Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Molecular hydrogen (H2) improves body composition, metabolic profiles and mitochondrial function in overweight women, yet no studies so far evaluated the effectiveness of H2 for improving exercise capacity in this population. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 28-days supplementation with 1 L per day of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on exercise capacity and quality of life in overweight mid-age women. METHODS: Twelve women (age 53.8 ± 13.0 years, BMI 28.8 ± 3.3 kg/m2, VO2max 22.3 ± 3.7 ml/kg/min) participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, repeated-measure interventional study. All participants were allocated in a double-blind design to receive two randomly assigned trials: first group received 1 L per day of HRW (supplying ~ 9 ppm of H2), while the second group received placebo (tap water). Participants were evaluated at baseline, and following 28 days of intervention. The primary endpoint was the change in cardiorespiratory endurance (VO2max) assessed at baseline and at 28 days follow-up. Secondary outcomes included change from baseline to end of treatment in values for work capacity, impact of weight on quality of life (IWQoL), and hematological biomarkers. Participants were asked to maintain their usual lifestyle, dietary intake and not to use other dietary supplements during the study. RESULTS: HRW intervention significantly improved VO2max as compared to placebo at 28-day follow-up (26.2 ± 4.8 ml/kg/min vs. 24.2 ± 4.1 ml/kg/min; P = 0.03). Differences were found for time to exhaustion and total work completed during an incremental exercise, with HRW resulting in improvement of both variables as compared to placebo (P < 0.05). IWQoL scores and hematological markers were not affected by either intervention (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results indicate that HRW can be used as an alternative hydration formulation to positively affect exercise performance in mid-age overweight women. Supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (175037), the Provincial Secretariat for Higher Education and Scientific Research (114-451-710), the University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sport and PE (2017 Annual Award) and HRW Natural Health Products Inc, New Westminster, BC, Canada. Clinical trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID number NCT02832219.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... There are several methods for hydrogen gas administration including: inhalation of H 2 gas (Hayashida et al. 2008), tube feeding of H 2 -rich solution ), intravenous injection of H 2 -rich saline (Cui et al. 2014), H 2 -rich dialysis solution for hemodialysis (Nakayama et al. 2010), hyperbaric H 2 chamber (Dole et al. 1975), bathing in H 2 -rich water (Kato et al. 2012), increasing H 2 production by intestinal bacteria (Chen et al. 2013), topical application , oral ingestion of hydrogen-producing tablets Ostojic et al. 2018 ), and simply drinking hydrogen-rich water (HRW) (Nakao et al. 2010). Regardless of the mode of administration, the cellular bioavailability of molecular hydrogen is extremely high due to its unique physicochemical properties. ...
... Additional randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over studies suggest that H 2 decreases the rate of perceived exertion and lowers heart rate during submaximal exercise in young healthy adults (n=19) (LeBaron et al. 2019), as well as improves VO 2 max in mid-age overweight women (n=12) (Ostojic et al. 2018). More research on the acute and chronic effects of molecular hydrogen administration and its varying methods of delivery in exercise medicine and sports performance is needed to determine its true efficacy, and from which types of exercises and in which populations the most benefit would occur. ...
Article
Full-text available
H2 has been clinically demonstrated to provide antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which makes it an attractive agent in exercise medicine. Although exercise provides a multiplicity of benefits including decreased risk of disease, it can also have detrimental effects. For example, chronic high-intensity exercise in elite athletes, or sporadic bouts of exercise (i.e., noxious exercise) in untrained individuals, result in similar pathological factors such as inflammation, oxidation, and cellular damage that arise from and result in disease. Paradoxically, exercise-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species largely mediate the benefits of exercise. Ingestion of conventional antioxidants and anti-inflammatories often impairs exercise-induced training adaptations. Disease and noxious forms of exercise promote redox dysregulation and chronic inflammation, changes that are mitigated by H2 administration. Beneficial exercise and H2 administration promote cytoprotective hormesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, ATP production, increased NAD+/NADH ratio, cytoprotective phase II enzymes, heat-shock proteins, sirtuins, etc. We review the biomedical effects of exercise and those of H2, and we propose that hydrogen may act as an exercise mimetic and redox adaptogen, potentiate the benefits from beneficial exercise, and reduce the harm from noxious exercise. However, more research is warranted to elucidate the potential ergogenic and therapeutic effects of H2 in exercise medicine.
... Additionally, similarly prepared HRW demonstrated a significant improvement in VO 2 and various exercise indices in middle-aged overweight women after 28 days intake. 18 Similarly, a lower hydrogen dosage of ~2 mg/day for 14 days also demonstrated improvements in peak oxygen uptake. 19 Overall, hydrogen therapy has shown significant promise as an ergogenic agent for improved exercise performance and recovery. ...
Article
Full-text available
Administration of molecular hydrogen dissolved in water to patient with COVID‐19‐like symptoms may improve oxygen levels and exercise capacity. Administration of molecular hydrogen dissolved in water to patient with COVID‐19‐like symptoms may improve oxygen levels and exercise capacity.
... Additionally, similarly prepared HRW demonstrated a significant improvement in VO 2 and various exercise indices in middle-aged overweight women after 28 days intake. 17 Similarly, a lower dosage of~2 mg/day for 14 days also demonstrated improvements in peak oxygen uptake. 18 Overall, hydrogen therapy has shown significant promise as an ergogenic agent for improved exercise performance and recovery. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19 is associated with respiratory failure and subsequent hypoxia. New therapies that reduce hypoxia are urgently needed. Molecular hydrogen (H2) therapy may reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxia. This case report suggests that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) increases oxygen saturation increase exercise tolerance in a patient with COVID-19-like symptoms.
... Interestingly, similar results have also been reported in the previous meeting report. 23 Possible mechanisms underlying the improvement of aerobic capacity by continuous intake of hW Although causation cannot be determined from our results, we can speculate the potential mechanisms that could underlie the increase in VO 2peak during an incremental cycling exercise test by continuous intake of HW. Maximal VO 2 (VO 2max ) or VO 2peak is assumed to be mainly determined by 1) cardiopulmonary function that transports oxygen to the active muscle and 2) mitochondrial oxygen consumption (oxygen extraction and utilisation). ...
Article
The various beneficial effects of the intake of molecular hydrogen (H2) have been demonstrated in the field of sports science. Although supplementation of H2 has been reported to increase mitochondrial metabolism in animal studies, the effects of the administration of H2 on aerobic capacity during exercise in humans are still not clear. We investigated whether a single or 2-week continuous intake of H2-rich water (HW) enhanced the aerobic capacity during incremental exercise in healthy humans. In this randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled experimental study, the participants performed an incremental cycling exercise to measure peak oxygen uptake and peak load before and after a single (500 mL) or a 2-week supplementation (total 5 L) of HW. In the latter experiment, the participants drank the 500 mL of HW on all weekdays (i.e., 10 times). The single intake of HW did not significantly increase peak oxygen uptake and peak load, and did not significantly alter the responses in oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and lactate levels. However, importantly, the 2-week continuous consumption of HW significantly augmented peak oxygen uptake and tended to increase the peak load without any significant changes in lactate levels, oxidative stress, and antioxidant responses. In conclusion, the continuous supplementation of HW potentially augments the aerobic capacity, implying that continuous supplementation of H2 might help improve aerobic exercise performance and physical health. This study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of Chubu University (approval No. 260086-2) on March 29, 2018.
Article
Background. Exercise performance and recovery are impaired by excessive levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. However, both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation improve exercise performance including mitochondrial ATP production and force of muscle contraction. They also are essential mediators in providing the benefits and training adaptations that occur from exercise. Nitric oxide (NO•) is a gaseous radical that increases blood flow via dilation of the blood vessels and also improves mitochondrial function. Therefore, NO• improves exercise performance and capacity, but only when produced at the right times and in the right locations. Excessive levels of NO• contribute to nitrosative stress due to the spontaneous reaction with superoxide to form toxic peroxynitrite. This decreases the ½ life of nitric oxide resulting in less NO• benefits and in cellular damage leading to impaired exercise performance. In contrast to conventional antioxidants and anti-inflammatories, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been demonstrated to exert selective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing only excessive inflammation and reducing toxic oxidants without disturbing important signaling ROS, like NO•. Moreover, H2 can regulate NO• production, increase its circulating ½ life and beneficial NO• cycling, potentiate the bioactivity of NO•, and act as a NO• mimetic by increasing cGMP levels. At the same time H2 can prevent peroxynitrite formation and reduce the harm from NO• metabolism, such as lower nitrotyrosine levels. Methods. The effects of an H2-infused, nitric oxide-producing beverage (Hydro Shot) on nitric oxide production, blood flow, aerobic and anaerobic exercise, and cognitive function were assessed. Results. Ingestion of the functional beverage significantly increased production of NO• and a concomitant increase in blood flow. It also improved aerobic performance as measured by VO2, and anaerobic performance as indicated by delayed muscle fatigue, and increased peak torque during maximal isokinetic leg extensions. Additionally, the H2/NO• combination significantly improved indices of cognitive function including, focus, speed, plasticity, etc. Conclusion. The molecular crosstalk between H2 and NO•coupled with these preliminary results indicate that Hydro Shot is uniquely qualified for sports performance and exercise medicine and warrants additional clinical and mechanistic research.
Article
Background: Hydrogen gas (H2 ) has entered the world of experimental therapeutics approximately four and a half decades ago. Over the years, this simple molecule appears to drive more and more scientific attention perhaps due to a dualism of H2 affirmative features demonstrated in numerous in vitro, animal and human studies on one side, and stillpuzzling mechanism(s) of its biological activity on the other. Up to this point, H2 was scrutinized for more than 170 different disease models and pathologies, and many research groups across the world have lately started to dynamically investigate its conceivable performance-enhancing potential. Methods: We outlined here the studies indexed in leading research databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, JSTORE) that explored the effects of hydrogen on exercise performance, and also addressed important restraints, open questions, and windows of opportunities for forthcoming research and possible H2 enactment in exercise physiology. About two dozen trials have been identified in this domain, with most published during the past 5 years, while drinking hydrogen-rich water recognized as the most convenient method to deliver H2 in both animal and human studies. Results: Either administered as an inhalational gas, enteral hydrogen-rich water, or intravenous hydrogen-rich saline, H2 seems to favorably affect various exercise performance outcomes and biomarkers of exercise-associated fatigue, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Not all studies have shown corroborative effects, and it appears that the gold-standard protocol for applying H2 in the field of exercise science does not exist at the moment, with studies markedly differ in the dose of H2 administered, the duration of a treatment, and the source of hydrogen. Conclusion: H2 is a newfangled and rather effective performance-enhancing agent yet its promising ergogenic potency has to be further validated and characterized in more well-controlled, appropriately sampled and long-term mechanistic trials. Also, appropriate regulation of hydrogen utilization in sport as an exotic medical gas may require distinctive legislative actions of relevant regulatory agencies in the future.
Article
Background: Molecular hydrogen (H2) effectively treats obesity-related disorders in animal models, yet no studies have investigated the effectiveness and safety of H2 for improving biomarkers of obesity in humans. Aim: In this double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot trial, we evaluated the effects of H2 intervention on body composition, hormonal status, and mitochondrial function in ten (n = 10) middle-aged overweight women. Methods: Volunteers received either hydrogen-generating minerals (supplying ~6 ppm of H2 per day) or placebo by oral administration of caplets for 4 weeks. The primary end-point of treatment efficacy was the change in the body fat percentage from baseline to 4 weeks. In addition, assessment of other body composition indices, screening laboratory studies, and evaluation of side effects were performed before and at follow-up. Clinical trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov , ID number NCT02832219. Results: No significant differences were observed between treatment groups for changes in weight, body mass index, and body circumferences at 4-week follow-up (P > 0.05). H2 treatment significantly reduced body fat percentage (3.2 vs. 0.9%, P = 0.05) and arm fat index (9.7 vs. 6.0%, P = 0.01) compared to placebo administration, respectively. This was accompanied by a significant drop in serum triglycerides after H2 intervention comparing to placebo (21.3 vs. 6.5%; P = 0.04), while other blood lipids remained stable during the study (P > 0.05). Fasting serum insulin levels dropped by 5.4% after H2 administration, while placebo intervention augmented insulin response by 29.3% (P = 0.01). Conclusions: It appears that orally administered H2 as a blend of hydrogen-generating minerals might be a beneficial agent in the management of body composition and insulin resistance in obesity.
Article
More than 400 original articles have been published from 2007 onwards evaluating therapeutic potential of molecular hydrogen (H2), the youngest member of medical gases family with selective anti-oxidative properties. However, recent studies suggest that H2 may tackle other mitochondrial processes besides oxidative stress, including metabolic pathways that drive cellular energy.
  • Ichihara
Ichihara et al. Med Gas Res 2017;5:12
  • Kamimura
Kamimura et al. Obesity 2011;19:1396-403