European and American minks (Mustela lutreola and Neovison vison, respectively) are very similar in their ecology, behavior, and morphology. However, the American mink is a generalist predator and seems to adapt better to anthropized environments, allowing it to outcompete the European mink in areas where it has been introduced, threatening the survival of the native species. To assess whether morphological differences may be contributing to the success of the American mink relative to the European mink, we analyzed shape variation in the cranium of both species using 3D geometric morphometrics. A set of 38 landmarks and 107 semilandmarks was used to study shape variation between and within species, and to assess how differences in size factored into that variation. Sexual dimorphism in both size and shape was also studied. Significant differences between species were found in cranial shape, but not in size. Relative to American mink, European mink have a shorter facial region with a rounder forehead and wider orbits, a longer neurocranium with less developed crests and processes, and an antero‐medially placed tympanic bullae with an anteriorly expanded cranial border. Within species, size‐related sexual dimorphism is highly significant, but sexual dimorphism in shape is only significant in American mink, not in European mink. Additionally, two trends common to both species were discovered, one related to allometric changes and another to sexual size dimorphism. Shape changes related to increasing size can be subdivided into two, probably related, groups: increased muscle force and growth. The first group somewhat parallels the differences between both mink species, while the second group of traits includes an anterodorsal expansion of the face, and the neurocranium shifting from a globous shape in small individuals to a dorsoventrally flattened ellipse in the largest ones. Finally, the sexual dimorphism trend, while also accounting for differences in muscle force, seems to be related to the observed dietary differences between males and females. Overall, differences between species and sexes, and shape changes with increasing size, seem to mainly relate to differences in masticatory‐muscle volume and therefore muscle force and bite force, which, in turn, relate to a wider range of potential prey (bigger prey, tougher shells). Thus, muscle force (and dietary range) would be larger in American mink than in European mink, in males than in females, and in larger individuals than in smaller ones. Cranial shape and size variation in European (Mlu) and American minks (Nvi) were studied. Both species differed in shape but not size, while sexes within each differed in size but in shape only for Nvi. Allometric shape changes were related to growth and sexual dimorphism. Overall, differences among species, sexes, and sizes related to masticatory‐muscle volume, which suggests that muscle force (and dietary range) would be larger in Nvi than in Mlu, in males than in females, and in larger mink.