Article

Self-concordance, goal attainment, and the pursuit of happiness: Can there be an upward spiral?

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  • Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation
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Abstract

Two studies used the self-concordance model of healthy goal striving (K. M. Sheldon & A. J. Elliot, 1999) to examine the motivational processes by which people can increase their level of well-being during a period of time and then maintain the gain or perhaps increase it even further during the next period of time. In Study I, entering freshmen with self-concordant motivation better attained their 1st-semester goals, which in turn predicted increased adjustment and greater self-concordance for the next semester's goals. Increased self-concordance in turn predicted even better goal attainment during the 2nd semester, which led to further increases in adjustment and to higher levels of ego development by the end of the year. Study 2 replicated the basic model in a 2-week study of short-term goals set in the laboratory. Limits of the model and implications for the question of how (and whether) happiness may be increased are discussed.

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... The positive effect of happiness on performance is because positive affect is a driver that supports perseverance at goal-directed activities (Lyubomirsky et al. 2005a, b). Sheldon and Houser-Marko (2001) commented that genetic determinist models of happiness suggest that it may be, because the level of subjective well-being, largely determined at birth. For them, if so, then fluctuations away from one's own characteristics level of happiness may be only random, temporary, or even illusory. ...
... Specifically, salespeople high in locomotion should be involved in moving from state to state, initiating movement away from some current state, sustaining the smooth movement in goal pursuit (Avnet and Higgins 2003) for improving their sales performance and cross-selling activities. Based on the fact that goal attainment and happiness have an association (Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001), and that the goal is the mechanism that motivates individuals in locomotion, we suggest that locomotion increases financial outcomes. Therefore: H 1 Salesperson locomotion has positive effect on: (a) performance, (b) cross-selling and (c) product sales performance. ...
... For instance, a salesperson dedicates a specific amount of time and effort to studying correlated products or accessories that could be offered together to the main order (a crossselling practice). Moreover, past goal research has shown that Self-Concordant Motivation predicts a wide variety of effort and performance outcomes (Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001). Self-concordant motivation provides a way to predict regular, sustained effort toward the exercise and plays a critical role in producing increases in a happy mood (Sheldon and Lyubomirsky 2006). ...
Article
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In this study, the authors propose a theoretical framework and show how salespeople’s locomotion orientation and effort increase financial sales outcomes (e.g., performance and cross-selling). We propose that a salesperson’s happiness plays a mediating mechanism in these main effects. The authors collected data from two samples. In Study 1, the authors collected data from financial insurance brokers, which worked as a link between insurance companies and customers. In Study 2, the authors analyzed answers from salespeople working on home improvement and construction products and services. First, the results demonstrate that the salespersons’ locomotion (an orientation toward a behavior), effort, and happiness increased sales performance (main effects). Second, salespersons’ locomotion and effort have an indirect effect through individuals’ happiness on our dependent variables, such as sales performance, product performance and cross-selling. Firms can improve individuals’ locomotion and effort by developing goal setting and goal striving.
... One effective way to attain eudaimonia is through pursuing purposeful and self-concordant goals. A study by Sheldon & Houser-Marko (2001) found that the sense of achievement and fulfillment ensuing from these goals can create an upward spiral of goal striving, which builds on previous experience. ...
... Such self-concordant goal pursuit increases one's effort in goal striving as well as in goal progress. The striving and attainment of such a goal can promote sustained well-being and self-regulation, and eventually foster another cycle of goal striving (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001 positive feelings from pleasures, deriving abundant gratification from your signature strengths, and using these strengths in the service of something larger to obtain meaning" (Seligman, 2002, p. 263). The PERMA model (Seligman, 2011(Seligman, , 2018 was built on the three pathways of happiness wherein human flourishing rests on five pillars, namely positive emotions, engagement, relationship, meaning, and accomplishment ( Fig. 2.1). ...
... Orientations and functionings are the implicit psychological dimensions of experience which are associated with growth goals and well-being determinants (i.e., values). These goals and values are often implicit to people and making them explicit allows one to recognize goals for self-development (Schüler et al., 2019;Sheldon et al., 2003;Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). Character strengths can serve as the connecting point between the explicit experiential dimensions of MMEs and that of implicit psychological dimensions because strengths are easily recognizable through one's behaviors, feelings, and thoughts. ...
Thesis
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This study investigates a technology-mediated experience design that fosters memorable and meaningful tourism experiences (MMEs). Technology has been playing an integral role in facilitating people to make personal choices on their tourism activities, from itinerary planning, online bookings, and way findings, to social sharing of people’s journeys. This study shows how technology may offer the potential to transcend personalized experiences into memorable and meaningful experiences. A review of literature in positive psychology provided three insights on MMEs. First, a holistic understanding of MMEs from one’s explicit experiential dimension to implicit experiential dimension, which includes what people do, feel, think, and value. Second, MMEs also result from pursuing growth goals derived from their past, present, and future aspirations. Lastly, character strengths, which represent positive traits of individuals, can be the pivotal component in MMEs because they are the bridge between the implicit and the explicit dimensions of experience. Experience of meaning can emerge by making the implicit explicit, thereby fostering self-awareness, a sense of purpose, and self-development towards flourishing. Therefore, this study seeks to incorporate character strengths into an informatics system so that users can cultivate their character strengths and facilitate users in the appreciation of their MMEs by connecting what they do, feel, think and value. This thesis is composed of interrelated three studies that progress through a design process. The first study explored how technology can support people to cultivate their character strengths for the creation of memorable and meaningful experiences. It resulted in a tripartite strengths-based HCI framework that encapsulates three aspects of strengths used namely, strengths well spent, reflection and introspection, and anticipation of future self. The second study focused on the stage of reflection and introspection by investigating people’s proficiencies in creating visual diary with photos generated on their memorable and meaningful journeys because comprehensive visual storytelling is the prerequisite for people to connect the experience to the associated implicit psychological motives and needs. The result informed the development of a proof-of-concept strengths-based journaling platform. The third study involved the evaluation of the platform from three perspectives. First, on the features that facilitate users to create meaning by making the implicit psychological dimensions of MMEs (e.g., character strengths, motives, and values) explicit. Second, participants’ strengths that had drawn upon on their MMEs. Third, their intentions on cultivating their characters strengths, and pursuing values gained in their future journeys. The result showed that people deepened their self-awareness by using the platform. Also, MMEs more often involved people’s moderate character strengths rather than signature strengths. Participants were more willing to pursue the value gained and develop the character strengths used in their future journeys rather than revisit the places. By making the implicit psychological dimensions explicit, this study showed that technology facilitates people to deepen their self-awareness through recognizing deep-rooted values and appreciate character strengths from their MMEs. The result of this study has multiple implications and contributions to the field of technology-mediated experience design and smart tourism innovation at the levels of empirical research, theory, and artifacts.
... Goal self-concordance has also been demonstrated to enhance the positive eff ects that goal-attainment can have on well-being. Compared to goals that lack self-concordance, self-concordant goals generate greater satisfaction and increased well-being (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). For these reasons-and because they are linked with positive personality traits and futures that are growth-promoting and personally expressive (Waterman, 2013)-self-concordant goals typically align with projects that are personally meaningful, and with change that the person wants to achieve (Sheldon, 2014). ...
... As we have seen, self-concordant goals are aligned with endeavors that are personally meaningful. Compared to goals that are self-determined, but which lack self-concordance, they generate greater satisfaction and enhanced well-being (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). In a study investigating the patterns of regulation associated with self-concordant and non-concordant goals, Henry and Davydenko (2020) showed how diff erences in the qualities of participants' goals were associated with diff erent learning experiences. ...
... While imagery-focused interventions demonstrate the positive benefi ts of capacity-building (e.g., Busse et al., 2020;Munezane, 2015;Safdari, 2019;Sato, in press;Sato & Lara, 2019;Vlaeva & D ö rnyei, in press), and while research from mainstream psychology testifi es to the motivational and emotional advantages of having/ choosing goals that are strong in self-concordance (Sheldon & Elliot, 1998, 1999Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001;Sheldon et al., 2019), in employing these constructs in empirical work there is an inherent risk of "blaming the victim"; "if only L2 learners could see skills development as more personally fulfi lling, and could imagine their L2-speaking futures in a more positive light, they might be able to generate greater enthusiasm for study." Furthermore, the value of these constructs needs to be carefully assessed in relation to situations where language learning is not an endeavor freely entered into, but, as in migration situations, takes place in contexts of social duress (Ortega, 2018). ...
Chapter
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Why is it that some people thrive on the process of acquiring another language, and maintain momentum in their learning, while others struggle to keep on track and fail to achieve proficiency? Why is it that some people willingly engage in time-consuming activities, learning the conjugations of irregular verbs, while others find it hard to keep focused? For William James (1842–1910), one of the founding figures in modern psychology, answers may lie in the processes in which people weigh up different possibilities for action and, once settled upon, how an action can become visually imprinted in the mind. Discussing human will in his classic work The Principles of Psychology (1890/1983), James uses his own reluctance to rise from bed on a cold winter’s morning as an example of how vision prompts action. Arriving at a point where other possibilities (staying in bed) begin to recede from his mind, James describes how thoughts of the things needing to be accomplished during the day become the focal point of his attention, and force him into action (getting up). The spur for this or any other path of action, James maintains, is the image conjured in the mind. As he argues, “the essential achievement of the will, in short, when it is most ‘voluntary’, is to ATTEND to a difficult object and hold it fast before the mind” (James 1890/1983, p. 1166; see also Cross & Markus, 1990; Hunt, 2007). Focusing on vision–the mental images of objects held “fast before the mind”–and on goals that have a deeper personal meaning, this chapter discusses their roles in shaping L2 learning behavior. Drawing on work in mainstream and L2 psychology, it examines the ways in which vision can generate and sustain focused energy, and highlights the potentially positive effects of learning goals that resonate with personal interests, values and beliefs.
... One such study was conducted by Sheldon and Houser-Marko [2001], who examined the motivational processes by which university students can increase their level of well-being through the selection of self-concordant goals. In their study, Sheldon and Houser-Marko [2001] focused on the adaptation of new students to college -namely, which incoming freshmen best adjusted to, and even thrived in, their challenging new circumstances. ...
... One such study was conducted by Sheldon and Houser-Marko [2001], who examined the motivational processes by which university students can increase their level of well-being through the selection of self-concordant goals. In their study, Sheldon and Houser-Marko [2001] focused on the adaptation of new students to college -namely, which incoming freshmen best adjusted to, and even thrived in, their challenging new circumstances. They studied 114 incoming students in the class of 2002 at the University of Missouri, asking them to list their goals for the semester and measuring the self-concordance of said goals through a set of questionnaires. ...
... Those who began the semester with goals that matched their implicit values and interests showcased significantly higher academic performance, indicating that self-concordant motivation may indeed provide an important resource for goal attainment. Sheldon and Houser-Marko [2001] argue that students greatly benefit from an "[…] ability to select 'self-concordant' goals, that is, ones that well represent (according to theory) their implicit interests, values, and growth trends. We assume that this is a difficult skill, requiring both accurate self-perceptual abilities and the ability to resist social pressures that may sometimes push one in inappropriate directions" [Sheldon & Houser-Marko 2001, p. 162]. ...
Book
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We present a book entitled Innovation in Organisational Management Under Conditions of Sustainable Development. It is widely accepted that innovation is a key driver of sustainability. Similarly, in the present discourse, no one questions whether innovation is a necessary com- ponent of managerial processes at all organisational levels. Yet in a world where the need for sustainable development has become brutally evident, there are not many truly innovative companies and only a very few truly sustainable companies. Sustainable and innovative companies are as rare as mythical unicorns. One can try to explain this situation by concluding that it is already a challenge in itself to understand the interdependences between the social, economic, and en- vironmental dimensions while running a business. It is even more difficult to apply the so-called Triple Bottom Line (TBL) concept, which suggests that equal consid- eration should be given to financial, environmental, and social dimensions when making business and policy decisions. As a result, a question arises concerning the rationale behind attempts to in- troduce such complexity. Would it not be wiser to focus on maximising economic goals and take a passive approach to social and environmental dimensions by con- sidering them to be boundary conditions? Companies can create economic value through the adoption of more sustainable processes and practices; through the design and marketing of products or services which utilise so-called green technologies1 (e.g. electric vehicles); or by providing services which utilise an innovative mix of green and regular technologies in order to solve sustainability issues. Therefore, sustainable development can be promoted either through business practices or a company’s products and services, or both2. Implementing innovations that improve the ability to learn, manage and re- spond to environmental stimuli from dynamic socio-ecological structures makes it possible to move away from unsustainable trajectories. Various theoretical and G. H. Elmo et al. (2020). Sustainability in tourism as an innovation driver: an analysis of family business 1 reality. Sustainability 12(15), pp. 6149. M. Leach, J. Rockström, P. Raskin, I. Scoones, A. C. Stirling, A. Smith ... E. Arond et al. (2012). 2 Transforming innovation for sustainability. Ecology and Society, (17), pp. 11–18. 7 INTRODUCTION practical approaches to sustainability agree that improving it implies change, inno- vation or adaptation to its environment. The aim of sustainability is no longer just a sustainable state; instead, it is a process of constant improvement of the sustain- ability of “artefacts”. A dynamic perspective encourages discussion concerning the identification and handling of constant changes3. The ability to innovate has become necessary for companies and takes the form of incremental or radical innovations. Business model innovation, therefore, rep- resents a potential means of integrating sustainability into a business. Consequently, an innovative and sustainable business model should adapt the company’s profit- ability to the economic and non-economic benefits for society. On the other hand, the ever-changing market requirements gradually force businesses to adapt and change in order to improve quality and become more efficient, flexible, innovative and knowledge-driven. This explains why innovation, as a process by which an in- dividual or a business learns and develops knowledge, contributes even more to sustainability in the organisational context. Based on this premise, the authors de- cided to explore the interlinked realms of innovation and sustainability. As the authors realise that sustainable development is a pressing issue that requires immediate action from governments, industries, and society as a whole, we have made an effort to focus on innovations that can transform individuals, organisations, supply chains, and communities, and can move them towards a sustainable future. With the aim of improved sustainability, this book deals with organisational in- novation from a broad perspective, including product and process innovation. The monograph consists of 12 chapters. In chapter 1, Elżbieta Lorek presents the issues of building a green economy based on the principles of sustainable development, focused mainly on the positive economic effects of green transformation. In chapter 2, Izabela Karwala describes how acceleration programmes can serve as a source of innovation for organisations. This is particularly important today, as such programmes now have a well-established position in the business environment. In chapter 3, Dawid Żebrak focuses on the concept of sustainable human re- source management, with a particular focus on the employment of prisoners. In chapter 4, Monika Płońska’s research focuses on the challenges of sustain- able development in the Polish chemical industry in the context of the European Commission’s guidelines on the disclosure of non-financial climate information, especially given that time is running short. In chapter 5, Jakub Stęchły shows an example of a car-sharing company whose business model is based on the principles of the sharing economy. This is an inter- esting example of an attempt to combine sustainability and innovation in various areas. In chapter 6, Karolina Mucha-Kuś explains the benefits of an innovative ap- proach to integrating a public bicycle system in a metropolitan area, and the stake- holders’ approach to this project from the perspective of coopetition. In chapter 7, Grzegorz Kinelski makes an effort to identify the relationship be- tween sustainable development, project management and the digital economy. Conclusions are drawn which could be relevant not only to the energy sector but to all kinds of enterprises. In chapter 8, Grzegorz Kinelski and Wojciech Muras deal with managing invest- ment decisions whilst taking non-financial measures into account. Such measures are essential when introducing sustainable development metrics into the strategic controlling process. In chapter 9, Krzysztof Zamasz depicts how political decisions aimed at ensur- ing the sustainability of energy production affect energy companies. Day-to-day business decisions in energy companies are becoming increasingly complex due to increased volatility and uncertainty as the regulatory regime tries to maintain a bal- ance in the market whilst complying with decarbonisation goals and fulfilling the role of the state in providing energy security. In chapter 10, Maria Schulders addresses concerns regarding the mental health of university students by exploring the applicability of self-authorship in higher education processes. She points out that universities should construct a system- ic framework by which students are aided in the development of core values and self-concordant goals. It can be argued that such an approach is not only a prereq- uisite for students’ mental health and well-being, but also for reaching the full in- novative potential of individuals and educational institutions. INTRODUCTION 9 INTRODUCTION In chapter 11, Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna, Wojciech Muras and Marta Pikiewicz venture into aspects of long-term value creation in IT companies, tak- ing into account the role of shareholders. IT companies constitute the backbone of development of the knowledge economy but are subject to innovative managerial processes themselves, while the conceptualisation and internalisation of the role of shareholders is critical for the long-term sustainability of the organisation. In chapter 12, Michał Gramatyka presents the management of election cam- paigns in light of project management and focuses on finding the answer to the fol- lowing question: are project management practices translatable into the language of politics? We hope that our book will be a source of valuable knowledge for business prac- titioners, academic researchers, and all stakeholders for whom the concepts of sus- tainable development and innovation are important. We have prepared this mono- graph in the hope that readers will find it useful either for the purpose of making their innovative organisations more sustainable or making their sustainable organ- isations more innovative. Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna Krzysztof Zamasz Grzegorz Kinelski Editors
... Underlying both mental health and academic performance is a broader conception of 'eudaimonic' well-being as self-realisation and meaning (Ryan & Deci, 2001;Waterman, 1993 (Schippers & Ziegler, 2019). However, having self-concordant goals (i.e., goals that align with one's values and passions), relates to higher academic performance (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001), higher subjective well-being (Sheldon, 2002), and lower symptoms of depression (Sheldon & Kasser, 1998). The potential impact of life-crafting interventions appears to be promising, particularly because it is online and, therefore, scalable. ...
... Similar to the Japanese concept of 'Ikigai'; a reason for being (Sone et al., 2008), and eudaimonic well-being, which includes meaning and self-realisation (Ryan & Deci, 2001). This purpose is self-concordant when it is both intrinsically as well as extrinsically worth pursuing (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001;Sheldon 2002). The exercises stimulate participants to choose goals that the person truly holds to be important. ...
Thesis
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Academic thriving stands for a combination of academic outcomes as well as success in other relevant domains, such as well-being or finding the right job. What causes students to thrive academically? The studies in this dissertation contributed to this question with the use of experimental, interdisciplinary and longitudinal studies, and a critical theoretical examination of the arguments against evidence-based education. A large-scale field experiment showed that first-year students who reflected on their desired future, prioritized goals, and wrote detailed plans on how to reach these goals, performed significantly better (in study credits and retention) than students who made a control assignment. This low-cost and scalable goal-setting assignment was made at the start of college and only took the students two hours to complete. Personalized follow-up feedback delivered by an AI-enhanced chatbot could further improve benefits to study outcomes as well as well-being. The final study in this dissertation tracked the effects of different types of work on the study progress of teacher education students over a four-year span. This longitudinal study showed that student who had a paid job in education gained more study credits than students with other types of work or without a job. Additionally it showed that working 8 hours per week relates with the most study progress in the first and third semester of college.
... In coaching, effective goal attainment (Prywes, 2012) has been demonstrated to comprise cognitive processes such as goal-oriented planning (Wood and Locke, 1990), goal commitment (Locke and Latham, 1990), perceived goal competence (Sheldon et al., 1996), goal self-concordance (Sheldon and Houser-Marko, 2001), and goal stability (Spence et al., 2008). The way clients engage in effective goal-attainment in association with cognitive self-regulatory capacities has been recently demonstrated in sports coaching (Collins et al., 2018). ...
... as adopted from Markey and Markey (2009), with a Cronbach's a of 0.84; Goal Commitment relating to the clients' determination to reach a goal consists of five items (e.g., "I am strongly committed to pursuing this goal.") as adopted from Klein et al. (2001), with a Cronbach's a of 0.72; Goal Self-Concordance relating to the clients' enduring interest and motivation to pursue self-set goals consists of four items (e.g., "You strive for this goal because of the enjoyment or stimulation that goal provides you.") as adopted from Sheldon and Houser-Marko (2001), with a Cronbach's a of 0.52; Goal Stability relating to the clients' aspirations over the course of the study consists of three items ("My interest in this goal did not change significantly over the past 3 months."), as developed by Prywes (2012), with a Cronbach's a of 0.77. ...
Article
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Background: Psychological literature emphasizes that self-regulation is important as goal intentions, goal setting, or implementation intention does not automatically result in effective results in coaching. The question which coaching strategies to apply to strengthening clients' self-regulatory capacities as prerequisites of effective change outcomes remains a black box in coaching. Method: This quantitative study explored clients' self-regulatory mechanisms by addressing how nonverbal synchrony influences clients' cognitive and emotional self-regulation across sessions. One hundred eighty-four coach–client pairs and their evolving change process were observed over 8 months. Video-recorded sessions were assessed with motion energy analysis to automatically capture coach and client nonverbal behavior and quantify nonverbal synchrony at the level of the dyad. Results: Synchrony was differentially associated with clients' post-session questionnaires on result-oriented problem-reflection and self-reflection, affect balance, and working alliance. Network analyses suggested that the association between synchrony and other process variables did not correspond to the previously found positive association between synchrony and positive aspects of alliance or outcome. Instead, this association depended on the level of perceived outcome. Discussion: Coaching success may be predicted by process variables assessed after each session: goal reflection, alliance, and mood all predict successful coaching. The assessment of nonverbal synchrony suggests a state-dependent effect of embodied processes on a coaching outcome that warrants further inspection.
... To what extent people find the goal of adhering to hand washing guidelines important would presumably play a role in whether or not they perform proper hand washing, as goals stimulate motivation and action (Latham & Locke, 1991). Goal importance, for example signified by goals being in line with one's personal or intrinsic values and interests, also called 'self-concordant' goals, amplifies the potential for action in the shape of goal-congruent behaviour; people act more on goals that are important to them (Deci & Ryan, 2012;Sheldon & Elliot, 1999;Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). ...
... Although these types of interventions suffer from limited effectivity (Gawande, 2004;Grant & Hofmann, 2011;Whitby et al., 2007), our results show that they need not be obsolete, as they do speak to the notion of goal importance; by informing people about the importance of hand washing, chances that they adopt this as an important behavioural goal may increase. This goal importance may in turn contribute to hand washing behaviour (Deci & Ryan, 2012;Latham & Locke, 1991;Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001;Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), as results from the current study also show. ...
Article
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Objective: Hand washing has been at the core of recommendations and guidelines that aim to curb infectious diseases in general, and COVID-19 in particular. As hand washing comes down to an individual's behaviour, we aimed to study how individual psychological variables influence hand washing over time during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: Over the course of 20 weeks, participants answered questions about their hand washing behaviour, goal importance, habit strength and self-control. Participants from an experimental and a control condition completed a baseline and final measurement, and the experimental condition was invited to bi-weekly measurements through reminders. Main outcome measure: Hand washing behaviour over the past 14 days was assessed by self-report at baseline and final measurement, and additionally repeatedly over the course of 20 weeks in the experimental condition. Results: Hand washing behaviour decreased over time, but this decrease was buffered by habit strength and goal importance. The decrease was smaller in the experimental condition that received reminders every 2 weeks. Conclusion: Sending personal reminders on hand washing behaviour contributes to hand washing behaviour. Moreover, taking habit strength and goal importance, and to a lesser extent self-control into account is important when designing interventions to promote hand washing behaviour.
... For our study, we chose 'thinking about positive experiences' (Layous & Lyubomirsky, 2014;Seear & Vella-Brodrick, 2013) and 'identifying personal strengths' (see Seligman et al., 2005). Volitional activities like trying to reach one's goals (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001) have their basis in motivation science and comprise the third category. Such activities are predominantly motivational in nature, asking individuals to think in a certain way but can also have behavioural aspects. ...
... In a similar way to their intervention, we argue that the combination of mindfulness and positive activities helps to raise awareness about situations in which expectations of positive outcomes have been met in the past and prime beliefs about one's own capability and expectation of achieving one's work-related goals (Clauss et al., 2018). Two positive activities that will be used in the intervention directly address the two components of hope, for example 'imagining one's best future self' (Seear & Vella-Brodrick, 2013) or 'trying to reach one's goals' (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). Thus, we expect that the intervention activities will build hope. ...
Article
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Positive psychology research is increasingly being transferred to organizational contexts and organizations are increasingly striving for healthier and more motivated employees. In this study, a three-week self-instructed online-intervention which combines positive activities and mindfulness was developed and evaluated using a randomized-controlled group design with employees. All exercises could be easily integrated into the daily working routine. The intervention is based on broaden-and-build theory, the two-component model of mindfulness and the positive-activity model. Results indicate that the intervention is effective in increasing work engagement, hope and sleep quality as well as in reducing fatigue in the experimental group compared to a waitlist control. Practical implications for human resource departments and corporate health management are discussed.
... This implies that goals that are autonomously chosen and meaningful rather than simply interesting will have a greater impact on SWB. In line with this, Sheldon has consistently replicated results showing that goals have stronger effects on wellbeing when they are selfconcordant (Sheldon and Kasser 1995;Elliot 1998, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon 2002). ...
Book
The study of “subjective wellbeing” has seen explosive growth in recent decades, opening important new discourses in personality and social psychology, happiness economics, and moral philosophy. Now it is moving into the policy domain. In this it has arguably overstepped its limits. The shallow theoretical base of subjective wellbeing research, the limitations of its measurement instruments, and its ethical naivety make policymaking on the basis of its findings a risky venture. The present volume is an attempt to shore up these weaknesses and set subjective wellbeing scholarship on a course for several more decades of growth and maturation. It presents a theory of subjective wellbeing in two parts. The first is the subjective wellbeing production function—a model of wellbeing as outcome. The second is the coalescence of being—a model of the self-actualization process by which wellbeing is achieved. This two-part model integrates ideas from subjective wellbeing studies with complementary ideas in analytical and continental philosophy, clinical, moral, and developmental psychology, and welfare economics. Importantly, this theory is ethically sensitive, bridging the gap between the philosophical and psychological perspectives on wellbeing in a way that illuminates the complexities facing the application of subjective wellbeing in public policy. The book also provides a thorough review of various ways in which subjective wellbeing can be studied empirically, and the hard trade-offs we face between long surveys that capture the richness of the concept and the parsimony required by social surveys and policy analysis.
... This implies that goals that are autonomously chosen and meaningful rather than simply interesting will have a greater impact on SWB. In line with this, Sheldon has consistently replicated results showing that goals have stronger effects on wellbeing when they are selfconcordant (Sheldon and Kasser 1995;Elliot 1998, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon 2002). ...
Chapter
How do you measure a construct as complex as subjective wellbeing? The first part of this chapter reviews the many tools available for measuring each dimension of the construct, as well as the well-being profile—a new measure that holds some promise for capturing subjective wellbeing holistically in only fifteen questions. The second part of the chapter then explains why even fifteen questions is likely too long for many applications in policy and social science. Life satisfaction scales hold a great deal of promise as a unidimensional and sufficiently cardinal measure of subjective wellbeing for these applications. However, there are several concerns about these scales, notably inconsistent scale use across respondents or within respondents over time, that need to be investigated more thoroughly. The chapter provides a conceptual analysis of these concerns and uses them to differentiate adaptation, scale-norming, and reference point shifts.
... From the perspective of SDT, authentic behaviors help to satisfy one's basic needs (Deci & Ryan, 1985;. Work by Sheldon and colleagues verifies that working towards more authentic goals is associated with well-being and goal attainment (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999;Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001;Sheldon et al., 1997), and a study by White and Tracey (2011) suggests that authenticity is related to confidence in career choices. Psychotherapy research connects patient ratings of their sense that the therapist is being genuine with treatment outcomes (Eugster & Wampold, 1996;Gelso, 2009;Marmarosh et al., 2009) perhaps in part because therapist self-disclosure helps clients see their therapists as more human (Knox et al., 1997). ...
Article
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We established realness as the relatively stable tendency to act on the outside the way one feels on the inside, without regard for proximal personal or social consequences. In nine studies, we showed that realness is a) a core feature of individual differences in authenticity, b) generally adaptive but largely unrelated to agreeableness, c) highly stable, d) reliably observable in dyadic behavior, and e) predictive of responses to situations with potential for personal or social costs. Informants both perceive agreeable motives in real behavior and recognize that being real can be disagreeable. We concluded that realness represents an important individual difference construct that is foundational for authentic social behavior, and that being real comes with both costs and benefits.
... In turn, such context-specific expressions of psychological well-being are likely to feed back to and facilitate progress toward the maturing enacted vision, accelerating the development of the startup toward final establishment of the business. Increasing experiences of self-acceptance (positive self-evaluation), purpose, growth, autonomy, environmental mastery, and positive relations to others have all been shown to have strong effects on people's capacity to block out distractions during goal pursuit, which makes successful completion of the task more likely Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). Thus, expressions of EPWB arising from the very process of engagement intrinsically support the actualization of implementation plans and help shield the entrepreneur against disturbances along the way to venture establishment. ...
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As a self-organizing act, entrepreneurship is a significant feature of and force within modern life that is intimately related to individuals' growth, development, and well-being. We present a dynamic perspective on entrepreneurship and eudaimonic well-being, anchored in philosophical and psychological views on the essence of well-being as well as the essence of entrepreneurship as a value-driven form of agency. Drawing on the action-phase model, which we adapt to the venture creation phases of deliberation, planning, implementation, and reflection, key propositions are developed regarding how, and under what conditions, core aspects of psychological well-being come into play along the enterprising process.
... For entrepreneurs, subjective well-being is indeed tied to business outcomes (Sherman et al. 2016). In addition, some studies have examined the relationship between goal attainment and subjective well-being in the literature on psychology (e.g., Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon et al. 2002). It is thought that individuals who successfully pursue their goals experience a higher level of subjective well-being (Klug and Maier 2015). ...
Article
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This study investigates the relationship between entrepreneurial experience and subjective well-being. Using an original survey on subjective well-being, entrepreneurial experience, level of wealth (inferred from observed variables of income, cash, and assets), and personal attributes of 10,001 individuals in Japan, we examine the factors that mediate the association between entrepreneurial experience and subjective well-being. We measure entrepreneurial experience as an individual’s experience in funding, owning, and running a corporation. We consider the mediating effect of the level of wealth on subjective well-being because entrepreneurial well-being is associate with wealth derived from income, cash, and assets. Our results provide no significant evidence that individuals with entrepreneurial experience have higher subjective well-being. However, we find a positive indirect effect of entrepreneurial experience on subjective well-being through wealth and a negative indirect effect through debt. The findings of this study indicate the importance of considering the mediating effect of financial motives in entrepreneurial well-being.
... However, authentic leadership trickle-down has only so far shown that a departmental authentic leader can affect team authentic leadership, leading to an increase in leadermember exchange via an intra-team trust and self-concordance (Hirst et al., 2016). Nonetheless, self-concordance is the extent where an individual is willing to pursue a goal that is consistent with their value and beliefs (Sheldon and Elliot, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko, 2001). More often, enacting personal values and beliefs are associated with the perception of own role responsibilities, believing in its importance (Shamir and Eilam, 2005). ...
Article
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The importance of value-based leadership such as authentic, ethical, and servant leadership is inconspicuous. However, the benefits of these leadership approaches are often only explained through the behaviors of their followers. As such, limited research has communicated the leader’s motivation for pursuing such leadership behavior, resulting in such discourse to escape theorizing. We draw upon role theory and paid attention to the role of higher-level management (leadership) through the trickle-down model to underline their importance in the organization. We then expand this role theory framework by synthesizing research to explain the emergence of value-based leadership behavior at the frontline of management. In doing so, we aim to provide a stronger explanation of the emergence of value-based leadership in organizations. We conclude this analysis by guiding future research in the form of propositions to investigate the psychological process and organizational factors to empirically examine the proposed role framework.
... Self-concordance describes the extent to which the behavioral intention is self-determined. This concept extends SDT by "focusing on people's broad personal goal statements, rather than focusing on domain-specific motivations and situational factors that can influence it" [53] (p. 152). ...
Article
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Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), augmented by the concept of self-concordance (derived from self-determination theory, SDT), we conducted a study to identify the key determinants of physical activity in older adults. We applied structural equation modeling of telephone survey data from a random sample of adults aged 65 years and older living in Germany (N = 865). Relations of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) with intention strength and self-concordance of intention to be physically active were tested. Habit strength was analyzed as a moderator. Data analysis showed this model to be well-suited for explaining the intention to be physically active—especially for people with a weak habit. The influence of TPB components on intention would have been underestimated if we had investigated intention strength only, without considering the self-concordance of intention. While attitude and PBC had positive relations with a strong and self-determined intention, the subjective norm showed no relation with intention strength but, rather, with non-self-determined regulation forms. We conclude that the combined model provides a better theoretical foundation from which to explain physical activity intentions than does just one of the theories.
... W zakresie realizowanych interwencji znalazły się takie działania jak spacery, jogging, pływanie, gimnastyka poranna, joga, siłownia, aerobik, a także zmiany w obszarze nawyków żywieniowych, na przykład postanowienia o wypijaniu większej ilości wody, zjadaniu dodatkowej porcji owoców czy warzyw. Uzyskane wyniki są zgodne z wynikami badań prowadzonych w obszarze relacji dobrostanu z aktywnością celową (Csíkszentmihályi, 1997(Csíkszentmihályi, , 1999Hassmén, Koivula, Uutela, 2000;Hills, Argyle, 1998;Kasser, 2004;Łaguna, 2010;Mudyń, Maciuszek, 2010;Seligman, 2005Seligman, , 2011Sheldon, Houser-Marko, 2001;Skarżyńska, 2003Skarżyńska, , 2004Zaleski, 1991). ...
... External motivation is solely influenced by external factors, such as environmental pressure or monetary rewards. Due to the different degrees of internalization, the self-concordance is lowest when based on external motivation and highest when based on identified and intrinsic motivation (Deci and Ryan 1985;Sheldon and Elliot 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001). ...
Article
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Many regions around the world are experiencing an increase in climate-related shocks, such as drought. This poses serious threats to farming activities and has major implications for sustaining rural livelihoods and food security. Farmers’ ability to respond to and withstand the increasing incidence of drought events needs to be strengthened and their resilience enhanced. Implementation of measures to enhance resilience is determined by decisions of farmers and it is important to understand the reasons behind their behavior. We assessed the viability of measures to enhance resilience of farmers to drought, by developing a general framework that covers economic-technical and psychological-cognitive aspects, here summarized under the terms (1) motivation and (2) feasibility. The conceptual framework was applied to cocoa farmers in Ghana and tef farmers in Ethiopia by using questionnaire-based surveys. A portfolio of five specific measures to build resilience (i.e., irrigation, shade trees, fire belts, bookkeeping, mulching, early mature varieties, weather forecast, reduced tillage, improved harvesting) in each country was evaluated with a closed-ended questionnaire that covered the various aspects of motivation and feasibility whereby farmers were asked to (dis)agree on a 5-point Likert scale. The results show that if the motivation mean score is increased by 0.1 units, the probability of implementation increases by 16.9% in Ghana and by 7.7% in Ethiopia. If the feasibility mean score is increased by 0.1 units, the probability of implementation increases by 24.9% in Ghana and by 11.9% in Ethiopia. We can conclude that motivation and feasibility matter, and we improve our understanding of measure implementation if we include both feasibility and motivation into viability assessments.
... More specifically, self-concordance considers the extent to which goals are aligned with an individual's needs, values, and interests (Sheldon, 2002). Concordant goals thus lend support for psychological need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competency, relatedness), which in turn facilitates commitment and boosts well-being as goals are achieved (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). ...
Article
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This article proposes an integrative model for the psychological resources of grit. The growing body of work in nursing on the topic of grit indicates considerable interest in achieving long-term goals, especially amidst uncertainty from the COVID-19 pandemic. Motivational behaviors are thought to influence engagement in continuing education in nursing, thereby improving clinical practice and patient outcomes. The model was informed by a comprehensive review of the literature. Sixteen attributes for acquiring and strengthening four psychological resources of grit were identified. Each attribute is discussed along with interrelationships and implications for professional nursing development. Given the complex demands placed on health professionals, this model is both timely and relevant for all nurse and education providers interested in enhancing personal characteristics that may mitigate against stress and build capabilities for goal achievement.
... Self-concordance theory suggests that when people select goals that reflect their personal interest, natural tendencies, or core values, their effort to achieve these goals will be more effective and sustained [40], compared to goals which are motivated by external pressures, as these are driven by introjected guilt or external compulsion [42]. Hence an individual desire to 'save the planet' based on personal principles should materialise into more sustained proenvironmental behaviour compared to obliging proenvironmental behaviour due to the requests from authorities. ...
Article
Abstract: Background: Plastic waste is a major societal and environmental issue contributing to climate change as well as affecting the health of humans and animals across the globe. Tackling plastic pollution requires dramatic change from everyone because one of the key factors contributing to the amount of plastic waste is consumer behaviour. Objective: The aim of this research is to test the predictive power of the goal-striving reasons framework for plastic waste behaviour of UK households to analyse whether the reasons why people voluntarily engage in plastic reducing actions can predict plastic consumption of households. Method: The predictive power of the goal-striving reasons framework was tested by correlating the overall goalstriving reasons index and, each goal of the six goal-striving reasons individually, with i) a newly developed self-report measure of plastic consumption and; ii) with an objective measure of plastic waste. The objective measure required households to count their plastic waste for three consecutive weeks. The study is based on N = 66 households in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. Results: Findings suggest that the approach goal-striving reasons of pleasure, altruism and positive consequences are related to self-reported plastic waste whereas the two avoidance reasons of not wanting to feel bad about oneself or to avoid any negative consequences are related to objective plastic waste. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlight the relevance of the goal-striving reasons framework as an important concept for the prediction of plastic waste behaviour of individuals, and as a potential tool for facilitating change behaviour in household plastic waste consumption.
... emotions (Schwartz, 2007), emotional feedback is believed to be an effective mechanism to do so. (Smith et al., 2011), sustained effort (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999;Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001), easiness and naturalness of goals (Werner et al., 2016) goal progress (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), reduced intention-behavior gap (Sheeran et al., 1999;Sheeran, 2002) as well as in relation to health variables such as psychological needs satisfaction (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), psychological well-being (Sheldon & Kasser, 1995), and subjective well-being (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999;Smith et al., 2011). ) (see Collins et al., 2005, p Butenko, 2014). ...
Thesis
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Various studies identify self-regulation as being particularly challenging for entrepreneurs, who often have to lead themselves independently. If they use dysfunctional self-regulatory processes, they are exposed and rather unprotected to the high working demands of new venture creation. Not only does it imply negative consequences on the individual level, but also on the collective level, as entrepreneurs are recognized as engines for economic growth and ecologically sustainable development. Despite their need for guidance on healthy and effective self-regulation, relevant research is sparse and fragmented. This dissertation is intended to address the need for guidance on healthy and effective self-regulation for entrepreneurs. In the first two studies, a causal model of healthy and effective self-regulation that can be applied in the context of entrepreneurship has been empirically developed and tested. The work is based on a meta-theory of human motivation, called self-determination theory (SDT), which focuses on selfregulation. Structural equation modeling has been applied based on cross-sectional quantitative data (N=1,024). The results indicate that mindfulness, clarity about personal values, intrinsic values orientation, and autonomy of goals are potential psychological constructs to foster, in case healthy and effective self-regulation of individuals is intended. In the second study, a causal model as a knowledge base has been applied to empirically develop and test two interventions that foster the four psychological constructs in aspiring and practicing entrepreneurs. Both interventions are conducted as non-controlled field experiments with post-measurement in the form of two iterations (N1 = 55; N2 = 13) of the design science research approach. The first intervention is a self-assessment and action plan, called the Values Finder. The second intervention is a four-hour workshop block on personality development called Core Values Workshop. It is empirically validated that both interventions can be described as functional, efficient, and usable in the scope of the ISO evaluation standard 9126. Thus, they can be used as cutting-edge interventions to leverage entrepreneurs’ self-regulation, triggering positive individual and collective effects.
... This implies that goals that are autonomously chosen and meaningful rather than simply interesting will have a greater impact on SWB. In line with this, Sheldon has consistently replicated results showing that goals have stronger effects on wellbeing when they are selfconcordant (Sheldon and Kasser 1995;Elliot 1998, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon 2002). ...
Chapter
The study of subjective wellbeing is dominated by two traditions: the psychological and philosophical. If the psychological is deficient, it makes sense to look for solutions in the philosophical. As such, this chapter begins with a thorough but not exhaustive review of the principal philosophical theories of wellbeing: mental state, objective list, preference satisfaction, eudaimonic, and subjectivist. As philosophers are predominantly concerned with the evaluative character of wellbeing, a key benefit of this exercise is that it sensitizes us to the complex value judgments that must be made when defining wellbeing. However, the philosophical tradition has its own problems. In particular, its tendency to delineate and classify has led it to overlook complementarities and overlaps between supposedly competing theories. And its disinterest in “applied” questions has left the practical issue of how you get wellbeing largely investigated, despite the insights it provides regarding what wellbeing is.
... This implies that goals that are autonomously chosen and meaningful rather than simply interesting will have a greater impact on SWB. In line with this, Sheldon has consistently replicated results showing that goals have stronger effects on wellbeing when they are selfconcordant (Sheldon and Kasser 1995;Elliot 1998, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon 2002). ...
Chapter
The study of subjective wellbeing has grown substantially in recent decades and is now seeking to influence public policy. The complexities of this new application have revealed weaknesses in the foundations of the field. Its operationalist epistemology was appropriate given its historical context, but undermines its ability to explain the mechanisms by which policy can improve subjective wellbeing. Likewise, the field’s deliberate avoidance of the evaluative element of “wellbeing”—what is “good for” somebody—leaves it poorly equipped to engage with the ethical and political complexities of policymaking. The present volume provides the theoretical depth that the field of subjective wellbeing is lacking by integrating psychological, philosophical, economic, and political perspectives on wellbeing. The end result is a rich and ethically sensitive theory of subjective wellbeing that can underpin scholarly research, inform therapy and self-help, and guide wellbeing public policy
... Happiness itself is considered to be a source of inspiration because it is about the experience we go through when we climb towards the peak of our goals. Inspiration coincides with happiness here, since it helps in building the self-realisation of abilities and thus enables us to take accurate decisions (Sheldon & Houser-Marco, 2001). ...
Book
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The economy has shifted so quickly, since the early 80’s of the last century, from being an Industrial Economy towards an Information Economy, then more quickly by the early 90’s towards being more of a Knowledge-Based Economy. Today many scholars are talking about a Learning Economy and an Innovation-driven Economy (Lundvall, 1996). Even though many under-developed and developing world countries are still far behind in these concepts of economies; most of the developed, semi-developed and emerging economies are picking up practices that lead to the enhancement of the knowledge-based economy. This can be clearly seen in the type of turnovers of publication activities, the development from infrastructure or growth scales in the international indicators towards more innovation scales.The scale of learning and innovation even suggests that we are going to move towards a Learning Economy or an Innovation Economy soon. However, close observation teaches us that parallel to this we are having an emerging economy that would move without territory and would depend on discovering the potential of human beings' abilities. This economy can be called Inspiration Economy. The Inspiration Economy one could say is a mix of many things that lead to inspiration practices that motivate the spirit of inspiration in socio-economic development. These mixed practices can be like entrepreneur-ship, innovation, risk-taking, opportunity-seeking/creating; along with a focused and change-driven mindset. It is a type of economy that would be based on our societies and organisations’ abilities to discover the potential and the capacities of human beings and thus capitalize on it through inspiration. In this book, we will explore all the constructs of an inspiration based economy and the relevant challenges and practices.
... İş hakkındaki süreçlere ve işin bütün yönlerine hâkim olma veya iş görenin karar alması konusunda hoşgörülü ve serbest bırakılması bahsi geçen özerklik konusuna örnek olabilir (Kale, 2013). Çalışanlar ilgi ve değerleriyle örtüşen hedeflerle karşılaştıkları zaman bu hedeflere ulaşabilmek için daha fazla çaba sarf etmektedirler (Sheldon ve Houser, 2001). ...
Conference Paper
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Bu çalışmanın nihai amacı, destinasyon kişiliği hakkındaki olumlu algının meydana gelebilmesi için gerekli olan, misafir memnuniyeti ve yüksek hizmet kalitesinin gerçekleşmesinde destinasyon çalışanlarının öz uyum içerisinde çalışmalarının rolüne ışık tutmaktır. Çalışanların kendi değerleriyle örtüşen, kendilerini bağdaştırabildikleri ve ait hissettikleri iş ortamlarında bulunması çalışan öz uyumunun gerçekleşmesine yardımcı olacaktır. Öz uyum sonucunda ise bulundukları iş örgütlerine kendilerini ait hisseden çalışanlar görevlerini; verimli, güler yüzlü ve özverili bir şekilde yerine getirebilmek için çaba göstereceklerdir. Verimli çalışma, özveri, göreve saygı ve güler yüz ise beraberinde kaliteli hizmet getirecektir. Destinasyon kişilik özelliklerinde kaliteli hizmet algısı bulunan bir destinasyon ise istediği ziyaretçi sayısına ulaşmada zorluk çekmeyecektir. Destinasyon kişiliğini ön plana çıkarmak için, farklılaştırma önemli bir husustur. Ziyaretçilere memnun kalabilecekleri deneyimler yaşatmayı bir farklılık unsuru olarak kullanmak isteyen destinasyonlar için, çalışanların öz uyum içerisinde hareket etmesi vazgeçilmez bir unsur olarak göze çarpmaktadır. Çalışmanın giriş kısmında turizm endüstrisinin destinasyon kişiliği ve çalışanların öz uyum modeliyle ilişkisine değinilmiştir. Birinci bölümde öz uyum modeli ve destinasyon kişiliği kavramlarının tanımları yapılmış ayrıca bu kavramların gelişim süreçlerine değinilmiştir. Birinci bölümün sonunda tartışma ve ilişkilendirme başlığı altında literatürden elde edilen bilgilerle kavramlar ilişkilendirilerek anlatılmış ve iki kavramı birbiriyle ilişkilendirmiş çalışmaların durumundan bahsedilmiştir. İkinci bölümde ise Yüksek Öğretim Kurumu Tez Arşivi'nde yer alan öz uyum modeli ve destinasyon kişiliği alanında yazılmış tezlerin sistematik derlemesi yapılmıştır. Önceden belirlenmiş kıstaslar aracılığıyla sınıflandırmaya tabi tutulan 16 adet tezin 3 adedi öz uyum modeli alanında ve 13 adedi destinasyon kişiliği alanında yazılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgular öz uyum ile ilgili bir doktora tezinin henüz yazılmadığını fakat destinasyon kişiliği konusunda 6 adet doktora tezinin yazıldığını göstermektedir. Sonuç olarak Yüksek Öğretim Kurumu Tez Arşivi'nde yer alan çalışmalar itibariyle iki kavramın birbirleri arasındaki ilişkiden bahsetmek pek mümkün görülmemektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Öz Uyum, Çalışanların Öz Uyumu, Destinasyon Kişilği THE EFFECTS OF TOURISM EMPLOYEES' SELF COMPLIANCE ON DESTINATION PERSONALITY AND A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THESES ON THESE CONCEPTS Abstarct The ultimate aim of this study is to spot light on the important role of the employees of in self-compliance in order to achieve a positive perception about the destination personality, in the realization of guest satisfaction and high service quality. Employees working in business environments that overlap with their own values, where they can reconcile and feel belong to will help realize their own harmony. As a result of self compliance, employees who feel that they belong to their business organizations will endeavor to fulfill their duties in an efficient, friendly and selfless manner. Efficient work, dedication, respect for the task and smiling face will bring service quality. As a feature, a destination with service quality will not have difficulty in reaching the desired number of visitors. Differentiation emerges as an important factor to highlight the destination personality. For destinations that want to use the satisfaction of visitors as a factor of difference, it is an indispensable element that employees act in self compliance. In the introduction part of the study, the relationship between the destination personality of the tourism industry and the self-adaptation model of the employees is mentioned. In the first chapter, the definitions of the concepts of self-adaptation and destination personality are made and the development processes of these concepts are mentioned. At the end of the first chapter, under the title of discussion and association, the information obtained from the literature and the concepts are explained by associating them, and the situation of the studies that associate the two concepts with each other is mentioned. In the second part, a systematic review of the thesis, which written in the field of selfadaptation model and destination personality, in the Thesis Archive of the Turkish Supreme Board of Higher Education Higher Education was made. Of the 16 theses, which were classified through predetermined criteria, 3 were written on self-adaptation model and 13 were written on destination personality. The findings show that a phd on self-adaptation has not been written yet, but 6 phd thesis on destination personality have been written. As a result, it is not possible to talk about the mutual contrubition between the two concepts in terms of studies which obtained from the Thesis Archive of the Turkish Supreme Board of Higher Education. Keywords: Self compliance, Self compliance of employees, Destination Personality
... This implies that goals that are autonomously chosen and meaningful rather than simply interesting will have a greater impact on SWB. In line with this, Sheldon has consistently replicated results showing that goals have stronger effects on wellbeing when they are selfconcordant (Sheldon and Kasser 1995;Elliot 1998, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon 2002). ...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, to review philosophical arguments against wellbeing theories of the sort I have outlined. This should hopefully sensitize subjective wellbeing scholars to the ethical nuances of applying subjective wellbeing outside the context of academic research. Ethical critiques of subjective wellbeing are especially potent when it is government rather than friends or therapists trying to promote it. This is the second purpose of the chapter: to argue that government should be very cautious about promoting subjective wellbeing directly. They should instead focus on welfare—the options available to citizens. The final part of the chapter discusses ways to begin applying subjective wellbeing in public policy without crossing ethical risky red lines.
... Several research programs also provide evidence to support the argument that congruence between one's implicit and/or internal goals and explicit behaviors is an important cornerstone of well-being (Schultheiss & Brunstein, 1999;Schultheiss, Jones, Davis, & Kley, 2008;Sheldon, 2004Sheldon, , 2014. For example, people who choose goals based on their own internal interests are more likely to achieve those goals (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999;Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001) and show increased levels of happiness (Sheldon & Elliot, 1998;Sheldon & Kasser, 1998). Bailis, Fleming, and Segall (2005) surveyed people when they first joined a gym and found that people who had self-concordant goals were more likely to be members of the gym 2 years later, were less likely to compare themselves to others, and were less negatively influenced by social comparisons. ...
Article
Full-text available
We provide a theoretical framework for what it means to be self-connected and propose that self-connection is an important potential contributor to a person’s well-being. We define self-connection as consisting of three components: 1) an awareness of oneself, 2) an acceptance of oneself based on this awareness, and 3) an alignment of one’s behavior with this awareness. First, we position the concept within the broader self literature and provide the empirical context for our proposed definition of self-connection. We next compare and contrast self-connection to related constructs, including mindfulness and authenticity. Following, we discuss some of the potential relationships between self-connection and various aspects of mental health and well-being. Finally, we provide initial recommendations for future research, including potential ways to promote self-connection. In all, we present this theory to provide researchers with a framework for understanding self-connection so that they can utilize this concept to better support the efforts of researchers and practitioners alike to increase individuals’ well-being in various contexts.
... This implies that goals that are autonomously chosen and meaningful rather than simply interesting will have a greater impact on SWB. In line with this, Sheldon has consistently replicated results showing that goals have stronger effects on wellbeing when they are selfconcordant (Sheldon and Kasser 1995;Elliot 1998, 1999;Sheldon and Houser-Marko 2001;Sheldon 2002). ...
Chapter
While subjective well-being scholarship has its merits, it is not without its weaknesses, and these are the subject of this chapter. While the definition and approach of the field were appropriate in its historical context, they are inappropriate and indeed problematic for applications in public policy. In particular, this chapter demonstrates that the field is naive about the normative implications of “wellbeing” theories and that its measurement instruments lack precision. Both of these faults find their origins in the field’s atheoretic inclinations and operationalist epistemology. It is time to replace this with a more realist epistemology. That requires a thorough theory of subjective wellbeing that engages extensively with normativity, which this book provides.
... The self-concordance model, formulated by Sheldon and Elliot (1999), is an extension of the self-determination theory that defines selfconcordance as the extent or degree to which goals are aligned with intrinsic values or what is meaningful to a person. It refers to the ownership that people have (or do not have) over their goals which are self-chosen (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). Self-concordant goal pursuit and the realization thereof lead to sustained effort with resulting satisfaction, which in turn lead to meaning and well-being (Deci et al., 2017;Feldman et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
Harmony is recognized as fundamental to being and functioning well in philosophical traditions and empirical research globally and in Africa. The aim of this study was to explore and describe harmony as a quality of happiness in South Africa (N = 585) and Ghana (N = 420). Using a qualitative descriptive research design, participants’ responses to an open-ended question from the Eudaimonic-Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI, Delle Fave et al., Soc Indic Res 100:185–207, 2011) on what happiness meant to them were coded according to the formalized EHHI coding manual. Responses that were assigned any of the following codes were considered: codes from the “harmony/balance” category in the “psychological definitions” life domain; and codes from any other life domain containing the words “harmony”, “balance”, or “peace”. This resulted in 222 verbatim responses from South Africa and 80 from Ghana that were analyzed using content analysis to get a sense of the experiential texture of harmony as a quality of happiness. Findings showed that happiness was often expressed as harmony and balance within and between intrapersonal, interpersonal, transcendental, and universal levels of functioning, with wholeness, interconnectedness, and synergy implied. These findings, resonating with philosophical reflections on harmony from Africa and elsewhere, suggest that harmony as a quality of happiness is essentially holistic and contextually embedded and that context-sensitive interdisciplinary approaches to theory building and intervention development pertaining to harmony are needed locally and globally.
... The self-concordance model, formulated by Sheldon and Elliot (1999), is an extension of the self-determination theory that defines selfconcordance as the extent or degree to which goals are aligned with intrinsic values or what is meaningful to a person. It refers to the ownership that people have (or do not have) over their goals which are self-chosen (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). Self-concordant goal pursuit and the realization thereof lead to sustained effort with resulting satisfaction, which in turn lead to meaning and well-being (Deci et al., 2017;Feldman et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
Child marriage has been identified as a violation of human rights and an obstacle to promoting the development goals concerning gender, health and education. All these impacts undermine the development of the girl child. Despite the potential for negative outcomes, the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic resources can buffer the adverse effects (e.g., psychological, physical and economic impact) of early marriage. This study employed a qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore and describe protective resources utilised by married girls in the Northern region of Ghana to cope with the challenges in their marriage and to promote positive outcomes. Using semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 21 married girls who were aged between 12 and 19 years. Findings, from a thematic analysis of data, showed that intrinsic resources that promoted positive outcomes included possession of resilience attitudes, the use of help-seeking and active coping, and in some instances avoidance coping for problems they perceived as unsolvable. Extrinsic resources included interpersonal support networks, however, participants reported limited access to community and NGO support, which were also identified as protective resources. Policy makers and clinicians should consider a social justice approach in evaluating and recommending protective resources to girls in early marriages when working to promote their well-being. In so doing, attention should be placed on making external support systems accessible to married girls.
... The self-concordance model, formulated by Sheldon and Elliot (1999), is an extension of the self-determination theory that defines selfconcordance as the extent or degree to which goals are aligned with intrinsic values or what is meaningful to a person. It refers to the ownership that people have (or do not have) over their goals which are self-chosen (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). Self-concordant goal pursuit and the realization thereof lead to sustained effort with resulting satisfaction, which in turn lead to meaning and well-being (Deci et al., 2017;Feldman et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
Psychology is concerned with human behaviour, therefore all psychologies are contextually-embedded and culturally informed. A movement towards globalising psychology would invariably diminish the localised socio-cultural situatedness of psychology, and instead seek to advance a dominant Euro-American centred psychology even in regions where such applications do not fit. The emergence of strong voices, and theoretically grounded and empirically supported positions from the global South in general and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, in studies of well-being allows for the opportunity to explore and describe an Africa(n) centred positive psychology. Acknowledging the limitations of cross-cultural psychological approaches, which have encouraged the uncritical transportation of Euro-American centred concepts and values, in this chapter we utilise assumptions from critical, cultural and African psychology to present our initial thoughts about a culturally embedded, socially relevant and responsive, and context respecting Africa(n) centred positive psychology. This challenge warrants consideration of early contributions to the study of well-being, its current data-driven positivist tendency, as well as African worldviews grounded in interdependence, collectivism, relatedness, harmony with nature, and spirituality. For an Africa(n) centred positive psychology, it is also essential to consider questions of epistemology, ways of knowing about the world and the human condition, context respecting knowledge, and theory building. Drawing on current scholarly evidence in sub-Saharan Africa, which emphasises relationality and societal values and norms shaping experiences of well-being, we propose future directions and discuss implications for empirical research and theory building within positive psychology which seeks to centre Africa and African experiences.
... The self-concordance model, formulated by Sheldon and Elliot (1999), is an extension of the self-determination theory that defines selfconcordance as the extent or degree to which goals are aligned with intrinsic values or what is meaningful to a person. It refers to the ownership that people have (or do not have) over their goals which are self-chosen (Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). Self-concordant goal pursuit and the realization thereof lead to sustained effort with resulting satisfaction, which in turn lead to meaning and well-being (Deci et al., 2017;Feldman et al., 2018). ...
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Positive mental health, and the validity of its assessment instruments, are largely unexplored in the Ghanaian context. This study examined the factor structure of the Twi version of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form and explored the prevalence of positive mental health in a sample of rural Ghanaian adults (N = 444). A bifactor exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) model fit the data better than competing models (confirmatory factor analysis [CFA], bifactor CFA, and ESEM models). We found a high omega reliability coefficient for the general positive mental health factor (ω = .97) and marginal reliability scores for the emotional (ω = .51) and social well-being (ω = .57) subscales, but a low reliability score for the psychological well-being subscale (ω = .41). Findings support the existence of a general mental health factor, and confirm the underlying three-dimensional structure of mental health, but suggest that caution should be applied when interpreting subscale scores, especially for the psychological well-being subscale. Based on Keyes’s criteria for the categorical diagnosis of the presence of positive mental health, 25.5% of the sample were flourishing, with 74.5% functioning at suboptimal levels (31.1% languishing, 41.4% with moderate mental health) and may benefit from contextually relevant positive psychological interventions, which may also buffer against psychopathology.
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Although temporal conceptualizations of motivational processes have not held center stage in motivation science, the situation is currently changing. Drawing on work in the subfield of language learning motivation, where the motivational endurance needed to master a second language has been a major concern, the aim of this article is to contribute to the body of work currently exploring motivational persistence. After outlining the broader academic context of motivation and time, and describing the disciplinary trajectory of research into language learning motivation, we present two interrelated and multifaceted frameworks that seek to explain long-term motivation and motivational persistence: (a) the notion of a “directed motivational current,” which refers to a period of intense, enduring, and self-sustaining engagement within an activity-sequence, and which is phenomenologically akin to an extended flow experience, and (b) a multicomponent framework of long-term motivation that offers a general account of sustained effort in learning. This framework integrates diverse components, such as self-concordant vision, habitual actions, progress checks, and affirmative feedback, and references a motivational process that is characterized by positive emotional loading and passion, and is supported by self-control capacity and self-regulatory skills.
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Gratitude is an emotion and state of being that recognizes a positive outcome as the result of external factors, thereby prompting internal and external responses of appreciation. As a positive psychology intervention (PPI), gratitude not only encourages positive affect and savoring of positive life experiences, it is associated with a reduction in psychological distress, improved sleep, better relationships, more engagement at work, and fewer physical ailments. In Islam, shukr (gratitude) is a fundamental virtue which, along with sabr (patience), provides a formula for Muslim wellbeing. In this chapter, we review the positive psychology literature on gratitude and define the concept of shukr from an Islamic perspective. We also provide suggestions for increasing gratitude through Islamically-integrated PPIs and discuss how such interventions can provide useful tools for Muslim wellness.
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This first chapter of Part II outlines the key features of Stage 1 and shares a selection of helpful concepts, frameworks, and tools for gaining greater self-insight. Opportunities will be provided for you to have a go at some for yourself. An understanding of how to use this stage to good effect will be gained, providing the basis for Stage 2 and the rest of the model.
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Employees’ willingness to share their knowledge is essential for achieving work goals and can also affect the long-term performance and effectiveness of organizations. This study examines the circumstances in which an employee with a more proactive personality is willing to share knowledge with others. It also investigates two important mechanisms – autonomous and controlled motivation – on the relationship between having a proactive personality and knowledge sharing intention. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) indicate that having a proactive personality fosters knowledge sharing driven by autonomous motivation. Conversely, controlled motivation restrains such knowledge sharing intention. Furthermore, our multi-method techniques also illustrate that autonomous motivation mediates the positive relationship between having a proactive personality and knowledge sharing, whereas controlled motivation negatively mediates it. This study contributes to the hospitality literature by investigating the mechanism underpinning the link between having a proactive personality and knowledge sharing intention, and the mediating role of autonomous and controlled motivation.
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The self-concordance model proposes that the concordance of goals and meaning may be associated with higher levels of well-being. But is this the case for specific life domains such as the interpersonal relationships domain? Are the patterns of goals and meaning alignment the same for different sociodemographic subgroups? As no studies could be sourced on this topic, this study explores these dynamics. Open-ended questions on important goals and meaningful things, a sociodemographic questionnaire, and selected well-being questionnaires were administered to a multicultural South African sample (N = 585) in a convergent parallel mixed methods research design. The content of the qualitative data were coded and converted to quantitative data. Associations between alignment patterns and selected sociodemographic variables were explored via contingency tables and Pearson’s chi-square test. A MANOVA was performed followed by a series of one-way ANOVAs to explore associations between alignment patterns and well-being variables. Alignment patterns were found to be associated with age, gender, level of education, and work status, and the MHC-SF (total score) index of well-being. Despite the statistically significant association of alignment patterns with the MHC-SF, the self-concordance model was not supported in this study with reference to the interpersonal relationships domain, as the both-goal-and-meaning pattern did not reveal a higher level of well-being compared to other patterns as predicted by the self-concordance model.
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Despite the demonstrated success of Positive Psychology Coaching (PPC) in the workplace, constraints frequently result in it concluding before all goals have been achieved and consolidated. PPC frequently identifies other issues in the workplace that the coachee now recognises need to be attended to for long-term success. This chapter outlines the processes, principles and strategies involved in the consolidation, maintenance and extension of gains, and the means by which a continued work or life improvement plan may be developed and implemented. Topics covered include reviewing the formulation and strategies implemented, assessing progress, identifying remaining work and other obstacles, the identification of personal vulnerabilities, self-monitoring of red flags, identifying problematic situations and decisive moments, access to booster sessions and external resources such as other PPC techniques, professional and social support, coping with future challenges and setbacks, capitalising on strengths, and the formation of self-enhancing and self-sustaining habits.
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Introduction Initiation onto haemodialysis is a critical transition that entails multiple psychosocial and behavioural demands that can compound mental health burden. Interventions guided by self-management and cognitive–behavioural therapy to improve distress have been variably effective yet are resource-intensive or delivered reactively. Interventions with a focus on positive affect for patients with end-stage kidney disease are lacking. This study will seek (1) to develop a positive life skills intervention (HED-Start) combining evidence and stakeholder/user involvement and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of HED-Start to facilitate positive life skills acquisition and improve symptoms of distress and adjustment in incident haemodialysis patients. Methods and analysis This is a single/assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare HED-Start to usual care. In designing HED-Start, semistructured interviews, a codesign workshop and an internal pilot will be undertaken, followed by a two-arm parallel RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of HED-Start. A total of 148 incident HD patients will be randomised using a 1:2 ratio into usual care versus HED-Start to be delivered in groups by trained facilitators between January 2021 and September 2022. Anxiety and depression will be the primary outcomes; secondary outcomes will be positive and negative affect, quality of life, illness perceptions, self-efficacy, self-management skills, benefit finding and resilience. Assessments will be taken at 2 weeks prerandomisation (baseline) and 3 months postrandomisation (2 weeks post-HED-Start completion). Primary analyses will use an intention-to-treat approach and compare changes in outcomes from baseline to follow-up relative to the control group using mixed-effect models. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from Nanyang Technological University Institutional Review Board (IRB-2019-01-010). Written informed consent will be obtained before any research activities. Trial results will be disseminated via publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations and will inform revision(s) in renal health services to support the transition of new patients to haemodialysis. Trial registration number NCT04774770 .
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This study examined the mediating effect of self-regulation on the relationship between impulsivity and academic procrastination in order to understand the psychological mechanisms of academic procrastination that impede the mental health and academic adjustment of college students. For this purpose, a questionnaire consisting of the Barratt impulsivity scale-11(BIS-11), the Korean version of Brief Self-Control Scale(BSCS), and Aitken'sv Procrastination Inventory(API) was conducted on 430 university students in Seoul, and correlation and mediating effects were analyzed. As a result of the analysis, there was a significant positive correlation between impulsivity and academic procrastination, and a significant negative correlation between impulsivity and self-regulation, self-regulation and academic procrastination. Additionally, self-regulation was found to partially mediate the relationship between impulsivity and academic procrastination. That is, college students with high temperamental impulsivity have lower self-regulation, which may worsen academic procrastination. Finally, theoretical and clinical implications and limitations of this stu
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The increased attention on happiness since the 1960s has been spreading simultaneously in both the practical and academic dimensions, which can be called the beyond GDP movement. Why such changes? In practice, as nations are experiencing social instability and polarization, the limits of a growth-centric state and welfare state are becoming clearer, and nations are trying to think about national development in new ways. In academia, the Easterlin paradox which negates the relation between income and happiness became a meaningful triggering point for new interest in happiness. As such, the twenty-first century has become the age of happiness. This change can be interpreted as a new interest in public happiness that goes beyond personal happiness to a national or collective level of concern in its members’ happiness. In the following, the current trends of interest in happiness are examined by dividing them into practical and academic areas.
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Background and Objectives: Loss of social connections in the community is a common consequence of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting in reduced well-being and quality of life. M-ComConnect is an individualized multi-component community connection intervention with the key objectives of increasing social activity, developing social relationships, and supporting community participation following severe TBI. As part of the M-ComConnect approach, semi-structured initial interviews were conducted to develop a holistic understanding of each participant and their goal focus for the project. In this paper we describe how clinicians worked with participants to identify a desired community-based social activity in which to participate. Method: Transcripts of initial interviews between participant and clinician were analyzed using the phases of reflexive thematic analysis developed by Braun and Clarke. Participants were ten individuals aged between 24 and 75 with severe TBI. All were living in the community and reported reduced social connections since their TBI. The aim of the analysis was to evaluate the skills and strategies used by clinicians in their interactions with participants to derive goal focus for the program. Results: Thematic analysis of initial interview data revealed three main categories and fourteen sub-categories of clinical strategies. These were: (1) Humanizing (curiosity; demonstrating respect and empathy; providing compliments and affirmations; simple reflections; revealing aspects of self; and humor and laughter), (2) Empowering (emphasizing choice and control; highlighting strengths; identifying roadblocks and reframing to reveal opportunities; and collaborative problem solving), and (3) Focusing (making suggestions; identifying preferences; working with ideas; and negotiating). These strategies aligned with the program's relational approach and supported the core processes of the goal-focussing framework, namely understanding and connecting with you, building a relationship , and working together with you to find focus . Conclusion: The goal-focusing framework and clinical strategies outlined provide guidance for clinicians working with people with TBI in the community and is a promising way to engage clients when focusing on individualized social activity-based goals.
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The aim of the present research was to study the relationship between self-control capacity, and self-regulation with happiness. The statistical population consisted of all students of Guilan University in the 2011-2012 academic year, which among them a sample of 187 students were selected by random cluster sampling method and they completed emotional self-regulation strategies questionnaire (Salehi Morkani,1385), Tangney’s self-control scale (2004), and Oxford happiness scale (Argyle, 1989). The results showed there were significant positive correlations between happiness total score and subscale of positive experience and positive sensation with self-control capacity and self-regulation strategies (consist of cognitive, behavioral and, focusing on change affect and increasing positive affect). Results of regression analysis revealed that self-control capacity and increasing positive affects can explain 17 percent of the variance of students’ happiness. There were significant differences between happiness and it’s subscales in married and unmarried students. According to these results using self-control and self-regulation can leads to happiness.
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Purpose Little is known about how individual differences play out in the process of authentic self-development (ASD) through workplace coaching. This article explores whether the Big Five personality traits and affective, behavioral, cognitive and desire (ABCDs) components of the Big Five personality traits were relevant to ASD, specifically examining the role of affect as a potential mediator. Design/methodology/approach In total, 176 clients' personality was assessed pre-coaching. Aspects of ASD (perceived competence, goal commitment, self-concordance and goal stability) were assessed post-coaching. Clients' affect balance (AB) scores were obtained post-session. Findings Multilevel path models showed that higher levels of mean AB (but not the slope) mediated the associations between personality and perceived competence and goal commitment. Personality predicted goal self-concordance, but these effects were not mediated by AB, neither personality nor AB predicted goal stability. Research limitations/implications The authors encourage randomized controlled trials to further test findings of this study. Ruling out method variance is not possible completely. However, the authors put forth considerations to support the authors' claim that method variance did not overly influence our results. Practical implications These results suggest the necessity of an optimal experience of affect for ASD in workplace coaching and the understanding of how ABCDs, AB and ASD are related beyond coaching psychology. Social implications A deeper understanding of personality processes is important for fostering ASD to meet the challenges of management development in the authors' volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA) world. Originality/value This is the first study to test personality as a process in workplace coaching linking personality to one of the most valued leadership skills: authenticity.
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