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The relationship between geography and the creation, use, and reproduction of knowledge has been at the core of this book series. The previous twelve volumes have focused, among other topics, on the role that creativity, culture, power, networks, science and universities have in cultivating an understanding of how the social process of knowing unfolds in space. They all draw attention to ways in which this process is situated in places and how learning connects people across places. Centering on institutions, volume 13 presents yet another perspective on the spatiality of human knowledge. Across the social sciences scholars have been attributing to institutions a major part in social, political, cultural, and economic development. Although there is agreement on the importance of institutions, there are several understandings of what institutions are and how they influence social life. The purpose of this volume is to examine a rather neglected and only recently acknowledged dimension in institutional theory: the spatiality of institutions, the spatiotemporal dynamics of institutional change, and the role of institutions in the creation and reproduction of knowledge and related social outcomes in bounded territories.
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... The "spatial turn" in organization studies (Dale & Burrell, 2008;Elsbach & Pratt, 2007) is particularly relevant to understanding the dynamics of institutional work (Glückler et al., 2018), that is, how actors purposefully drag institutions in differing directions (Hampel, Lawrence & Tracey, 2015). Institutions are "enduring elements in social life" which "have a profound effect on the thoughts, feelings and behaviour of individual and collective actors" (Lawrence & Suddaby 2006: 216). ...
... We combine recent discussions about the relationship between space and organizations (cf. Taylor & Spicer, 2007;Dale & Burell, 2008;Weinfurtner & Seidl, 2018) and space and institutions (Glückler et al., 2018) with the classical work of philosopher and sociologist Henry Lefebvre (1947Lefebvre ( /1991. ...
... 6 2011), overlooking those mechanisms through which boundaries are reconstructed or reconstituted after an exogenous shock (Suddaby et al., 2016). Material boundaries (Lawrence et al., 2013;Jones & Massa, 2013), in particular, play a crucial role in understanding how resources are mobilized for institutional work (Glückler et al., 2018). Those material boundaries have however often been conceptualized in locational terms (Lawrence & Dover, 2015;Siebert et al., 2017) rather than in more abstract spatial terms (Weinfurtner & Seidl, 2018). ...
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The physical and material aspects of space, such as geographical distance or boundaries, have social and symbolic consequences that impact how people influence and are influenced by institutions. Social actors can however contest how space is conceived, perceived and lived, thus making space a crucial lever in the disruption and defense of institutions. However, we lack understanding of the spatial aspects of such institutional struggles. In exploring how space is leveraged in institutional work, our study foregrounds the socio-political nature of space, building on and expanding the theorization of Lefebvre. We draw on an in-depth longitudinal analysis of the material, social and symbolic aspects of the spatial dimensions of disruptive and defensive institutional work over the past twenty years in Venezuela’s art world. Following the Bolivarian Revolution in the late 1990s, the incoming government transformed the organization of the national cultural landscape, resulting in a prolonged period of institutional disruption and defense. We demonstrate that actors use the material, social, and symbolic dimensions of space to challenge and maintain their key values and practices, and that those three dimensions are intertwined.
... Despite many interesting approaches, research on epistemology and ontology of space in the context of an organization has a lot of unexploited potential. Although, it is true that the term "spatial turn" is often used in social sciences, but as [10] noted "the spatial turn in organizational institutionalism is latent rather than manifest. There is neither a defined category of geographic institutionalism nor much explicit theorization of space in institutional theory". ...
... "Early research in neoinstitutional theory was devoted to examining the global diffusion of management practices and … total quality management, business-process reengineering and new public management. Although the spatial boundaries of the organizational field, in this view, were expanded to the global level" [10]. ...
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... Glückler et al. (2018, p. 2) recognize a growing interest in the "spatial dimension of institutional life." These authors (Glückler et al., 2018) argue that-next to an 'institutional turn' in geography-a 'spatial turn' in institutional theory that culminates in questions like "what it is that makes it easier to unlock the potential of one region than that of another" can also be observed (Glückler et al., 2018, p. 2). By applying this approach to migration studies in our empirical analysis in order to understand institutional and structural conditions for local variations, we also address the shortage of enhanced theoretical analyses on the production of (urban) space in the context of migration regimes (Pott, 2018). ...
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In recent years, an increasing influx of migrants to Europe has led to a heated public discourse about integration capacities within receiving countries such as Germany. During this period, German society, with its changeful immigration history, is again challenged to provide policy responses and foster migrant integration, especially in urban areas. The efforts of cities along that path, however, vary greatly. Complementing locality approaches on immigration and integration policies, which are focused on metropolises and the U.S.-American context, this article is an empirical application for understanding institutional and structural conditions for local variations in integration strategies in Germany by presenting a comparative analysis of four mid-sized cities. The particular research interest lies on discourses from interviews with local authorities and civil society actors. Our analysis reveals city-specific streamlines: For instance, discourses at a center of the 'knowl-edge society' focused on a strong municipal power structure that allowed communally-financed, sustainable projects to evolve from a historically-grounded commitment to welcome migrants and from high financial capacities at its disposal. In another case, discourses revolved around a city's financially constraints, which were equalized by compensatory civil society networks. In other cities, progress was associated with spontaneous local happenings or individual innovative leadership. These street-level patterns create a degree of locality within the global migration discourse, since they emerge from the interplay of financial, economic, and demographic features; historical concepts; or local events. We therefore contend that urban planning initiatives would profit from considering place-specific institutions that influence integration stakeholders, which are regime-makers and foster institutional, migration-led changes.
... Apart from showing the important role of geography in affecting and constraining the effectiveness of the succession phenomenon itself, these findings have more general implications for institutional theory in demonstrating the moderating effect of geography on legitimation mechanisms in emerging organizational fields. Although geography has been getting increasing attention in recent institutional research (see, for example, Lawrence/Dover 2015; Preminger/Drori 2016), researchers so far only attested a latent spatial turn that is characterized by mostly implicit assumptions of space (Glückler et al. 2018). Since geographical aspects in this study trump all other identified mechanisms in terms of how actors actually behave, our results suggest to take these spatial indications seriously, and to deliberately focus on the spatial aspects of field formation. ...
Article
Finding a successor has become a severe challenge for family firms in Germany. As family firms are disproportionately concentrated in rural economies, succession has also become a considerable threat for peripheral regions and their labor markets. It therefore lies in the interest of regional stakeholders to help support family business continuity. One way to do this is by providing consulting services for family entrepreneurs, especially when searching for a family-external successor. Succession consultancy, however is still in its infancy. Applying the framework of the organizational field that centers on the concept of legitimacy, this paper examines the strategies consultants employ in order to get selected by family entrepreneurs in their succession process, as well as consultants’ strategies to match family firms with external successors. Based on expert interviews with succession consultants in the region of Upper Palatinate in Bavaria, we demonstrate the importance of geography and interpersonal linkages in establishing legitimacy in the early stages of field formation, when heterogeneous groups of actors offer their services without set rules or standards. Our content analysis sheds light on the variety of strategies based on trust, networked, and public reputation in order to gain legitimacy as consultants, depending on whether or not they can draw on existing relationships with family firms. We furthermore identify a discrepancy between these legitimation strategies and the actual ways that consultants use to match family firms with external successors. Here, regardless of their previous contact with family firms, geography plays a major role in constraining both consulting and succession: Family firms more readily accept local consultants, and the consultants also preferred to screen succession candidates through their regional networks due to the higher chances of successful succession when finding external successors from within the same region. Conceptually, our analysis contributes to institutional theory by carving out legitimacy-enhancing mechanisms in emerging organizational fields, and by demonstrating the crucial role of geography and interpersonal linkages for succession as well as field formation processes.
Article
Dynamic institutional changes, and their impact at the actor level, are largely neglected in research on the role of institutional change in foreign direct investment (FDI). To fill this research gap, we analyze to what extent formal and informal institutional factors influence the investment decisions and strategies of managers. Internationally, since the protests in 2013 against the increasingly authoritarian Turkish government, there has been a growing perception of increasing uncertainty for FDI. This uncertainty poses investment risks for foreign firms based on a series of political developments and regional conflicts such as civil protests, an attempted military coup, and the war in Iraq and Syria. From an institutional perspective, we analyze how the perception of risk, based on formal institutional dynamics, influences the strategies of German firms operating in Turkey. We aim to find out how managers of these firms perceive and cope with these institutional risks. The paper is based on a quantitative telephone survey (n = 147), and 30 qualitative interviews with managers and experts in Turkey. We find that embedded German firms with long-term investment relationships in Turkey, rely on both formal and informal institutions to respond to risks arising from shocks at a formal institutional level.
Book
È con queste parole che uno dei più affascinanti eroi classici, Ulisse, rimarca al sommo Poeta ciò che, per lui, è l’unico scopo della vita: conoscere… conoscere per non abbrutirsi, per non restare bloccati ad uno stato primitivo fatto di solo istinto e privo di ratio. Sebbene, infatti, sia stata, proprio, questa «insaziabile sete di conoscenza» a indurre Dante ad inserire Ulisse nel girone infernale dei consiglieri di frode1, la sua figura rappresenta, ancora oggi, il simbolo, più riconosciuto e riconoscibile, della ricerca del sapere, di colui che instancabilmente individua sempre nuovi percorsi e nuovi traguardi, in un inarrestabile e metaforico viaggio verso ciò che è ancora sconosciuto. E se è vero che «tutti gli uomini per natura tendono al sapere [toû eidénai]», è a questo viaggio che vuole ispirarsi questo contributo. Un viaggio lungo e non privo di pericoli, emblema di un percorso di crescita e di una predisposizione mentale verso la scoperta del nuovo. Nell’ottica delineata, il volume accompagna il lettore in un viaggio immaginario alla scoperta della conoscenza, del suo significato più profondo e del suo «non senso», per enfatizzarne ruoli e distintività nei processi di crescita individuale e nel successo aziendale. Negli ultimi decenni, infatti, la conoscenza è andata, progressivamente, affermandosi come uno degli assets più importanti per l’acquisizione di un vantaggio competitivo, duraturo e difendibile, e il Knowledge Management come una delle discipline a supporto della formulazione e dell’implementazione di strategie di successo. Non vi è dubbio che il tema della conoscenza sia oggetto di molteplici riflessioni, elaborate in seno a differenti aree disciplinari, che spaziano dalla filosofia alla psicologia e alle scienze cognitive, dalla sociologia all’informatica e alle scienze economiche. Il carattere multidisciplinare e l’affermazione di molteplici approcci all’analisi dei processi di creazione e gestione della conoscenza, hanno indotto, pertanto, uno sforzo di sistematizzazione, in grado di dirimere questo caos creativo mediante la definizione un escursus (un viaggio appunto) che dall’analisi dei paradigmi interpretativi di Knowledge e Knowledge Management giunge all’esame delle più recenti elaborazioni concettuali sui Knowledge Ecosystems. Alla luce delle considerazioni riportate, nella prima parte del lavoro si è provveduto ad una sistematizzazione dei profili teorici elaborati in tema di Knowledge Management per evidenziarne limiti, differenze e sovrapposizioni concettuali. Nonostante il tema della conoscenza, e della sua criticità per il successo aziendale, sia oggetto di crescente dibattito ed enfasi in epoca contemporanea, il suo studio, nelle discipline economico-aziendali, ha assunto rilievo già agli inizi degli anni ’90, in concomitanza con il consolidamento delle nozioni di dynamic capabilities, organizational learning e di intellectual capital. Da semplice strumento funzionale all’implementazione di piani e processi organizzativi, la conoscenza è divenuta una risorsa da gestire in sé, capace di produrre valore per il solo fatto di essere capitalizzata. La delineata enfasi è stata, nello specifico, interpretata come la naturale evoluzione della visione di impresa come insieme eterogeneo di risorse che, dai contributi pionieristici elaborati in seno alla Resource Based View of the firm, ha trovato la sua massima espressione nella Capability-Based e nella Knowledge-based View of the firm. In linea con quest’ultimo approccio, l’impresa è sempre più chiamata a promuovere e implementare complessi meccanismi di creazione e di gestione di conoscenza, atti a sostenerne la capacità innovativa e il successo delle iniziative intraprese. In tal senso, il Knowledge Management (KM), nella sua più ampia accezione di processo volto alla «cattura», alla diffusione e all’uso efficiente del sapere è, sempre più frequentemente, interpretato alla stregua di una vera e propria strategia, da coltivare per il raggiungimento di più elevati livelli di efficienza e profittabilità aziendali. Indispensabile, al riguardo, appare, dunque, la piena comprensione di tutti quei fattori in grado di ostacolare, o alternativamente, facilitare il processo di creazione, condivisione e diffusione del know how, al fine di predisporre le condizioni e il background più idoneo alla nascita di circoli virtuosi, nei quali la condivisione di linguaggi, credi e valori funga da catalizzatore di soggettività individuali, orientate al raggiungimento di un obiettivo comune e condiviso di crescita delle conoscenze. Naturale sviluppo del percorso tracciato è stato, dunque, l’esame, nella seconda parte del lavoro, del modo in cui architetture reticolari, territoriali e non, relazioni intra ed inter-sistemiche e modelli di governance agiscono come veri e propri «facilitatori» di molteplici processi di apprendimento e trasferimento di conoscenze, supportando, in questo modo, la capacità innovativa di tutti gli attori coinvolti, come pure del sistema complessivamente inteso. L’impresa non può essere interpretata alla stregua di un agente innovatore isolato, ma come parte di un contesto che ne influenza e ne condiziona l’agire. La sua capacità di instaurare e sviluppare sistemi relazionali con attori chiave del territorio – università, centri di ricerca scientifica e tecnologica e istituzioni – supporta, altresì, la nascita e lo sviluppo di ecosistemi in continua evoluzione, nell’ambito dei quali principi di shared environment, interdependence, co-evolution e leadership ne rappresentano elementi chiave di sopravvivenza e di successo. La trasposizione del concetto di ecosystem dagli studi di biologia ed ecologia a quelli di management ha consentito, in particolare, di indagare il modo in cui individui e organizzazioni interagiscono, per la ricerca di soluzioni a problemi emergenti, ed evolvono nell’ambito di sistemi complessi, agendo alla stregua di organismi viventi. Nel denso newtwork di relazioni che caratterizza un knowledge ecosystem, università e centri di ricerca operano nella veste di keystone players per la generazione e diffusione del sapere localmente prodotto. Le riflessioni maturate a seguito delle analisi desk, dello studio della letteratura e dell’esame di molteplici case studies inducono ad individuare nel principio di «collaborazione-coevoluzione» delle complesse relazioni sistemiche e nella presenza di un modello di governance flessibile, in grado di garantire unitarietà e integrità a realtà complesse, gli elementi di successo di siffatto ecosistema. Così, se valicare le Colonne d’Ercole dell’umana ragione è il fine ultimo di un knowledge ecosystem, raggiungerlo implica l’abbandono della folle idea di Ulisse e dei suoi nocchieri odisseici di «passare l’oceano con gli stessi mezzi con cui navigavano tra le rive «misurabili» del mare nostrum» per abbracciare logiche innovative, ispirate ad approcci interattivi e ad un armonico equilibrio tra interessi individuali ed azioni collettivamente programmate, giacché… «…nella lunga storia del genere umano (e anche del genere animale) hanno prevalso coloro che hanno imparato a collaborare e ad improvvisare con più efficacia».
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Studies in economic geography on the film industry often focus on the impact of social relationships and informal institutions, like habits, norms and conventions. However, the role of formal institutions has so far received only little attention. To exemplify the role of governments and formal institutions shaping the film production networks a social network analysis is carried out. The results essentially show three patterns of interventions: Firstly, governments are active players within the networks through state‐owned or public film production companies. Secondly, (especially in the case of China) governments act as regulators through formal institutions by restricting market access for international films and at the same time enabling the rapid market growth of the Chinese film market through opening policies after 2002. Thirdly, they act as promoters through direct financial means (e.g. public film subsidies in Germany) or through support measures by the cultural and creative industries in general.
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In recent decades, while place-based policies and local development have attracted the interest of institutional economic geography, the issue of features of certain industries and how they are shaping and shaped by institutions at multiple spatial scales, has not been taken up sufficiently. This article, based on a local creative industry-the Shanghai online games industry, which is an essential part of the new media sector, takes issue with it. It explores two aspects, namely, how multi-scalar institutions relate and influence the development of the online games industry in Shanghai, and second, how local firms and entrepreneurs affect local and national institutions. It shows that the three aspects that are related to media sector in general and games industry in particular (i.e., cultural influence, technological significance and economic value) matter much as they have resulted in diverse industry-relevant policies and regulations devised by local and national states. Moreover, local firms and entrepreneurs with different capacities and characteristics also differ much in influencing the design of the industry-specific institutions in the face of institutional voids.
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Organizations performing non-routine, innovative, often knowledge- intensive tasks - for example professional partnerships - need a rather flat, collegial, and non - bureaucratic structure. This book examines cooperation among partners in a US corporate law firm and provides a grounded theory of collective action among rival peers, or collegiality. It is first network study of such a frim. Members (partners and associates) are portrayed as independent entrepreneurs who build social niches in their organization and cultivate status competition among themselves. This behaviour allows them to fulfil their commitment to an extremely constraining partnership agreement and generates informal social mechanisms (bounded solidarity, lateral control, oligarchic regualtion) that help a flat organization govern itself: maintain individual performance, even for tenured partners; capitalize knowledge and control quality; monitor and sanction opportunistic free-riding; solve the 'too many chefs' problem; balance the powers of rainmakers and schedulers; and integrate the firm in spite of many centrifugal forces. These mechanisms and the solutions they provide are examined using a broadly-conceived structural approach combining theory-driven network analysis, ethnography of task forces performing knowledge-intensive work, and analysis of management and internal politics in the firm. Emmanuel Lazega presents a theory of the collegial organization which generalizes its results to all kinds of partnerships, larger multinational professional services firms, and collegial pockets in flattening bureaucracies alike.
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This chapter offers a neostructural perspective on how organized mobility and relational turnover (OMRT) constitute important dimensions of the social context in which social mechanisms are deployed. They determine many of the characteristics of those mechanisms. As an illustration, White [HC. Chains of opportunity: system models of mobility in organizations. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, (1970)] analysis of “mobility in loops” (p. 380) is combined with Snijders [TAB. “Models for longitudinal network data”. In: Carrington PJ, Scott J, Wasserman S (eds) Models and methods in social network analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 215−247, (2005)] models of network dynamics to look at how rotation across a carrousel of organizational places and subsequent relational turnover create a relational infrastructure that shapes a social process such as collective learning. Using a longitudinal study of advice networks among lay judges at the Commercial Court of Paris as an empirical example of collective learning, the author draws on a “spinning-top model” to account for the dynamics of these networks, in particular their cyclical centralization and decentralization over time, with OMRT in the Court providing the energy that drives this evolution and process. A “dynamic invariant” and its outcome, stability from movement, are thus identified at the heart of collective learning but are also shown to have an intrinsic multilevel character with consequences for catch-up dynamics between superimposed levels of agency. It is suggested that a neostructural perspective can thus inspire new collaborations between sociology and geography.
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This paper develops a research agenda toward the systematic inclusion of institutions into the analysis of regional policy effectiveness. Departing from the commonly shared observation that formal rules of regulation and policies not always lead to the intended outcomes, we argue that institutions are crucial mediators of the workings of regulation and regional policies in specific geographical contexts. By defining institutions as stable patterns of interactions based on legitimate mutual expectations (Bathelt and Glückler, 2014), we open analytical scope for analyzing the multiple relations between regulated rules and regular social practice. Hence, we build on Helmke and Levitsky's (2004) conception of the interdependencies between regulation and institutions, and extend their heuristic into a dynamic framework at the regional scale on how to pursue what we call institutional policy-making. RESUMEN: El artículo desarrolla una agenda de investigación orientada a la inclusión sistemática de las instituciones en el análisis de la efectividad de la política regional. A partir de una observación comúnmente compartida de que las reglas formales de regulación y las políticas no siempre conducen a lograr los resultados perseguidos, se argumenta que las instituciones constituyen media-dores cruciales de los trabajos de regulación y de política regional en contextos geográficos específicos. A partir de definir las instituciones como estructuras es-tables de interacciones basadas en las mutuas expectativas legitimizadas (Bathelt y Gluckler, 2014), se abre un campo analítico para analizar las múltiples relacio-nes entre reglas reguladas y prácticas sociales regulares. A partir de ello y sobre la concepción de Helmke y Levitsky (2004) sobre las interdependencias entre regulación e instituciones se extiende su contenido en un marco dinámico a es-cala regional sobre cómo llevar a cabo lo que nosotros llamamos policy-making institucional.
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This chapter explores the interrelations between institutions, defined as stabilized interaction patterns, and innovation, since successful innovation rests on the design of institutional contexts and since inconsistent institutional contexts constrain or even impede successful innovation. Such situations require processes of adjusting innovations to the institutional context (robust design), circumventing resistant institutional contexts (peripheral dominance), or creating new institutional contexts that fit the innovation process (institutional entrepreneurship). The chapter criticizes studies that focus on formal legislation and regulation as indicators of national institutional variety, while neglecting institutional practices and how these also differ at the sub-national level. From a relational perspective, supportive innovation policies need to respond to geographically and temporally varying institutional contexts even within a single legal and regulatory regime. It is argued that policy needs to understand the interrelationships between institutional practices and innovation, rather than viewing rules and regulations as determinants of innovation outcomes.
Book
Interest in relations between knowledge, power, and space has a long tradition in a range of disciplines, but it was reinvigorated in the last two decades through critical engagement with Foucault and Gramsci. This volume focuses on relations between knowledge and power. It shows why space is fundamental in any exercise of power and explains which roles various types of knowledge play in the acquisition, support, and legitimization of power. Topics include the control and manipulation of knowledge through centers of power in historical contexts, the geopolitics of knowledge about world politics, media control in twentieth century, cartography in modern war, the power of words, the changing face of Islamic authority, and the role of Millennialism in the United States. This book offers insights from disciplines such as geography, anthropology, scientific theology, Assyriology, and communication science.
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Relatedness as driver of regional diversification: a research agenda. Regional Studies. The regional diversification literature claims that regions diversify in new activities related to their existing activities from which new activities draw on and combine local capabilities. The paper offers a critical assessment and identifies a number of crucial issues for future research. It calls for (1) a disentanglement of the various types of capabilities that make regions diversify; (2) the inclusion of more geographical wisdom in the study of regional diversification, like a focus on the effects of territory-specific contexts, such as institutions; (3) a thorough investigation in the conditioning factors of related and unrelated diversification in regions; and (4) a micro-perspective on regional diversification that assesses the role of economic and institutional agents in a multi-scalar perspective.
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This research commentary introduces historical consciousness to studying organizational change. Most theories of organizational change contain within them implicit assumptions about history. Made explicit, these assumptions tend to cluster into different models of change that vary by the assumed objectivity of the past and the associated malleability of the future. We explore and elaborate the implicit assumptions of history. We identify four implicit models of history in the change literature; History-as-Fact, History-as-Power, History-as-Sensemaking and History-as-Rhetoric. We discuss the implications of theorizing organizational change from each of these views of history and outline future directions for studying change with a heightened understanding of history.