were interested in the role of the complexity of emotional stimuli (origin). We also aimed at searching for activation-like factors that impair (arousal) or improve (subjective significance) the effectiveness of cognitive control. We have used an orthogonal manipulation of all the above dimensions in words. We expected to find the contrastive effects of arousal and subjective significance on reaction times and Event Related Potential’s amplitudes. On a behavioural level, we observed the reduction of reaction times with increasing subjective significance of stimuli and reflective origin. We also found a correlation between subjective significance and reduction of amplitude polarisation in the N450 component associated with cognitive control execution effort. This experiment shows that subjective significance has an improving role for cognitive control effectiveness, even when valence, arousal and origin levels are controlled. This guides us to conclude that external stimuli may drive not only disruption of control but also its improvement.
... Second, studies on capturing other, important dimensions of affect, such as activation (active or passive) and dominance levels (one's self-control or control over a situation) in a combined manner, are minimal [31,69]. However, research in psychology [69][70][71] suggests that fine-grained information on affect can be captured using combinations of various dimensions including valence, activation, and dominance [31]; and that focusing primarily on capturing the polarity of affect (positive or negative), is problematic because of its inherent subjectivity [27,28]. ...
... Second, studies on capturing other, important dimensions of affect, such as activation (active or passive) and dominance levels (one's self-control or control over a situation) in a combined manner, are minimal [31,69]. However, research in psychology [69][70][71] suggests that fine-grained information on affect can be captured using combinations of various dimensions including valence, activation, and dominance [31]; and that focusing primarily on capturing the polarity of affect (positive or negative), is problematic because of its inherent subjectivity [27,28]. ...
... Dominance, also a continuum, captures the affect of control over a situation [105]. Figure 5a shows a sample circumplex model of affect [69]. The horizontal dimension represents valence, the continuum from displeasure (e.g., distressed) to pleasure (e.g., happy). ...
... This way the emotional ratings could be measured metrically. The Affective Sliders are based on the Circumplex Model of Affect by Russell (2003) which holds that emotions can be described as linear combinations of the two underlying, independent neuro-physiological systems arousal and pleasure [41]. The experiment also included a semi-structured, in-depth individual interview and a paper-and-pencil demographics and preferences questionnaire where participants were asked about their previous experience with robots and their opinion toward them. ...
... This way the emotional ratings could be measured metrically. The Affective Sliders are based on the Circumplex Model of Affect by Russell (2003) which holds that emotions can be described as linear combinations of the two underlying, independent neuro-physiological systems arousal and pleasure [41]. The experiment also included a semi-structured, in-depth individual interview and a paper-and-pencil demographics and preferences questionnaire where participants were asked about their previous experience with robots and their opinion toward them. ...
... The model revealed no significant effects ( Table 3). The average pleasure rating was slightly higher for the humanoid robot Figure 5 shows the Circumplex Model of Affect, based on Russell (2003) [41], with the Affective Slider results of the three different robot conditions: no robot, functional robot, and humanoid robot. The functional robot trials were, both in pleasure and arousal, rated slightly lower, while the humanoid robot trials and the no robot trials are almost congruent to each other. ...
Article
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As robots enter everyday environments, they start performing tasks originally performed by humans. One field of application is the public transport sector. The deployment of autonomous transport systems comes with a lack of human contact persons for help, guidance, and crowd management. This elicits challenges regarding redirecting and managing passengers. Current solutions on platforms can be replaced or enriched with service robots whose task includes crowd management as well as social interaction. This study investigates how the human-likeness of a robot influences the compliance and emotions of public transport users. A Virtual Reality experiment was conducted (N=33) to evaluate two different robot designs in a bus stop boarding scenario. The two robot designs differ in terms of humanoid appearance. In different experimental trials, participants had to perform a given task that was nullified by instructions from one of the two robots. Additionally, the dissonance of the situation was altered so that the environment either justified the robot's interference or not. Compliant behavior, pleasure, and arousal ratings, as well as task processing times were recorded. The experiment included an individual interview and a post-study questionnaire. The results suggest that future deployment of service robots has the potential to redirect passengers. In dissonant situations, clear reasoning must be given to make the robot effective. However, the robot's visual appearance has a more substantial impact on arousal and subjective preferences than on evoked behavior. The study implies that the presence of a service robot can influence peoples’ choices and gives hints about the importance of giving a reason. However, objectively, the level of the robot's humanoid appearance did not make a difference.
... In line with contemporary definitions of affect [7], in the behavioral medicine domain, affect is defined as: "an evaluative neurobiological state that manifests in: (1) coordinated patterns of physiological (e.g., release of hormones, increased heart rate) and involuntary behavioral (e.g., facial expression, vocalization) changes, and (2) subjective experiential feelings (e.g., the phenomenal experience of pleasure, anger, embarrassment, etc.)" [8] [(p1268)]. Moreover, affect is dynamic, constantly varying in response to internal (i.e., interoceptive) and external (i.e., contextual) stimuli [9]. ...
... med. (2022) XX: [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] incidental affect was represented by four items-Happy, Confident, Content, and Excited. Negative incidental affect was assessed using four items-Ashamed, Nervous, Sad, and Angry. ...
Article
Background Previous research suggests that there is a bidirectional relationship between incidental affect (i.e., how people feel in day-to-day life) and physical activity behavior. However, many inconsistencies exist in the body of work due to the lag interval between affect and physical activity measurements. Purpose Using a novel continuous-time analysis paradigm, we examined the temporal specificity underlying the dynamic relationship between positive and negative incidental affective states and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods A community sample of adults (n = 126, Mage = 27.71, 51.6% Male) completed a 14-day ambulatory assessment protocol measuring momentary positive and negative incidental affect six times a day while wearing a physical activity monitor (Fitbit). Hierarchical Bayesian continuous-time structural equation modeling was used to elucidate the underlying dynamics of the relationship between incidental affective states and MVPA. Results Based on the continuous-time cross-effects, positive and negative incidental affect predicted subsequent MVPA. Furthermore, engaging in MVPA predicted subsequent positive and negative incidental affect. Incidental affective states had a greater relative influence on predicting subsequent MVPA compared to the reciprocal relationship. Analysis of the discrete-time coefficients suggests that cross-lagged effects increase as the time interval between measurements increase, peaking at about 8 h between measurement occasions before beginning to dissipate. Conclusions The results provide support for a recursive relationship between incidental affective states and MVPA, which is particularly strong at 7–9 hr time intervals. Future research designs should consider these medium-term dynamics, for both theory development and intervention.
... Interestingly, mood did not affect the judgment of participants who were first asked about the weather, indicating that the incidental influence of mood (also known as misattribution) could be tempered by a greater awareness of the (unrelated) source of this affective state. These findings eventually gave rise to the moodas-information theory, which posits that preexisting mood levels provide valuable information about a person's current situation, and thereby influence the processing strategies they adopt (Schwarz & Clore, 1983;2003). That is, when faced with a task requiring a judgment, individ-uals will typically frame their decision based on their current mood, such as asking themselves "How do I feel about it?". ...
... A somewhat related debate in emotion science centers on whether the valence of mood is more accurately conceived of as a bipolar or bivalent construct. According to the bipolar view (Russell, 2003), the valence of mood exists on a continuum ranging from unpleasant affect at one end to pleasant affect at the other end, with neutral mood being a zero point with no valence between these poles. In contrast, according to the bivalent view (Watson et al., 1988; It may also be noted that we found results close to those of Vinckier et al. (2018) using a very similar task, whereas the other studies that found different results did not present the same moodinducing task structures. ...
Thesis
Full text available at : http://www.theses.fr/2021GRALS043 // Identifying factors whose fluctuations are associated with choice inconsistency is a major issue for rational decision theory. In this thesis, we investigated how brain activity partly explain choice variability during a multi-attribute choice task by taking advantage of the rare opportunity to either directly record intracortical activity in the human brain or to perform intracortical stimulation to probe the causal involvement of key cortical regions. In the first study, we investigated the neuro-computational mechanisms through which mood fluctuations may bias human choice behavior. Intracerebral EEG data were collected in a large group of participants (n = 30), as they performed interleaved quiz and choice tasks. Baseline neural activity preceding choice onset was confronted first to mood level, estimated by a computational model integrating the feedback received in the quiz task, and then with the weighting of option attributes, in a computational model predicting risk attitude in the choice task. Results showed that 1) elevated broadband gamma activity (BGA) in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsal anterior insula (daIns) respectively signaled periods of high and low mood, and 2) increased BGA in vmPFC and daIns respectively promoted and tempered risk-taking by overweighting gain versus loss prospects. Thus, incidental feedback induces brain states that correspond to different moods and biases the comparison of safe and risky options. More generally, this first study might explain why people experiencing positive (or negative) outcomes in some part of their lives tend to expect success (or failure) in any other. In the second study, we focused on the neuro-anatomical correlates underlying the effects of visual fixations on multi-attribute choices. Intracerebral EEG data were collected simultaneously with gaze data in a large group of participants (n = 38), as they performed a multi-attribute accept/reject choice task. Results from study 2 showed that 1) gaze-dependent neural activity (BGA) correlated positively with the value of a given attribute when fixated and negatively with the attribute’s value when not fixated in a large brain network, 2) gaze-dependent neural activity in the vmPFC positively predicted subjects’ choices when looking at gains and 3) gaze-dependent neural activity in the aINS negatively predicted subjects’ choices when looking at losses. Thus, our findings specify key neuro-anatomical insights into how gaze pattern interferes with neural activity to bias multi-attribute choices. Lastly, in the third empirical study of this thesis, we investigated the effect of targeted disruption of anterior insular cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex on risky choices. The effect of intracranial electrical stimulation (iES) delivered directly to the human cortex at 50 Hz in a group of epileptic patients (n = 13) were examined while the subjects performed a choice task similar to that used in the previous two studies. Results showed a functional dissociation within the anterior insula: iES on the dorsal anterior insula (daIns) increased risky choices whereas iES on the ventral anterior insula (vaIns) promoted safer choices. Conversely, intracranial electrical stimulation on the vmPFC tended to promote risk-taking (as in daIns). These rare cases highlight the potential causal importance of these brain areas during multi-attribute choices involving uncertainty and provide clues for future mechanistic studies of the anatomy and physiology of choices under uncertainty. Overall, this PhD has expanded knowledge of the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying multi-attribute choice by suggesting that dissociable brain systems may be involved in representing the value of appetitive vs. aversive attributes both prior to and during the choice process.
... Affective well-being has usually been studied using the Circumplex Model of Affect (Russell, 1980). It embodies the "core affect," representing the purest feelings that are not labeled or directed to anything (Russell, 1980(Russell, , 2003. This model postulates that affective experiences are organized around two neurophysiological systems: valence (pleasure-displeasure) and activation (activation-deactivation) (Remmington, Fabrigar, & Visser, 2000;Russell, 1980Russell, , 2003. ...
... It embodies the "core affect," representing the purest feelings that are not labeled or directed to anything (Russell, 1980(Russell, , 2003. This model postulates that affective experiences are organized around two neurophysiological systems: valence (pleasure-displeasure) and activation (activation-deactivation) (Remmington, Fabrigar, & Visser, 2000;Russell, 1980Russell, , 2003. The horizontal axis denotes valence and ranges from unpleasant to pleasant. ...
... Therefore, self-reported emotional feelings are usually taken as the gold-standard measure of emotional states. They also form the basis for higher-level concepts of emotion as comprising discrete, modular systems (e.g., a 'fear' system) and/or a limited number of underlying dimensions such as valence (positivity / negativity) and arousal (activation) that are common to all emotional states (top two-thirds of box in Fig. 1; Ekman, 1992;Mendl et al., 2010;Panksepp, 1998;Russell, 2003). Self-reported emotional feelings can also be correlated with accompanying neural, behavioral, physiological and cognitive changes, allowing us to use these as additional indicators of emotion in people (Scherer, 1984; bottom two-thirds of box in Fig. 1), and to the situations in which they usually occur, allowing us to identify emotiongenerating contexts (large arrow above box in Fig. 1). ...
... These categories of reported human feelings can be associated with measurable changes in behavior, physiology, neural and cognitive function which can then be used as additional indicators of these states. Likewise, they can be related to the situations in which they usually occur, allowing us to identify emotion-generating contexts points, see also : Carver (2001); de Waal (2011); Ekman and Davison (1994); Mendl et al. (2010); ; Posner et al. (2005); Russell (2003); Scherer (1984); Watson et al. (1999). ...
Article
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Our experiences of the conscious mental states that we call emotions drive our interest in whether such states also exist in other animals. Because linguistic report can be used as a gold standard (albeit indirect) indicator of subjective emotional feelings in humans but not other species, how can we investigate animal emotions and what exactly do we mean when we use this term? Linguistic reports of human emotion give rise to emotion concepts (discrete emotions; dimensional models), associated objectively measurable behavioral and bodily emotion indicators , and understanding of the emotion contexts that generate specific states. We argue that many animal studies implicitly translate human emotion concepts , indicators and contexts , but that explicit consideration of the underlying pathways of inference, their theoretical basis, assumptions, and pitfalls, and how they relate to conscious emotional feelings , is needed to provide greater clarity and less confusion in the conceptualization and scientific study of animal emotion.
... Emotions are distinctive affective phenomena, stemming from the higher level concept, affect . Core affect refers to a dynamic, continuous, subjective experience of whether we feel pleasure or displeasure on the one hand, and activation or deactivation on the other hand (Russell, 2003). Prolonged core affect can turn into moods, which reflect our attitude towards our surroundings. ...
... Similarly, differences in core affect (e.g. Russell, 2003) may influence the effectiveness of interventions, providing another avenue for future research. Finally, other scholars are encouraged to adopt a POS lens to exploring change management, as refocusing efforts from looking at potential problems to looking at success and vitality may reveal why current literature is inconclusive. ...
... Subjects read written instructions explaining the experimental procedure and the concepts of valence and arousal. Valence is the pleasantness state generated by a given experience: unpleasant states are associated with bad feelings or a negative state of mind, while pleasant states with good feelings or a positive state of mind [51][52][53][54][55][56] . The arousal dimension is the state of activation generated by a given experience, resembling a change in the individual's physical and psychological assets. ...
... A deactivated state is associated with a low heartbeat, sweating decrease, slow breathing, absence of energy, and decreased attentional and decisional capability. Instead, an activated state is associated with a high heartbeat, sweating increase, fast breathing, feelings of vigor, energy, tension, and increasing attentional and decisional capability 51,56,57 . The Vive Pro Eye HMD was placed over the subject's head and arranged comfortably, providing a clear view of the virtual environment. ...
Article
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The built environment represents the stage surrounding our everyday life activities. To investigate how architectural design impacts individuals' affective states, we measured subjective judgments of perceived valence (pleasant and unpleasant) and arousal after the dynamic experience of a progressive change of macro visuospatial dimensions of virtual spaces. To this aim, we developed a parametric model that allowed us to create 54 virtual architectural designs characterized by a progressive change of sidewalls distance, ceiling and windows height, and color of the environment. Decreasing sidewalls distance, ceiling height variation, and increasing windows height significantly affected the participants' emotional state within virtual environments. Indeed, such architectural designs generated high arousing and unpleasant states according to subjective judgment. Overall, we observed that valence and arousal scores are affected by all the dynamic form factors which modulated the spaciousness of the surrounding. Showing that the dynamic experience of virtual environments enables the possibility of measuring the emotional impact of macro spatial architectural features, the present findings may lay the groundwork for future experiments investigating the effects that the architectural design has on individuals' mental state as a fundamental factor for the creation of future spaces.
... Although irritability clearly is a negatively valenced emotion, the 3MPCA model presented in this paper identified irritability as a separate third component of adolescent emotional landscapes, next to a NA component composed of the (low-arousal) emotions insecure, down, and guilty, and the (high-arousal) emotions anxiety and worry. Irritability is a universal human emotion with typical developmental manifestations and references to being touchy or easily annoyed, and is close to frustration (Jeronimus et al., 2017) and a precursor to anger (Russell, 2003). During adolescence, irritability is a normative and common experience (Copeland et al., 2015), arguably due to changes in reward and social threat sensitivity (Brotman et al., 2017), and irritability typically declines from early-to late-adolescence (Copeland et al., 2015;Stringaris, 2011). ...
... These results were compared to two 3MPCA models that were adjusted for the limited variability, using a four-factor emotion scale (combinations of 12 single emotions) which consequently showed more variability and resulted in fewer missing autocorrelation estimates, and additionally, an imputed dataset. The choice for broad emotion constructs based on the convention that each emotion captures a combination of both valence and arousal seems obvious (e.g., Russell, 2003). However, we assert that the richness of emotional experience is not captured by the valence (how positive or negative) and arousal (how exciting or calming) of the emotion alone, which indeed capture ~30% of the variance in emotional experience and expression (see Cowen et al., 2017Cowen et al., , 2019. ...
Preprint
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Research on emotion dynamics as indices of emotion functioning has become muddled by conceptual confusion, methodological heterogeneity, and seemingly conflicting results. One way to address this chaos is the study of profiles of emotion dynamics across 12 emotions and how they differ between 246 adolescents. The interpretation of these dynamic profiles was guided by auxiliary variables including age, personality, depressive symptoms, and social experiences. Method: During 6 days, 246 adolescents (Mage=14.20, 65% female) rated 9 times daily the intensity of 12 emotions (cheerful, happy, energetic, joyful, content, relaxed, anxious, worried, irritable, insecure, down, and guilty), and their social experiences with family, friends, and classmates. Additional baseline measures included neuroticism, extraversion (JEPQR-S), and depressive symptoms (CES-D). A three-mode principal component analysis (3MPCA Tucker3-based) model was estimated on the person-specific dynamic parameters of emotional intensity (mean), variability (standard deviation), instability (mean squared successive difference), and inertia (autocorrelation). Results: The 3MPCA identified three emotion-mode components (positive affect, negative affect, and irritability), three dynamic-mode components (emotional intensity, lability, and inertia). Five individual-mode components captured interactions between these modes, of which positive affect explained most variation in the data. These emotion dynamic profiles correlated differently with social experiences. Additional 3MPCA model structures based on imputed data (correcting missing autocorrelations) and affect scale composites (low and high arousal positive and negative affect) showed strong resemblance. Conclusion: The identified emotion dynamic profiles capture meaningful interpersonal differences in adolescents’ emotional experiences and change. Future work should focus on irritability and positive affect as these were uniquely informative in adolescents’ emotional experiences.
... As people used social media during the COVID-19 outbreak, they may have looked for information, shared information and feelings about recent events, and responded to emotions expressed by others. Emotional expressions may have described current emotional states related to the novel disease or consequences of governmental measures, more free-floating daily or weekly moods (Oatley & Johnson-Laird, 2014;Russell, 2003), as well as thoughts about recent and others' emotional experiences (see Galesic et al., 2021;Sun, Schwartz, et al., 2020). Additionally, online emotional expressions may at least in part reflect people's cultural values (Hsu et al., 2021). ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the world's population to unprecedented health threats and changes to social life. High uncertainty about the novel disease and its social and economic consequences, together with increasingly stringent governmental measures against the spread of the virus, likely elicited strong emotional responses. We analyzed the digital traces of emotional expressions in tweets during 5 weeks after the start of outbreaks in 18 countries and six different languages. We observed an early strong upsurge of anxiety-related terms in all countries, which was related to the growth in cases and increases in the stringency of governmental measures. Anxiety expression gradually relaxed once stringent measures were in place, possibly indicating that people were reassured. Sadness terms rose and anger terms decreased with or after an increase in the stringency of measures and remained stable as long as measures were in place. Positive emotion words only decreased slightly and briefly in a few countries. Our results reveal some of the most enduring changes in emotional expression observed in long periods of social media data. Such sustained emotional expression could indicate that interactions between users led to the emergence of collective emotions. Words that frequently occurred in tweets suggest a shift in topics of conversation across all emotions, from political ones in 2019, to pandemic related issues during the outbreak, including everyday life changes, other people, and health. This kind of time-sensitive analyses of large-scale samples of emotional expression have the potential to inform risk communication. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... It is thus not an exaggeration to say that without a thorough understanding of emotions, we cannot hope to fully understand how human cognition functions or dysfunctions. Nevertheless, despite decades of emotion research, the literature remains rife with disagreement, even on basic questions such as what emotional states are, what causes them, and what are their roles (Adolphs et al., 2019;Ekman et al., 1987;Frijda, 1993;Lench et al., 2011;Moors et al., 2013;Parkinson, 1997;Russell, 1980Russell, , 2003Russell & Barrett, 1999;Scherer, 2005). ...
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Emotions ubiquitously impact action, learning, and perception, yet their essence and role remain widely debated. Recent progress in computational cognitive accounts of emotion promises to answer these questions with greater conceptual precision informed by normative principles and neurobiological data. We analyze this literature using the formalism of reinforcement learning and find that emotions may implement three classes of computations, concerning expected reward, evaluation of actions, and uncertain prospects. With regards to each of these computations, we offer modifications of previous formulations that better account for existing evidence. We then consider how these different computations may map onto different emotions and moods. Integrating extensive research on the causes and consequences of different emotions suggests a parsimonious one-to-one mapping, according to which emotions are integral to how we evaluate outcomes (pleasure & pain), learn to predict them (happiness & sadness), use them to inform our (frustration & content) and others’ (anger & gratitude) actions, and plan in order to realize (desire & hope) or avoid (fear & anxiety) uncertain outcomes.
... However, during the last few decades, sociological and sociocultural understandings of emotion have become increasingly prominent. These approaches tend to emphasize emotions as socioculturally and collectively constructed interpersonal entities that are dependent on learned rules, and as socially produced categories and concepts (Barbalet, 2001;Russell, 2003;Boler and Zembylas, 2016). Thus, emotions are not seen primarily as phenomena existing in the mind but rather as entities that shape social interaction and its consequences (Hareli et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Despite intensive research on agency in education and work environments, the topic remains underexplored through the lens of emotions. This study conducted the development and validation of a quantitative measure to explore emotional agency in working life. Empirical data (N = 240) were collected via a web-based survey within the professional domains of healthcare and real estate services. The participants’ age, educational level, and gender corresponded to the domain-specific and general employee distribution in Finland. The questionnaire items were based on a theoretical construct of emotional agency at work. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that emotional agency includes two dimensions: Emotional Competence at Work and Influencing Emotions at Work. Exploratory structural equation modeling showed these dimensions to be equivalent across the studied professional domains. Furthermore, the convergent and discriminant validity of the measure was confirmed in relation to the emotional climate at work and work engagement. The study enriches the current theory of agency and emotions at work by exploring their connection. It also proposes a novel measure of emotional agency at work (the E-Ag measure), offered as a useful tool for researching and developing working life and organizational behavior.
... The aesthetic process is pleasurable. Russell (2003) argued that aesthetic value and hedonic value appear simultaneously. Successful product design often provides consumers with these two values (Li, Li, and Wu 2013). ...
... Unfortunately, it is often the case that basic concepts and working assumptions are loosely defined; also, the same terms are occasionally adopted to denote different classes of phenomena. For instance, it is common parlance in the field to conflate the categorical description of emotions -fear, anger, joy, etc. -as typically derived from Basic Emotion Theories (BET, e.g., Ekman's Neurocultural Theory [30,31]) with Russell's dimensional representation of affect (over the valence/arousal dimensions, [56]). The first one is usually referred to as a discrete representation of emotions; the second, as a continuous representation of emotions [46]. ...
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In this study we propose an approach to assess the fear of heights through a 3D virtual reality environment. We show that an immersive scenario provides a suitable infrastructure to such purpose, when supported by related behavioural and physiological measurements. Our approach is grounded in the principled framework of constructed emotions. This allows to shape fear detection as a case of categorical perception, which is amenable to be formalised as an unsupervised learning problem. Meanwhile, it paves the way for addressing meaningful physiological parameters for the assessment. Gauging fear of heights in individuals, beyond its theoretical relevance, is cogent for the early discernment of workers who are unsuited for operating at altitude and who may require to undergo specific training or, eventually, to be recruited for different positions.
... Attachment derived from the attachment theory is defined as the extent to which individual maintain the self-concept by using an object which has been owned, expected to be owned, or previously [34]. Emotion is considered a subset of affection, which reflects an individual's subjective feelings towards objects, environments, people, and events [35]. Emotional attachment is described as "an emotion-laden target-specific bond between a person and specific object" [36]. ...
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Given the ambivalent relationship between social media’s characteristics and the elderly usage, the missing link of the older consumers’ emotional attachment to the media product, and the lack of theoretical and empirical insights on the contextual family influence issue, this study examines how media richness drives the older users’ routine usage of media in a mobile application by considering the mediating role of emotional attachment and the moderating role of reverse intergeneration influence. Based on the data collected through 294 older users aged 60 and over in China, the hypothesized structural model is tested using path analysis. First, this study validates that media richness has a positive impact on the elderly’s routine use via a partial mediator emotional attachment. Second, this study reveals that the direct and indirect effect of media richness on routine use is moderated by the moderator reverse intergenerational influence. Third, this study finds that reverse intergenerational influence serves as a double-edge moderating role in the routine usage decision. These findings shed light on the underlying mechanism of the elderly’s routine use and provide applicable implications for the mobile application development practice in evoking the elderly’s routine use.
... In order to simplify our treatment, we will use here a general notion found in the literature that emotions are unconscious arousal states linked with visceral and physiological processes under reflexive control, and feelings are conscious representations of emotions [14,21,23,[249][250][251][252][253][254][255][256][257]. Subcortical and brainstem systems store neural representations of unlearned motivational drives that are capable of generating innate behavioural repertoires, e.g. ...
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In the brain, the insular cortex receives a vast amount of interoceptive information, ascending through deep brain structures, from multiple visceral organs. The unique hierarchical and modular architecture of the insula suggests specialization for processing interoceptive afferents. Yet, the biological significance of the insula's neuroanatomical architecture, in relation to deep brain structures, remains obscure. In this opinion piece, we propose the Insula Hierarchical Modular Adaptive Interoception Control (IMAC) model to suggest that insula modules (granular, dysgranular and agranular), forming parallel networks with the prefrontal cortex and striatum, are specialized to form higher order interoceptive representations. These interoceptive representations are recruited in a context-dependent manner to support habitual, model-based and exploratory control of visceral organs and physiological processes. We discuss how insula interoceptive representations may give rise to conscious feelings that best explain lower order deep brain interoceptive representations, and how the insula may serve to defend the body and mind against pathological depression.
... In addition, we assessed core affect (i.e., pleasure and arousal) using Russell's affect grid [33,37]. Participants were asked to state their current emotional state ("How pleasant do you find your current state [0 = very unpleasant, 100 = very pleasant]?") ...
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The colloquial term "hangry" refers to the notion that people become angry when hungry, but very little research has directly determined the extent to which the relationship between hunger and negative emotions is robust. Here, we examined associations between everyday experiences of hunger and negative emotions using an experience sampling method. Sixty-four participants from Central Europe completed a 21-day experience sampling phase in which they reported their hunger, anger, irritability, pleasure, and arousal at five time-points each day (total = 9,142 responses). Results indicated that greater levels of self-reported hunger were associated with greater feelings of anger and irritability, and with lower pleasure. These findings remained significant after accounting for participant sex, age, body mass index, dietary behaviours, and trait anger. In contrast, associations with arousal were not significant. These results provide evidence that everyday levels of hunger are associated with negative emotionality and supports the notion of being "hangry".
... Two meta-theoretical perspectives explain the structure of emotions (Harmon-Jones et al., 2017). First, the dimensional approach suggests that affective states vary along two dimensions: valence and arousal/activation (Russell, 2003). For example, ecstatic feelings are characterized by positive valence and high activation; being lethargic is a feeling of negative valence and low activation. ...
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Amid emerging information and communication technologies with unique affordances for storytelling and story sharing, most studies in narrative communication still focus on narratives delivered through traditional mediums. There has been little research on how emotionally charged stories can be used to engage audiences on social media. This study examined the roles of emotions and emotional shifts on user engagement behaviors on Facebook. Analyzing Facebook narratives by multiple breast cancer organizations (N = 403), we found a primacy effect of emotions in social stories, as negative emotions in the initial segment of a story increased user engagement behaviors. Emotional shift patterns were associated with user engagement behaviors, with the shift from positive to positive being the least engaging. Our findings advance narrative communication science in the social media context and offer important implications on how organizations can use social media to tell emotionally engaging stories.
... They are produced, she argues, by domain general "core systems" instead of any purpose-built emotion mechanisms or modules. This is the psychological constructionism she gets from her mentor, Russell (2003). Moreover, they correspond to our folk categories because our everyday emotion-concepts play a role in how emotions form. ...
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The problem of variability concerns the fact that empirical data does not support the existence of a coordinated set of biological markers, either in the body or the brain, which correspond to our folk emotion categories; categories like anger, happiness, sadness, disgust and fear. Barrett (2006a, b, 2013, 2016, 2017a, b) employs this fact to argue (i) against the faculty psychology approach to emotion, e.g. emotions are the products of emotion-specific mechanisms, or “modules”, and (ii) for the view that emotions are constructed from domain-general “core systems” with the aid of our folk concepts. The conjunction of (i) and (ii), she argues, heralds a paradigm shift in our understanding of emotion: emotions aren’t triggered but made. In this paper, I argue such a shift is premature for a faculty psychology framework can accommodate the neurobiological variability of emotion. This can be done by treating emotions as developmental modules: non-innate systems which behave like modules, but form as a product of ontogenetic development.
... Similarly, Kim and Shin [8] proposed that "cost" will impact behavioral intention because their research targets were high-end smartwatches. Moreover, Kim and Shin [8] followed Russell's [68] viewpoint that affection is a fundamental and universal human aspect of all emotion-laden events, objects, and places. Consequently, they defined "affective quality" (AQ) as how users believe a stimulus can change one's core affection. ...
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Wearable technology is a self-contained computer system that can record muscular activity data. Wearable technologies are rapidly evolving that have the potential to enhance the well-being of healthier lives. However, wearable technologies are finding slow adoption rates relative to mainstream technologies such as smartphones. Consequently, both designers and manufacturers are increasingly interested in key decision factors that influence the acceptance of these technologies. As discussions relating to wearable technologies are often approached from different perspectives, a general framework featuring not only a synthesis of general acceptance issues but also with consideration of contingent factors would be a useful research undertaking. Furthermore, wearable technology acceptance studies are insufficient to supplement practical implementation and promotion issues. In this regard, methods for further analysis of results from structural equation modeling (SEM), such as importance-performance map analysis (IPMA) and VIKOR for multi-criteria optimization and compromise solution, can be used to derive greater insights. The primary research findings are extensively discussed, and practical promotion strategies for wearable technologies for health care are suggested.
... The reason why words constitute a relevant social tool is that they are a way to physically embody (both phonetically and graphically) of our thoughts and feelings, as they serve us to encode and decode people's ideas, general knowledge, intentions, and senses (Dove, 2014). Hence, the mental representation of words crucially includes their emotional features (Citron, 2012;Hinojosa et al., 2009;Kuperman et al., 2014), based on dimensional approaches to emotion (Russell, 2003) like valence (from pleasant to unpleasant) and arousal (from calming to exciting). Both dimensions tend to be associated by a U-Shaped quadratic relationship: words with positive and negative valence tend to be more arousing than neutral ones (Gobin et al., 2017;Hinojosa et al., 2020). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has altered our routines, our conversations, the specific social contexts in which we hear or use certain words, and potentially, the representation of the words related to the disease and its consequences. Here we investigated whether the effects of the pandemic have changed the representation of the affective features of COVID-19-related words. To this aim, we collected new ratings of valence (from unpleasant to pleasant) and arousal (from calm to activated) dimensions for COVID-19-related words (e.g., hospital) and COVID-19-unrelated words (e.g., whale). Subsequently, we compared these scores with those from databases that reported ratings for the same pool of words before the pandemic. Our results showed significant changes in arousal for COVID-19-related words but not unrelated words, thus revealing that the pandemic social context modified their affective representation. These findings support the flexibility of emotional representations and the malleability and dynamicity of the mental lexicon as a function of contextual factors.
... Respondents answered yes/no binary questions about how they felt much of the previous week in terms of happiness, life enjoyment, sadness, loneliness, depressed feelings, sleeping restlessly, lacking motivation, and feeling that everything was an effort. These questions probed two independent dimensions of core affect, namely the positive/negative dimension and the arousal dimension (Russell, 2003). Affect manifests as one of four types: positive high arousal (e.g., happiness), positive low arousal (e.g., enjoying life), negative high arousal (e.g., restless sleep), or negative low arousal (e.g., sadness, depression, and lack of motivation). ...
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This study explored the role of midlife market-work arrangements of married mixed-gender couples on gendered experiences in emotional well-being and housework during the encore years. Working during midlife may shape long-term outcomes after couples leave the workforce and begin retirement. Using three theories of gender as a framework to understand work sharing in couples, the study theoretically connects work arrangements in midlife with long-term predictions of gender differences in couple emotional well-being and housework. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (2000–2015; N = 3,231), the study found that gender differences in housework were similar in male-earner and dual-earner couples during the encore years. However, women in male-earner marriages reported low levels of emotional well-being in the encore years, while men in dual-earner couples in mid-life reported high levels of well-being. The findings suggest more gendered experiences in midlife employment correlated with worse mental health in the encore years for women. Understanding midlife employment as a protective factor against depressive symptoms is useful for families, practitioners, and policymakers to be aware of as they seek to understand and mitigate drivers of poor mental health during the encore years. The study demonstrates a need for further development of dynamic theoretical models to explain gender differences over the life course.
... As Pessoa (2008Pessoa ( , 2013 argues, emotion and cognition are highly integrated in many functions including visual processing. In this study, we evaluate the interactions of valence and arousal (the two dimensions of core affect; Russell, 2003) with fascination, coherence and hominess (three central components underlying aesthetic responses to architectural experiences; Coburn et al., 2020), and also two factors we propose may be important: spatial complexity (how complex the layout is) and unusualness. We employ our new dataset of videos to further our understanding of architectural experience and its affective underpinnings. ...
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When studying architectural experience in the lab, it is of paramount importance to use a proxy as close to real-world experience as possible. Whilst still images visually describe real spaces, and virtual reality allows for dynamic movement, each medium lacks the alternative attribute. To merge these benefits, we created and validated a novel dataset of valenced videos of first-person-view travel through built environments. This dataset was then used to clarify the relationship of core affect (valence and arousal) and architectural experience. Specifically, we verified the relationship between valence and fascination, coherence, and hominess - three key psychological dimensions of architectural experience which have previously been shown to explain aesthetic ratings of built environments. We also found that arousal is only significantly correlated with fascination, and that both are embedded in a relationship with spatial complexity and unusualness. These results help to clarify the nature of fascination, and to distinguish it from coherence and hominess when it comes to core affect. Moreover, these results demonstrate the utility of a video dataset of affect-laden spaces for understanding architectural experience.
... Positive emotions can broaden people's thinking patterns and make them more creative (Fredrickson, 2003;Madrid and Patterson, 2016). Leaders' humorous language and behavior can bring joy to their team members (Cooper et al., 2018) and trigger highly activated positive emotions (Russell, 2003), thereby enhancing employee creativity. Thus, we suggest the following hypothesis: ...
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Although the role of leadership in fostering employee creativity has been extensively studied, it is still unclear whether and how leader humor affects employee creativity. Drawing upon cultural representation theory (CRT), we examined creative self-efficacy as a mediator and traditionality as a situational factor in the relationship between leader humor and employee creativity by analyzing a sample of 306 employees and 88 leaders (paired data) collected through survey questionnaire from firms based in Hubei Province, China, covering the industries of automobile, IT, and medicine. Following the multi-level examination, leader humor was positively related to employee creativity, and creative self-efficacy was found to mediate the impact of leader humor on employee creativity. Furthermore, traditionality moderated the effect of leader humor on creative self-efficacy, as well as the indirect effect of leader humor on employee creativity through creative self-efficacy. This study provides a social psychological explanation for the association between humor and employee creativity, deepens the current understanding of the influence process of leader humor. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed at the end alongside limitations and recommendations for future research.
... These contextual influences suggest that risky decision-making is fundamentally dynamic and temporally dependent on the impact of previous events. Affect, reflecting the individual's ongoing relationship with the environment, represents the cumulative impact of previous events together with future predicted states 12,13,18 . Hence, it is a critical mechanism through which recent events may influence subsequent behavior. ...
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Affective experience has an important role in decision-making with recent theories suggesting a modulatory role of affect in ongoing subjective value computations. However, it is unclear how varying expectations and uncertainty dynamically influence affective experience and how dynamic representation of affect modulates risky choices. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling on data from a risky choice task (N = 101), we find that the temporal integration of recently encountered choice parameters (expected value, uncertainty, and prediction errors) shapes affective experience and impacts subsequent choice behavior. Specifically, self-reported arousal prior to choice was associated with increased loss aversion, risk aversion, and choice consistency. Taken together, these findings provide clear behavioral evidence for continuous affective modulation of subjective value computations during risky decision-making.
... Core Affect. Core affect was measured using two items from the Russell Core Affect Scale (Russell, 2003), with response options ranging from 0 (never) to 3 (always). Participants were asked how often they have felt happy and sad during the last two weeks, with sad being reverse coded and both variables averaged so that higher scores indicated better core affect. ...
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Purpose Subjective wellbeing (SWB) is a significant contributor to quality of life and overall wellbeing in childhood through adulthood. However, less is known about the modifiable factors that support SWB among urban children. This study explored the association between socio-ecological factors (family, peers, and neighborhood) and child SWB. Method A convenience sample of 69 students were recruited from the 3rd (n = 40) and 5th (n = 29) grades at two urban elementary schools in a mid-Atlantic state. The average age for participants was 9.32 (SD = 1.33) and most of the sample identified as female (60.9%). We expected that better perceived family and peer relationships, and neighborhood quality would be positively associated with higher child SWB. Regression analyses were conducted by SWB outcome, which included global and domain-specific life satisfaction (i.e., personal wellbeing), and core affect. Results Study findings indicated that family relationships were positively associated with overall life satisfaction and personal wellbeing. Neighborhood quality was also positively associated with student life satisfaction and core affect. Peer relationships were not associated with any of the SWB outcomes. Discussion The findings highlight the importance of strengthening a child’s relationships and environment to sustain positive child SWB.
Article
This study addresses the lack of organizational research considering the functionality of employees’ work-related affective experiences. More precisely, this research relied on person-centered analyses to gain a better understanding of the various configurations taken by the intensity and direction (i.e., seen as facilitating performance, or as interfering with it) of positive and negative affect among nurses. We also documented the stability of these profiles over time and their longitudinal associations with theoretically relevant predictors (job demands and resources) and outcomes (somatic complaints and musculoskeletal disorders). Questionnaires were completed twice, three months apart, by a sample of 1143 French nurses. Five distinct affective profiles were identified, and found to be rather stable over time. Nurses' perceptions of their job demands and resources showed well-differentiated patterns of associations with these profiles. Finally, nurses' levels of somatic complaints and musculoskeletal disorders were more pronounced among nurses corresponding to a profile dominated by high levels of negative affect seen as interfering with performance. Overall, our results emphasize the importance of jointly considering affect intensity and direction, their combinations, and the role played by job characteristics, in order to understand the development of physical health problems among nurses.
Chapter
Wenn wir davon sprechen, dass etwas sozial unangemessen ist, meinen wir damit in der Regel, dass es keine Übereinstimmung gibt zwischen dem erwarteten Verhalten und dem tatsächlichen Verhalten. Soziale Angemessenheit betrifft dementsprechend Fragestellungen, die (soziale) Normen betreffen. Betrachten wir Angemessenheitskriterien durch die Positionen bestimmter sozialer Gruppen, ist es uns möglich, gruppenspezifische Angemessenheitskriterien zu beleuchten und kritisch zu betrachten. Hier geht es um Fragen wie: Ist mein Verhalten meinem wahrgenommenen Geschlecht angemessen? Mit diesem Blickwinkel wird deutlicher, dass unseren Vorstellungen von sozialer Angemessenheit unter Umständen widersprüchliche Normen zugrunde liegen. Gerade wenn es um gruppenspezifische Fragen zur sozialen Angemessenheit geht, die etwa das Geschlecht, physische und mentale Befähigungen oder die Ethnie einer Person betreffen, kann Dehumanisierung eine Rolle spielen. Moderne Normen, so die Argumentation in diesem Kapitel, berücksichtigen Aspekte der Dehumanisierung, während traditionellere Normen diese tendenziell ignorieren. Hierdurch ergibt sich die Existenz widersprüchlicher Normen rund um soziale Angemessenheit. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird erklärt, wie soziale Angemessenheit und dehumanisierende Interaktionsstrukturen zusammenhängen, um die Frage erörtern zu können, wie widersprüchliche Kriterien für soziale Angemessenheit zustande kommen und wie diese eventuell auch verändert werden können. Hierzu wird das Konzept der Skripte herangezogen.
Article
Some philosophical and psychological approaches to social interaction posit a powerful explanatory tool for explaining how we navigate social situations: scripts. Scripts tell people how to interact in different situational and cultural contexts depending on social roles such as gender. A script theory of social interaction puts emphasis on understanding the world as normatively structured. Social structures place demands, roles, and ways to behave in the social world upon us, which, in turn, guide the ways we interact with one another and the ways we coordinate our behaviors. In this paper, I explore the phenomenon of coordinated behaviors in social interactions in humans. I argue that looking closely at everyday interactions, for which social coordination is central, strongly points to a fundamental role of scripts for social cognition and interaction. In order to explain some social interactions, like those based on social coordination, we do not need to recourse to mental state attribution. Rather, I argue, scripts are a powerful resource for explaining social interaction and especially coordinated behaviors. Scripts have been neglected in standard approaches to social cognition but are (re‐)gaining attention via the normative turn in social cognition.
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Patients’ emotions toward health IT can play an important role in explaining their usage of it. One form of health IT is self-managing care IT, such as activity trackers that can be used by chronic patients to adopt a healthy lifestyle. The goal of this study is to understand the factors that influence the arousal of emotions in chronic patients while using these tools. Past studies, in general, tend to emphasize how IT shapes emotions, underplaying the role of the individual user’s identity and, specifically, how central health is to the user’s self in shaping emotions. In this research, the authors argue that patients’ health identity centrality (i.e., the extent to which they consider health as central to their sense of self) can play an important role in forming their dependence on health IT by affecting their use of it directly and shaping their emotions around it.
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We examined whether learning experiences (value of success, mastery experience) and task properties (challenge) are related to early adolescents’ (n = 190, median age = 12) emotional responses and psychophysiological states (autonomic nervous system, ANS) in achievement situations in an ambulatory laboratory. They completed four achievement tasks (two math and two reading) at different challenge levels in randomized order, and reported their learning and task perceptions for each task. The proportion of errors indicated the objective demandingness of each task. As indices of sympathetic nervous system activity, we recorded skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate (HR), and, as parasympathetic nervous system activity, their heart rate variability (HRV). Following control-value and flow theories, we proposed hypotheses for main and interaction effects and specified multilevel models (tasks nested in persons). Novel findings emerged. Aside from the anticipated main effects, Challenge × Mastery interaction also was related to adolescents’ emotions and SCR at the within-person (task) level. Furthermore, Value × Mastery Experience interaction was related to SCR and HRV at the task level, whereas Value × Errors interaction contributed to experienced anger and anxiety at the between-person (individual) level. The findings provide novel understanding of situational interplay between the value of success, challenge, and mastery experience in adolescents’ experienced emotions and psychophysiological states.
Article
Evaluative markers of diminution and augmentation typically express quantity or intensity. Prior evidence suggests that they also convey emotions, although it remains unexplored as to whether this function is mediated by their role in expressing quantification/intensification. Here we investigated the effects of evaluative suffixes on the assessment of word affective properties by asking participants (N = 300) to score valence and arousal features for augmentatives, diminutives and base words with negative, positive or neutral valence. Diminutives and, to a lesser extent, augmentatives were assessed more positively than base forms in negative words and more negatively than bases in positive words. The capacity of diminution to express attenuated emotions is in line with its function in conveying quantity. By contrast, valence effects for augmentatives suggests a role in expressing pejoration and amelioration that is not mediated by quantification. With regard to arousal, negative, neutral and positive augmentatives showed higher scores than base words, which, in addition, were also rated higher than diminutives. These incremental effects suggest that suffixes which convey larger quantity are also associated with increased arousal. Thus, with the exception of valence effects in augmentatives, it seems that evaluative suffixes encode both valence and arousal through quantification.
Article
Background Physical exercise is an evidence-based treatment to reduce symptoms and negative affect in several psychiatric disorders, including depressive, anxiety, and psychotic disorders. However, the effect of physical exercise on negative affect in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) has not yet been investigated. In this pilot study, we tested the safety, acceptability, and potential acute effects on negative affect of a single session of aerobic physical exercise in adults with BPD. Method After completing a negative mood induction procedure, 28 adults with BPD were randomly assigned to a 20-minute single session of stationary bicycle or a control condition (emotionally neutral video). Results No adverse effects attributed to the physical exercise were reported and it was considered acceptable to patients. Following the negative mood induction, both conditions decreased the level of negative affect with a medium effect size but there was no significant difference between them. Conclusion The results suggest that a single 20-minute session of physical exercise does not produce a reduction of negative affect in BPD. Future research should consider the duration and intensities of physical exercise with the greatest potential to reduce negative affect both acutely and in a more prolonged manner in this patient group.
Article
Understanding the determinants of cycling and thus creating optimal cycling conditions is still a challenge. The current study addresses this challenge by providing in-depth exploration of attributes of bicycle infrastructure, traffic volume, gradients, urbanisation degrees in stimulating cycling for various population categories. Participants had to cycle in a simulated VR environment mirroring the streetscape of a real Dutch city. The cognitive (e.g., safety perception) and affective (e.g., enjoyment, attractiveness) response was measured, real time. The results suggest that various attributes impact the cognitive and affective components to different extents. In particular, bicycle path presence and intersection absence had a positive impact on safety perception. Greenness of the environment contributed for lifting the attractiveness of the cycling experience. Hight car traffic had a negative impact on the way safety, enjoyment and attractiveness of cycling was perceived. Current outcomes should be implemented in creating bicycle infrastructure that appropriately meets the demand for attractive cycling experience that is safe and enjoyable for all.
Article
In online health communities (OHCs), patients can exchange social support through text-based communication. However, research on how various linguistic characteristics of patients' communication in these communities affect their social support outcomes remains limited. This study performs linguistic profiling on OHC participants based on a large dataset and empirically evaluates how lexical, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic features affect users' communication and social support outcomes. The results show that lexical richness in health-related vocabulary negatively correlates with receiving informational support. The readability and brevity of written texts have positive relationships with incoming social support. Writing longer sentences positively correlates with receiving informational support but negatively correlates with receiving emotional support. Expressing negative sentiment leads to higher chances of receiving both types of social support. The use of terms related to perception and body parts increases the chances of receiving emotional support. The use of terms related to perception words additionally correlates to higher chances of receiving informational support. To receive social supports, being logical in expressions is also critical. Furthermore, the relationships between shared health language and social support are determined by the word category and social support type.
Article
Dopamine facilitates approach to reward via its actions on dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens. For example, blocking either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors in the accumbens reduces the proportion of reward-predictive cues to which rats respond with cued approach. Recent evidence indicates that accumbens dopamine also promotes wakefulness and arousal, but the relationship between dopamine’s roles in arousal and reward seeking remains unexplored. Here, we show that the ability of systemic or intra-accumbens injections of the D1 antagonist SCH23390 to reduce cued approach to reward depends on the animal’s state of arousal. Handling the animal, a manipulation known to increase arousal, was sufficient to reverse the behavioral effects of the antagonist. In addition, SCH23390 reduced spontaneous locomotion and increased time spent in sleep postures, both consistent with reduced arousal, but also increased time spent immobile in postures inconsistent with sleep. In contrast, the ability of the D2 antagonist haloperidol to reduce cued approach was not reversible by handling. Haloperidol reduced spontaneous locomotion but did not increase sleep postures, instead increasing immobility in non-sleep postures. We place these results in the context of the extensive literature on dopamine’s contributions to behavior, and propose the arousal-motor hypothesis. This novel synthesis, which proposes that two main functions of dopamine are to promote arousal and facilitate motor behavior, accounts both for our findings and many previous behavioral observations that have led to disparate and conflicting conclusions.
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system for quantification of the similarities and differences in the spatial localization of cerebral hemodynamic activation induced by visual presentation of neutral, negative and positive valence emotional stimuli. Method: 13 healthy subjects viewed neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) database in a block design experiment while the prefrontal cortical hemodynamic changes induced by emotional stimuli were continuously recorded with a 20 channel fNIRS system that covered the forehead region. Results: Negative valence pictures induced higher hemodynamic activity in right lateralized regions involving dorsolateral and oribtofrontal cortex when compared to neutral and positive valence stimuli (pFDR
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The task of emotional voice conversion (EVC) aims to convert speech from one emotional state into another, while keeping linguistic content, speaker identity and other emotion-independent information unchanged. Because previous studies were limited to a specific set of emotions, it is challenging to realize the conversion of emotions never seen in training stage. In this paper, we propose a one-shot emotional voice conversion model based on feature separation. The proposed method could control emotional characteristics with Global Emotion Embeddings (GEEs), and introduce activation guidance (AG) and mutual information (MI) minimization to reduce the correlations between emotion embedding and emotion-independent representation. At run-time conversion, it could produce the desired emotional utterance from a single pairwise utterance without any emotion labels, whether the target emotion appears in the training set or not. The subjective and objective evaluations validate the effectiveness of our proposed model for both the degree of feature separation and emotion expression, even it could achieve unseen emotion conversion.
Article
This article focuses on emotion talk in English and the semantic annotation of emotions in a pilot study corpus about the end of life. It describes the process of compiling and annotating a corpus containing the transcript of the verbal component of audiovisual material regarding end-of-life care. The paper also aims to present a lexico-semantic analysis of emotion talk based on the combined use of two corpus processing tools: Wmatrix and Sketch Engine. The findings indicate that the limitations of semantic annotation can be overcome by concordance and collocational analysis. They also reveal that the lexis of emotion is commonly present at the end of life and show the main keywords and key concepts, the predominant semantic categories of emotion and the most frequent emotion words in the corpus. The results suggest that the most frequent emotions in the corpus are sadness, fear, liking, love, happiness/relief, worry, calmness, anger, hope and confidence.
Article
We advance the understanding of how student emotions relate to their learning of socioscientific issues (SSI). Studies have tended to examine how students' positive and negative emotions about an issue contribute to their learning. However, this approach overlooks the fact that students may have different emotions about different objects (i.e., stakeholders, phenomena, the status quo, and the future) within an issue. In this study, we examined students' patterns of emotion objects with respect to the extent of their conceptual change from a reductionist view to a systems view of obesity. Using a multiple case study design, we tracked the emotion objects of four purposefully selected university students, who demonstrated either significant change or minimal change in their view of obesity. Data were collected over a 12‐week general education course on obesity and 6 months after the course, and included weekly reflective journals and delayed postcourse interviews. We found that students with different extents of conceptual change had distinguishable sets of emotion objects. For example, the emotion objects of students with significant conceptual change included obese people and the food industry. Furthermore, their emotions were more often moral in nature. These findings suggest that moral emotions are an integral part of SSI learning. We make two contributions to the literature. First, we identify the need to attend to and specify emotion objects as key variables in future research on emotions. In practice, teachers should consider strategies that help students attend to the emotion objects that matter for SSI learning. Second, we identify stakeholders as key emotion objects in SSI learning. The expression of moral emotions about stakeholders coincided with conceptual change to a systems view. This implies that future research and the practice of SSI learning should pay attention to students' moral emotions about stakeholders.
Article
This article presents a model of the structure of emotion developed primarily from a consideration of neuropsychological evidence and behavioural data which have bearing on neuropsychological theories. Valence is first considered and highlighted as a defining characteristic of emotion. Next, the use of facial behaviour and autonomic nervous system patterns as defining characteristics of discrete emotions is questioned on empirical and conceptual grounds. The regulation of emotion is considered and proposed to affect the very structure of emotion itself. If there is an invariant pattern of biological activity across different instantiations of the same emotion, it is likely to be found in higher-order associative networks of central nervous system activity, the very same networks that subserve goal-directed behaviour and other cognitive functions. Drawing upon evolutionary considerations, it is argued that what is basic about emotion are the dimensions of approach and withdrawal. The nature of the linkage between such action tendencies and emotion is discussed.