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Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is widely used popular Indian medicinal plant which belongs to the family of Zingiberaceae. Curcumin, an important constituent of turmeric, is known for various biological activities, primarily due to its antioxidant mechanism. Epidemiological observations are suggestive that turmeric consumption may reduce the risk of some form of cancers and render other protective biological effects in humans like antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidant, wound healing and anti-cancer effects. This review summarizes the most interesting biological effects of curcumin.
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Alsamydai and Jaber, IJP, 2018; Vol. 5(6): 313-326. E- ISSN: 2348-3962, P-ISSN: 2394-5583
International Journal of Pharmacognosy 313
IJP (2018), Vol. 5, Issue 6 (Review Article)
Received on 09 February, 2018; received in revised form, 21 March, 2018; accepted, 30 March, 2018; published 01 June, 2018
Ali Alsamydai * and Nisrein Jaber
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan,
Amman, Jordan.
ABSTRACT: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is widely used popular
Indian medicinal plant which belongs to the family of
Zingiberaceae. Curcumin, an important constituent of turmeric, is
known for various biological activities, primarily due to its
antioxidant mechanism. Epidemiological observations are
suggestive that turmeric consumption may reduce the risk of some
form of cancers and render other protective biological effects in
humans like antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, anti-
oxidant, wound healing and anti-cancer effects. This review
summarizes the most interesting biological effects of curcumin.
INTRODUCTION: Turmeric is an Indian
rhizomatous herbal plant (Curcuma longa) of the
ginger family (Zingiberaceae) of well-known
medical benefits 1, 2. Fig. 1 shows Curcuma longa.
The medicinal benefits of turmeric could be
attributed to the presence of active principles called
curcumin oids. One of the most interesting
components of curcumin oid is curcumin, which is
a small molecular weight polyphenolic compound
and lipophillic in nature, hence insoluble in water
and also in ether but soluble in ethanol,
dimethylsulfoxide, and other organic solvents 3.
Curcumin is stable at the acidic pH of the stomach
4. The other constituents present are volatile oils
including tumerone, atlantone and zingiberone and
sugars, proteins and resins 2. The active constituent
of turmeric- curcumin is isolated from curcuma
longa and it provides colour to turmeric.
Article can be accessed online on:
DOI link:
Such bioactive component has been thoroughly
investigated 5. Curcumin (1, 7-bis (4-hydroxy-3-
methoxyphenyl)-1, 6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) is also
called diferuloylmethane 6. It is a tautomeric
compound existing in enolic form in organic solvents
and as a keto form in water Fig. 2.
Curcumin, Curcuma longa,
Zingiberaceae, Pharmacological uses,
Anticancer, Antidiabetic, Antioxidant
Correspondence to Author:
Ali Alsamydai
Department of Pharmaceutics
and Pharmaceutical Technology,
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of
Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
Alsamydai and Jaber, IJP, 2018; Vol. 5(6): 313-326. E- ISSN: 2348-3962, P-ISSN: 2394-5583
International Journal of Pharmacognosy 314
It was found that curcumin oids in the herb C.
longa are synthesized by a collaboration of two
type III Polyketide synthases, diketide-CoA
synthase (DCS) and curcumin synthase 1 (CURS1,
the first identified CURS) (Fig. 3A). DCS catalyzes
formation of feruloyldiketide CoA (4) from
feruloyl-CoA (5) and malonyl-CoA. CURS1
catalyzes formation of curcumin from feruloyl-
CoA (5) and the feruloyldiketide-CoA produced by
the action of DCS (4). Thus, DCS and CURS1
catalyze the formation of curcumin. Both enzymes
accept p-coumaroyl-CoA (6), but at low efficiency,
and are also capable of synthesizing bisdemethoxy
curcumin (3) from p-coumaroyl-CoA (6) and
malonyl-CoA via p-coumaroyldiketide-CoA (7)
formation. Although a pair of DCS and CURS
produces a mixture of Curcumin oids; i.e., Curcumin
(1), demethoxyCurcumin (2) and bisdemethoxy
curcumin, from feruloyl-CoA (5), p-coumaroyl-
CoA (6) and malonyl-CoA in-vitro, it yields the
mixture of products with a composition different
from that of an ethyl acetate extract of the rhizome
of turmeric; the rhizome of turmeric contains a
relatively larger amount of bisdemethoxy curcumin
(3) than the in-vitro reaction products by a pair of
DCS and CURS. Therefore, it was assumed that the
composition of curcumin oids in the mixture might
be regulated by the concentrations of p-coumaroyl-
CoA and feruloyl-CoA in-vivo.
CURSs catalyze the formation of curcumin oids (1-
3) from cinnamoyl-CoA (10), p-coumaroyl-CoA
(6) and feruloyl-CoA (5), when incubated with
cinnamoyldiketide-N-acetylcysteamine (NAC) (8),
an analogue of diketide-CoA Fig. 3 137.
Turmeric is the boiled, dried, cleaned and polished
rhizomes of curcuma longa. After harvesting the
whole rhizomes are collected. These rhizomes are
transported as whole rhizomes. They are usually
like fingers 2 to 8 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide
having bulbs and splits. The dried rhizomes are
further processed and reprocessed to obtain the
turmeric powder 2.
The use of turmeric dates back nearly 4000 years to
the Vedic culture in India, where it was used as a
culinary spice and had some religious significance
7. It has different names in different cultures and
countries. In North India, turmeric is commonly
called “haldi,” and in the south, it is called “manjal,”
It is known as terre merite in French and simply as
“yellow root” in many languages. In Arabic, it is
called Kurkum, Uqdah safra. In Sanskrit, turmeric
has at least 53 different names 7. Curcumin has
been used in tradition as a medical herb due to its
various advantages such as: antioxidant 8, anti-
inflammatory 9 antimutagenic 10, antimicrobial 11
and several therapeutic properties 12. Curcumin
shows poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid
elimination. Several agents have been introduced to
improve the bioavailability of curcumin. Most
interesting one is piperine, it enhances curcumin
bioavailability by blockage of the metabolic
pathway of curcumin 13.
Alsamydai and Jaber, IJP, 2018; Vol. 5(6): 313-326. E- ISSN: 2348-3962, P-ISSN: 2394-5583
International Journal of Pharmacognosy 315
Pipierine results in an increase of 2000% in the
bioavailability of curcumin 14.
Curcumin is available in several forms including
capsules, tablets and ointments 15. Curcumin oids
have been approved by the US Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) as “Generally Recognized as
Safe” (GRAS) 16. It is the purpose of this review to
provide a brief overview of the potential health
benefits of curcumin.
Medicinal Uses of Curcumin:
Anti-Diabetic Activity: Curcumin was reported to
possess anti-diabetic activity. The effect of anti-
diabetic activity could be attributed to the
antioxidant property of curcumin 17. In their study,
researchers demonstrated curcumin positive effect
through the improvement of diabetes-induced
endothelial dysfunction by decreasing superoxide
production and vascular protein kinase C inhibition.
Interestingly, recent studies demonstrated the ability
of curcumin to have the capacity to directly quench
reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can contribute
to oxidative damage 18.
This property is known to contribute to the overall
protective effects of curcumin. Curcumin can
attenuate cell death caused by oxidative stress,
indirectly through induction and/or activation of
antioxidant/ cytoprotective enzymes, such as heme
oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The protective mechanisms of
HO-1 in diabetes could present some emerging
therapeutic options for HO-1 expression in treating
diabetic diseases 18.
Curcumin was evaluated for the prevention of type
2 diabetes in pre-diabetic human population 19. The
subjects received curcumin capsules for 9 month
period versus placebo capsule group. The curcumin
-treated group showed a better overall function of
β-cells, with higher HOMA-β and lower C-peptide.
The curcumin treated group showed a lower level
of HOMA-IR and higher adiponectin, when
compared with the placebo group. The results
indicated that curcumin intervention may have
positive effect to a prediabetic population 19.
Wound Healing Activity: Wound healing includes
the repair of tissues in a complex process that
involves inflammation, granulation, and remodeling
of the tissue 20. Enhancement of wound healing was
reported by curcumin in animals. The mechanisms
of action of wound healing effect of curcumin
include: immunohistochemical localization of
transforming growth factor-β1 showed an increase
in curcumin-treated wounds as compared with
untreated wounds 22 and modulating collagen and
decreasing reactive oxygen species 21.
In addition, curcumin showed earlier re-
epithelialization, improved neovascularization,
increased migration of various cells including
dermal myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, and
macrophages into the wound bed, and higher
collagen content 22, 23.
Anti-arthritis Activity: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
is a chronic inflammatory disease that is
characterized by hyperplasia of the synovial
fibroblasts. Curcumin is known to possess potent
anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic properties 24.
Curcumin treatment was carried out on patients
with active rheumatoid arthritis and compared with
diclofenac sodium reference group. Interestingly,
the curcumin group showed the highest percentage
of improvement in overall rheumatoid arithritis
scores and these scores were significantly better
than the patients in the diclofenac sodium group.
More importantly, curcumin group was found to be
safe and did not relate with any adverse events
compared to diclofenac sodium group 25.
It is believed that curcumin antioxidant anti-
proliferative, anti-inflammatory and immune-
suppressive activities shared in the improvement of
symptoms to patients suffering from rheumatoid
arthritis 26. One of the important consequences of
RA could be the decreased apoptosis. Exposure of
the synovial fibroblasts to curcumin resulted in
growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis, as
measured by MTT assay, fluorescent microscopy
and Annexin-V-based assay. These results show
that curcumin might help against hyperplasia of the
synovial fibroblasts in RA 27.
Anti-Alzheimer Activity: Alzheimer disease (AD)
is by far the most common cause of dementia
globally. This neurodegenerative disorder of the
brain is chronic and progressive, characterized
clinically by the deterioration in the key symptoms
of behavioral and cognitive abilities. Researchers
reported the advantages of curcumin oids as anti-
alzheimer agents 28.
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International Journal of Pharmacognosy 316
Curcumin action was demonstrated through the
inhibition of the accumulation of amyloid β-peptide
(Aβ) and the formation of β-amyloid fibrils (fAβ)
from Aβ, as well as the destabilization of
preformed fAβ in the central nervous system.
Consequently, curcumin would be an attractive
therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's
disease 29.
Anti-Parkinson Activity: Oxidative stress has
been implicated in the degeneration of
dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN)
of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. An important
biochemical feature of presymptomatic PD is a
significant depletion of the thiol antioxidant
glutathione (GSH) in these neurons resulting in
oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and
ultimately cell death. Curcumin restores depletion
of GSH levels, protects against protein oxidation,
and preserves mitochondrial complex I activity
which normally is impaired due to GSH loss. Thus,
it helps in treatment of PD 30.
Overexpression and abnormal accumulation of
aggregated α-synuclein (αS) have been linked to
Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies.
αS can misfold and adopt a variety of morphologies
but recent studies implicate oligomeric forms as the
most cytotoxic species. Curcumin can alleviate αS-
induced toxicity, reduce intracellular reactive
oxygen species ROS levels and protect cells against
apoptosis. Thus, curcumin could be used as anti-
Parkinson 31.
Anti-inflammatory Activity: Curcumin possesses
significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute as
well as in chronic models of inflammation. It is as
potent as phenylbutazone in the carrageenan
oedema test but only half as potent in chronic
tests 32. Curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe
in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-
inflammatory activity. It may exert its anti-
inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of
different molecules that play a role in inflammation
33. Curcumin has been shown to regulate numerous
transcription factors, cytokines, protein kinases,
adhesion molecules, redox status and enzymes that
have been linked to inflammation 24.
Anti-Venom Activity: Curcumin was listed as a
herbal plant metabolite that can effective against
Snake Venom PLA2 34. Researchers studied the
structural relationship between medicinally
important herbal compounds such as acalyphin,
chlorogenic acid, stigmasterol, curcumin and
tectoridin and PLA2 from Russell's viper. The
molecular modeling studies revealed favorable
interactions with the amino acid residues at the
active site of venom PLA2 that could result in the
inhibition 35.
Anti-Angiogenesis Activity: Curcumin was tested
for its ability to inhibit the proliferation of primary
endothelial cells in the presence and absence of
basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), as well as its
ability to inhibit proliferation of an immortalized
endothelial cell line. Curcumin was tested for its
ability to inhibit phorbol ester-stimulated vascular
endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA
production 36. Curcumin effectively inhibited
endothelial cell proliferation in a dose-dependent
manner. Curcumin demonstrated significant
inhibition of bFGF-mediated corneal neovascu-
larization in the mouse. Curcumin had no effect on
phorbol ester-stimulated VEGF production. These
results indicate that curcumin has direct anti-
angiogenic activity in-vitro and in-vivo 37.
Anti-Oxidant Activity: Curcumin demonstrated
the antioxidant activity by evaluation curcumin
using various in-vitro antioxidant assays such as
1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH)
scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-
sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging
activity, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydro-
chloride (DMPD) radical scavenging activity, total
antioxidant activity determination by ferric
thiocyanate, total reducing ability determination by
the Fe3+ Fe2+ transformation method, superoxide
anion radical scavenging by the riboflavin/
methionine/illuminate system, hydrogen peroxide
scavenging and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating
activities 38.
Protective against Cardio Toxicity and Liver
Toxicity: Researchers investigate the protective
effects of curcumin on experimentally induced
hepatotoxicity, and cardio toxicity using various
animal models with biochemical parameters like
serum marker enzymes and antioxidants in target
tissues. The increased relative weight of liver and
heart in CCl4 induced liver injury and isoproterenol
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International Journal of Pharmacognosy 317
induced cardiac necrosis were also reduced by
Curcumin treatment. Elevated serum marker
enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST),
alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline
phosphatase (ALP) increased lipid peroxidation,
decreased gluthione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase
(GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in
edematous, granulomatus, liver and heart tissues
during liver injury and cardiac necrosis,
respectively. The study demonstrated the in-
vitro and in-vivo protective effect of curcumin on
experimentally induced hepatotoxicity and cardio-
toxicity in rats 39.
Anti-Bacterial Activity: The antibacterial study of
curcumin shows the ability to inhibit growth of a
variety of periodontopathic bacteria and
Porphyromonas gingivitis Arg- and Lys-specific
proteinase (RGP and KGP, respectively) activities
63. In addition, curcumin suppressed P. gingivitis
homotypic and Streptococcus gordonii biofilm
formations in a dose-dependent manner 64. Bacterial
growth was suppressed almost completely at very
low concentrations of curcumin. A concentration of
20 µg/mL of curcumin inhibited these P. gingivitis
biofilm formations by more than 80%. On the other
hand, 100 µg/mL of curcumin did not suppress the
growth of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
63. Furthermore, at relatively high concentrations,
curcumin targets bacterial membranes (Escherichia
Additionally, many features of a bacterial apoptosis
-like response were observed after treatment with
curcumin at the MIC, including membrane
depolarization, Ca 2+ influx, PS exposure and DNA
fragmentation. A bacterial apoptosis-like response,
induced by curcumin, by causing reactive oxygen
species generation and DNA damage 65. The study
on E. coli and B. subtilis demonstrated that
curcumin by the inhibitory effect against FtsZ
polymerization could suppress the FtsZ assembly
leading to disruption of prokaryotic cell division 66.
On another hands, Curcumin - Polymyxin B used
clinically for topical therapy to treat or prevent
traumatic wound infections of the skin. It would
not only increase the spectrum of activity to include
Gram-positive bacteria but also combat those
isolated resistant. The use of the combination may
also reduce the emergence of resistant isolates
during treatments, due to the multiple antimicrobial
targets of duel drug therapy and ease the selective
pressure produced by broad-spectrum antibiotics 67.
Additionally, curcumin loaded in zein (zein-CUR)
fibers showed good antibacterial activity towards S.
aureus and E. coli and the inhibition efficiency
increased with the increase of curcumin contents.
Due to the different cell membrane constituent and
structure, the antibacterial activity towards S.
aureus was better than that towards E. coli. The
study displayed that the zein-CUR fibers might
have potential as a promising material for
antimicrobial applications to inhibit bacterial
growth and propagation in food packaging 68. Also,
antibacterial activity of curcumin-chitosan film
against Staphylococcus aureus and Rhizoctonia
solani was studied by the zone inhibition method
69. A better antibacterial activity was certified
compared to PCH film, which is an important
consideration in food packaging. The natural blend
films of curcumin and chitosan could be as a
promising antimicrobial packaging for food and
agriculture products 70.
Novel fibrous materials from cellulose acetate (CA)
and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) contain curcumin.
The incorporation of PVP resulted in increased
hydrophilicity of the fibers and in faster curcumin
release. Likewise, curcumin was found in the
amorphous state in the curcumin containing fibers
and these mats exhibited antibacterial activity
against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The
Curc/CA+Curc/PVP mat prepared by dual-
spinneret electrospinning killed all the bacteria at
the 4 h. Curcumin fibrous materials are potential
antibacterial for wound dressing applications 71.
In addition, Surface charge as well as the small size
of curcumin nanoparticles plays a key role in
enhancing cell-antimicrobial interaction and anti-
microbial efficacy. The fabricated curcumin nano-
particles showed the best antimicrobial activity
against Listeria monocytogenes. A size reduction to
nano-scale is a recently developed strategy used to
improve drug/food delivery and matching the
public demand for effective and safe antimicrobial
formulations for control of food borne pathogen 72.
In-vivo study of antibacterial effect of curcumin on
H. pylori compared to OAM (Omeprazole,
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International Journal of Pharmacognosy 318
Amoxicillin and Metronidazole) treatment revealed
poor activity for eradication of H. pylori (5.9%
versus 78.9% for OAM treatment). The reduction
in inflammatory cytokine production was not
reported from pylori-infected patients treated with
curcumin 73. The in-vivo study of 1-week
nonantibiotic therapy comprised of curcumin,
pantoprazole, N-acetylcysteine, and lactoferrin
against H. pylori infection was not effective for the
eradication of H. pylori. However, the decrease in
immunological criteria of gastric inflammation and
dyspeptic symptoms was reported after 2 months of
treatment schedule 74.
Nevertheless, the curcumin administration to the
rats with H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation
revealed a significant reduction in macromolecular
leakage and NF activation 75. In an in-vivo study of
H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice administered with
curcumin exhibited immense therapeutic potential
and pronounced eradication effect against H. pylori
infection associated with restoration of gastric
damage 76.
Anti-Fungal Activity: Substances and extracts
isolated from different natural resources especially
plants have always been a rich arsenal for
controlling the fungal infections and spoilage. Due
to extensive traditional use of curcumin in food
products, various researches have been done in
order to study curcumin with the aspect of controlling
fungal related spoilage and fungal pathogens 77.
The study of addition the curcumin powder in plant
tissue culture showed that curcumin at the 0.8 and
1.0 g/L had appreciable inhibitory activity against
fungal contaminations 78. The possible mechanism
underlying the mentioned antifungal effect was
found to be downregulation of desaturase (ERG3)
leading to significant reduction in ergosterol of
fungal cell. Reduction in production of ergosterol
results in accumulations of biosynthetic precursors
of ergosterol which leads to cell death via
generation of ROS 138. Reduction in proteinase
secretion and alteration of membrane-associated
properties of ATPase activity are other possible
critical factors for antifungal activity of curcumin
79. Finding new anti-candida substances seems to
be crucial due to development of resistant strain
against existing antifungal drug 56. The study of
curcumin, against 14 strains of Candida, showed
that curcumin is a potent fungicide compound
against Candida species with MIC values range
from 250 to 2000 μg/mL 79.
In another study, anti-candida activity of curcumin
was demonstrated against 38 different strains of
Candida including some fluconazole resistant
strains and clinical isolates of C. albicans, C.
glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and C.
krusei. The MIC90 values for sensitive and resistant
strains were 250-650 and 250-500 μg/mL, res-
pectively. Intracellular acidification via inhibition
of H+-extrusion was identified as possible
mechanism for cell death of Candida species 80.
The development of hyphae was proved to be
inhibited by curcumin through targeting the global
suppressor thymidine uptake 1 (TUP1). Curcumin
exhibited potent antifungal effect via mechanisms
associated with disruption of plasma membrane
in Candida albicans 81.
Curcumin also showed inhibitory effect on
Cryptococcus neoformans and C. dubliniensis with
MIC value of 32 mg/L 79. One of the major
complications during therapies against chronic
asthma is oropharyngeal candidiasis. Curcumin as a
potential candidate for the treatment of candidiasis
with anti-inflammatory activity was studied in a
murine model of asthma. Oral administrator of
curcumin is more effective than dexamethasone in
reducing fungal burden in BALB/c mice. It also
significantly decreased pathological changes in
asthma 82. Adhesion of Candida species isolated
from AIDS patients to buccal epithelial cells is also
markedly inhibited by curcumin and it was found to
be more effective compared to fluconazole 83.
The investigation of curcumin mediation for photo-
dynamic therapy can reduce the biofilm biomass
of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. The
results demonstrated that association of four LED
influences for light excitation with 40 μM
concentration of curcumin at 18 J/cm2 inhibited up
to 85% metabolic activity of the tested Candida
species. The use of curcumin with light proved to
be an effective method for noteworthy improvement
in the antifungal activity against planktonic form of
the yeasts 84. Photodynamic effect considerably
decreased C. albicans viability in either planktonic
or biofilm cultures probably through increasing the
uptake of curcumin by cells. However, to a lesser
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International Journal of Pharmacognosy 319
extent, photodynamic therapy was found to be
phototoxic to the macrophages 85.
The strong antifungal activity of C. longa rhizome
and its low side effect were the main reasons to
investigate its probable synergistic effect with
existing fungicides. The synergistic activity of
curcumin with five azole and two polyene drugs
including voriconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole,
miconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B and
nystatin showed 10-35-fold reduction in the MIC
values of the fungicides against 21 clinical isolates
of C. albicans. The synergistic activity of curcumin
with amphotericin B and fluconazole could be
associated with the accumulation of ROS which
will be suppressed by adding an antioxidant 46.
Anti-Viral Activity: Lack of effective therapeutics
for the most of viral diseases, emergence of
antiviral drug resistance and high cost of some
antiviral therapies necessitate finding new effective
antiviral compounds 57, 58. Additionally, the existing
antiviral therapies are not always well-tolerated or
quite effective and satisfactory 46. Hence, the
increasing requirement for antiviral substances will
be more highlighted. Plants as a rich source of
phytochemicals with different biological activities
including antiviral activities are in interest of
scientists 59.
It has been demonstrated that curcumin as a plant
derivative has a wide range of antiviral activity
against different viruses: papillomavirus virus
(HPV), influenza virus, Hepatitis B virus (HBV),
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), adenovirus, coxsackie virus,
Human norovirus (HuNoV), Respiratory syncytial
virus (RSV) and Herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) 86, 87,
88, 89, 90. Curcumin functionalized graphene oxide
shown synergistic antiviral effect against
respiratory syncytial virus infection 87. Respiratory
syncytial virus (RSV), which is considered as the
major viral pathogen of the lower respiratory tract
of infants, has been implicated in severe lung
disease 86.
Developing a β-cyclodextrin (CD) functionalized
graphene oxide (GO) composite, which displayed
excellent antiviral activity and curcumin loading
efficiently, showed that the composite could
prevent RSV from infecting the host cells by
directly inactivating virus and inhibiting the viral
attachment, which possessed the prophylactic and
therapeutic effects towards virus 86. The antiviral
effect of curcumin was a dose-dependent manner
91. Curcumin inhibit activity of inosine-mono
phosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme in
either noncompetitive or competitive manner. By
inhibition of IMPDH this led to reduce the level of
intracellular guanine nucleotides which required for
adequate RNA and DNA synthesis 86, 88, 92.
Curcumin mechanism involve in viral entry or
other life cycle stages rather than the replication of
viral RNA 91. Therefore, by inhibition of IMPDH
Curcumin have potential anti-proliferative, antiviral
and antiparasitic effects 92.
Anti-Cancer Activity: Cancer is the second largest
single cause of death claiming over six million
lives every year worldwide 93. Scientific studies of
plants used in various types of ethnic medicine
have led to the discovery of many valuable drugs,
including taxol, camptothecin, vincristine and
vinblastine 94, 44. Many studies pointed out
anticancer activities of curcumin alone or in
combination with conventional chemotherapy
drugs in treatment of cancer and its cancer-related
complications 94, 95, 96, 97. In-vitro and in-vivo studies
have indicated that curcumin prevents car-
cinogenesis by affecting two primary processes:
Angiogenesis and tumor growth 96, 97 98. Curcumin
has exhibited efficient anticancer and antifungal
activities alone or in combination with conventional
chemotherapy drugs and antifungal agents 99.
Curcumin analogs S1- S3 containing sulfone
strongly inhibited the growth of human prostate,
colon, lung and pancreatic cancer cells 100, 101.
Curcumin significantly inhibited the growth of
human breast cancer cell by inducing apoptosis in a
dose and time dependent manner, accompanied by
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International Journal of Pharmacognosy 320
a decrease in MCF-7 cell viability 98. The antitumor
action of curcumin is mediated via its anti-
proliferative effect in multiple cancers, inhibitory
action on transcription factors and downstream
gene products, modulatory effect on growth factor
receptors and cell adhesion molecules involved in
angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis, while
recent works showed the possibility curcumin
could exert its antitumor potential by telomerase
inhibition 102, 103 , 104. Curcumin oil have bi-functional
effects by blocking anti-apoptotic signaling but also
blocking anti-oncogenic signaling and interferon-γ
production 105, 106. Moreover, Curcumin showed a
higher uptake in tumor cells compared to normal
cells, suggesting potential diagnostic applications
in this field 107.
In a study, the Gallium-Curcumin complexes
showed an uptake in A549 lung cancer cells, at
least equivalent to the respective free curcumin,
confirming potential applications as cancer-
detecting radiotracers. Natural products play a
major role in chemotherapy drugs, and primarily
target proliferating tumor cells 94. Their use could
be of great interest and is considered to be an
inexpensive, safe and accessible approach to cancer
control and management. However, in spite of the
useful biological activities of curcumin but it
limited due to its poorly bioavailability, water
solubility and some possible adverse effects 96, 109.
The development of formulations of curcumin in
the form of nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles, or
phospholipid complexes to enhance its bio-
availability and efficacy is still in its early stages
110. Various nano-sized curcumin delivery systems,
such as nanoparticles, nanospheres, solid lipid
nanoparticles, micelles, and liposomes have been
shown to overcome these shortcomings and
significantly improve the anticancer and antifungal
activities of curcumin. Many studies on curcumin
and its nanoformulations are still in the preclinical
stage at present 110, 111.
PLGA curcumin nanoparticles efficiently inhibit
growth of prostate cancer cells both in-vitro and in-
vivo. This was achieved through lysosomal activity,
apoptosis, and inhibition of Androgen receptor and
nuclear b-catenin activity. PLGA-CUR NPs
significantly modulate the expression of miR-21
and miR-205 genes. Shown significant prostate
tumor specific targeting in a xenograft mouse
model 112. Curcumin exhibits the ability to
modulate multiple targets via the regulation of
diverse transcription factors, inflammatory
cytokines, growth factors, different protein kinases,
and various other enzymes. Furthermore, safety and
tolerability as evidenced by multiple clinical trials
carried out thus far together with cost-effectiveness
are some other added yet inevitable advantages
offered by this agent 113.
Delay of Cataract Development: Cataract is
responsible for more than one third of blindness
worldwide. Twenty-five percent of people over the
age of 65 and 50% of people larger than an age of
80 have a serious defeat of vision due to cataracts
114, 115. Cataract extraction surgery is the majority
treatment for cataract. Whereas cataract surgery is
considered to be not dangerous and mature,
irreversible blindness is a possible risk. There is no
recognized drug which can treat or overturn
cataract. If cataract onset is late by 10 years, it is
expected to decrease the risk for cataract surgery by
50%. Thus, much emphasis is being laid on
identifying compounds with high effectiveness and
low toxicity that can either avoid the onset or delay
cataract progression.
It is supposed that oxidative damage to the eye lens
responsible to the development of different kinds of
cataracts 116. The antioxidant characteristics of
curcumin are the main anti-cataract mechanism 117.
In cultured human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) in-
vitro, curcumin inhibit peroxiredoxin 6 (a pleiotropic
oxidative stress-response protein). By reversing the
activity of increasing the activities of superoxide
dismutase (SOD), decreasing ROS, and antioxidant
enzymes, the bioactive derivatives of curcumin
were reported to inhibit the selenite inducing
cataract 118, 119, 120.
Additionally, curcumin was found to have a
protective effect against cataract development
and/or progression of diabetic cataract in
numerous in-vitro and in-vivo cataract models 120,
121. Vitamin C is a potent non-enzymic antioxidant,
and the level of Vitamin C is high in human lens,
suggesting that Vitamin C may have a preventive
role in cataract progression. The decreased levels of
Vitamin C linked with selenite-induced rat
cataracts. So by administration of Curcumin was
Alsamydai and Jaber, IJP, 2018; Vol. 5(6): 313-326. E- ISSN: 2348-3962, P-ISSN: 2394-5583
International Journal of Pharmacognosy 321
found to increase Vitamin C levels so protect rat
eyes 122. Pretreatment of curcumin may prevent
oxidative damage and delay the development of
cataracts 118.
Hepatoprotective Activity: The liver is one of the
most important organs of the body, that plays an
important role in maintaining various physiological
processes and is involved in numerous vital
functions, such as metabolism, secretion, and
storage 123. Also participating in the biochemical
processes of growing, providing nutrients,
supplying energy, and reproducing.
In addition, it aids in the metabolism of
carbohydrates and fats, in the secretion of bile, and
in the storage of Vitamins It plays a central role in
detoxify endogenous (waste metabolites) and/or
exogenous (toxic compounds) substances of
organisms, as well as for synthesize useful agents,
has been analyzed since the 1970s by many
researchers. Curcumin has been discussed by
various researchers for their hepatoprotective. New
evidence has proven hepatoprotective activity of
curcumin, but its underlying mechanisms remain to
be elucidated.
Phytosome Curcumin had a strong protective effect
against paracetamol-induced with acute hepatic
damage in mice. The hepatoprotective effect of
phytosome curcumin may be explained by
increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes and
decreasing the lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme
on paracetamol-induced damage in mice.
Furthermore, in investigation of the protective
effect of curcumin on hepatic damage via
measuring the antioxidant capacity and regulation
of different enzymes. Curcumin treatment of bile
duct ligated rats led by elevation of antioxidant
(thiols, SOD and catalase) and hepatic enzymes
(ALP, AST and ALT). And Curcumin attenuated
liver damage through down-regulating of Ras-
related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, Rac1-GTP,
and NADPH oxidase 1 as well as reducing oxidative
stress in serum and liver tissue of BDL rats.
Curcumin may serve as effective hepatoprotective
agents for mercuric chloride-induced
hepatotoxicity. The protective effect is due to their
free radical scavenging activities and recovery of
antioxidant enzymes and function markers of the
liver. In additionally, the protective effects of
curcumin against Diethyl Nitrosamine induced
hepato- carcinogenesis in albino rats is due to
modulated the hepatic pathological alteration, liver
function enzymes serum levels, induced the hepatic
anti-oxidant system and suppressed the
prionflamatory cytokines.
Anti-Fibrotic Activity: Idiopathic pulmonary
fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease of unknown
etiology that can result in respiratory failure. The
resulting fibrotic changes in lung architecture lead
to decreased gas exchange and pulmonary
compliance. Notably, curcumin effectively
reduces profibrotic effects in fibroblasts in-vitro via
the inhibition of key steps in the signaling pathway
of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b) a
multifunctional cytokine belonging to the
transforming growth factor.
It was reported that the activation of peroxisome
proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-g) by
curcumin blocked platelet derived growth factor
(PDGF) signaling pathway in hepatic satellites
cells. However, the relationship of PPAR- g and
PDGF signaling pathway is unclear in TGF-b
induced differentiation of lung fibroblasts to
myofibroblasts. Curcumin inhibits TGF-β2 driven
differentiation of mouse lung fibroblasts to
myofibroblasts. Curcumin and PPAR-γ could
potentially be used for effective treatment of IPF.
Anti-Atherosclerosis and Anti-hypertension
Activity: Atherosclerosis and hypertension can
potentially progress into dangerous cardiovascular
diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke.
Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol levels
while antihypertensive agents such as captopril are
widely prescribed to treat high blood pressure.
Curcumin, a phenolic compound isolated
from Curcuma domestica, has been proven
effective for a broad spectrum of diseases,
including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.
Therefore, curcumin is quite promising as an
alternative therapeutic compound. By studying the
effects of Curcumin on hyperlipidemia and hepatic
steatosis in high-fructose-fed wistar rats, the results
showed the ability of curcumin in treatment high-
fructose induced fatty liver, lipid derangements and
obesity through modulation of lipid metabolism in
the liver as evidenced by decreased expression of
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International Journal of Pharmacognosy 322
lipogenic enzymes and transcription factors.
Therefore, it is suggested that the use of curcumin
may be beneficial as an adjuvant in the prevention
and management of diet-induced obesity and its
associated complications.
Another study reported that encapsulated of
curcumin in a nanoemulsion showed significant
cholesterol-lowering activity compared to a
standard drug, pravastatin and this encapsulated
increased not only the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl
coenzyme A reductase inhibition, but also
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors like
effect by producing vasodilation by inhibiting the
formation of angiotensin II. These effects are
suggested to be the result of improved solubility in
the nanoemulsion system.
CONCLUSION: The wisdom and scientific
knowledge of curcumin, a highly pleiotropic agent,
which were used for its therapeutic effects in many
countries as traditional medicine. For that the
pharmacological properties and applications of
curcumin is a rapidly growing, progressing, and
expanding enterprise, as evidenced by the studies
reviewed above and the many more being reported
every day.
Of the most obvious therapeutic weight of
curcumin, researchers typically pointed at diseases
like diabetes, wound healing, arthritis, alzheimer,
parkinson, inflammatory, venom, angiogenesis,
cataract, cancer, atherosclerosis and hypertension
etc, which is in use since ages owing to its multiple
pharmacological activities. Curcumin is enriched
with many useful phytoconstituents, which are
responsible for its efficacy proven by experimentally
and clinically. It has been established beneficial in
treating anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-
oxidant, anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-cancer, anti-
microbial, antiatherosclerosis and anti-hypertension
properties. Because of curcumin facility to affect a
large range of molecular targets and a good safety
profile, was established to be a potential candidate
for the avoidance or/and treatment of a number of
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: We respect and thank
Prof. Dr. Mohammad Hudaib for providing us an
opportunity to do the project work in
(Pharmacological Aspects of Curcumin: Review
article) and giving us all support and guidance
which made us complete the project duly. We are
extremely thankful to Dr. Mayada Shihadeh for
providing such a nice support and guidance.
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Alsamydai A and Jaber N: Pharmacological aspects of curcumin: review article. Int J Pharmacognosy 2018; 5(6): 313-26. doi link:
... Curcumin (CUR) is a widely available natural food colorant and preservative food additive extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa). CUR displays several therapeutic properties, including antioxidant and anticancer activity [10,11]. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have reported that CUR exhibits a strong antioxidant effect against different forms of free radicals [12,13]. ...
... Several in vivo and in vitro studies have reported that CUR exhibits a strong antioxidant effect against different forms of free radicals [12,13]. In addition, CUR exhibited high efficiency as an anti-inflammatory in vivo [10]. It has also been reported that CUR is a potent anticancer agent that reduces the proliferation of different human cancer cell lines via apoptosis induction, including that of HepG-2, Caco2, and MCF-7. ...
... In developing countries, TZ is used as a saffron substitute [9][10][11][12][13][14]. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) of TZ recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) is 0-7.5 mg/kg [15]. ...
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In this study, the cellular synergistic and antagonistic effects of mixing tartrazine (TZ) with curcumin (CUR) or curcumin-nanoparticles (CUR-NPs) were investigated. The in vivo administration of TZ, CUR, CUR-NPs, and TZ mixed with CUR or CUR-NPs at 75:25 or 50:50 ratios were tested. The results indicated that CUR and CUR -NPs reduced the cytotoxicity effects of TZ on skin fibroblast BJ-1 (ATCC® CRL-2522™) normal cells. However, among the tested materials, CUR-NPs had highest in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity compared to TZ. Furthermore, CUR-NPs and CUR exhibited anticancer activity against HepG-2 liver cancer cells via apoptosis induction. The key apoptosis protein genes Caspase-3, p53, and Bax were upregulated, whereas Bc-2, which exhibits anti-apoptosis activity, was downregulated. Our results indicated that the nano-formulation of CUR alters its physicochemical properties, including the size and shape, and increases its antioxidant and anticancer properties. CUR-NPs also overcome the side effect of using TZ as a yellow color and food preservative additive, due to its reduced toxicity, oxidative stress, and carcinogenicity. In agreement with our previous findings, CUR and CUR-NPs were able to protect against cellular oxidative stress by stimulating endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). We conclude that the nano-formulation of CUR exhibits economic benefits as a new strategy to use CUR as a food additive at the cellular level.
... Natural products of curcumin with vitamin C with zinc supplements that boost immunity and provide defence against COVID-19 infection 29 . ...
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The Sanskrit term Ayurveda has translated knowledge of life. It is one of the world's oldest healing systems that originated in eastern culture and it includes numerous medical concepts and it’s a hypothesis for treatment and prevention of disease. In ancient times near to 3000 years ago in India when there are no synthetic medicines was developed then people used Ayurvedic plants to get cures for different diseases. Ayurveda is based on a belief that health and wellness depend on a delicate balance of mind, body, and spirit. Ayurvedic herbs are key components of Ayurveda. COVID-19 is an infectious disease found in December 2019 and it has now become a pandemic. The COVID-19 infection is produced by virulent severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus although various antiviral drugs are available for controlling the infection but sometimes, they lack in supply for treating the worldwide population. So, it has become imperative to develop an effective medical strategy for the management of COVID-19 which has become a major threat to humanity. Herbs exhibit various biological activities so; they can effectively help with managing the pandemic. This review discussed some herbs which have the potential for the treatment of COVID-19.
... Curcumin is used as a food additive in poultry feed due to its favorable effects as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and its immune-stimulant properties [12], orally in rats [13] as well as a preventative against oxidative stress [14]. The commercial curcumin extracts containing 75% curcumin, 20% dimethoxy-curcumin, and 5% bisdemethoxycurcumin, respectively, are thought to be biologically active and possess protective properties [15]. ...
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This study evaluated the impact of incubation temperature and spraying hatching eggs with curcumin during the early embryogenesis phase on chick embryo developments, hatchability, physiological body reactions, and hormonal profiles of Dokki 4 chickens. A total of 720 fertile eggs were equally distributed into two groups. In the first group, the eggs were incubated at normal incubation temperature/NIT (37.8 °C and 55–60% RH) for up to 19 days of incubation, whereas those in the second group were incubated in the same conditions except from 6 to 8 day, in which they were daily exposed to chronic incubation temperature/CIT (39.0 °C) for 3 h. Each group was classified into four curcumin treatment doses; the 1st treatment (control) was sprayed with distilled water, while the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th treatments were sprayed with 250, 500, and 1000 mg curcumin/liter distilled water. The results indicated that the lowest hatchability of fertile eggs (%) was obtained in the CIT group (p = 0.02), whereas the highest body surface temperature/BST compared in the NIT group (p = 0.01). Regarding curcumin treatments, the percentages of heart, gizzard, spleen, and T3 hormone levels in the treated group were significantly increased, while the H/L ratio was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) compared with the control. At 8 weeks of age, the testes and ovary percentages in treated groups were significantly (p = 0.05) increased compared with the control. In conclusion, exposure of hatching eggs to high thermal stress (39 °C) during the incubation phase had deleterious effects on chick performance and T3 hormone level. Moreover, spraying hatching eggs had beneficial impacts on growth, reproductive organs, T3 hormone level, and reducing H/L ratio.
... As a result, there is an urgent need for a safe and efficient vaginal candidate that is effective against Candida albicans. The curcumin, which is obtained from rhizomes of the herb Curcuma longa L, containing polyphenolic compounds and which show antifungal, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antibacterial activity with less toxicity, less resistance and higher efficiency [4]. The Curcumin shows antifungal activity by a mechanism such as prevents hyphae growth by targeting TUP1, inducing oxidative stress, decrease ergosterol biosynthesis, and reducing the fungal exoenzymes aspartate proteases (SAP) [5]. ...
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Objective: The main causative agent of vaginal candidiasis is Candida albicans and it develops resistance against several synthetic antifungal drugs and it has a high rate of infection in women. According to WHO report, around 75% of women are infected by Candida albicans and 50 % are infected a second time by Candida albicans. Therefore, we choose Curcumin an antifungal agent that had reported antifungal properties against the various fungal species. The Curcumin-containing emulgel based microemulsion system was prepared for greater retention time and penetration across the vaginal mucosa. Methods: The screening of oil phase, surfactant, and cosurfactant for microemulsion formulation was selected based on the solubility study and followed by the construction of the pseudoternary phase diagram. The oil phase, surfactant and co-surfactant are selected from the pseudoternary phase diagram for the formulation of a stable microemulsion. The prepared Curcumin-loaded microemulsion was characterized by globule size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, accelerated stability study, drug content, percent transmittance and antifungal assay by broth microdilution technique. The formulated microemulsion was converted into a vaginal emulgel by using Pluronic@F127. The formulated curcumin-loaded emulgel was characterized by different evaluation parameters and antifungal study by agar well diffusion method. Results: The result showed that the average globule size of emulgel was 286.3 nm, polydispersity index was 0.241, Zeta potential was+19.20 mv, conductivity was 0.0390 mS/cm, and drug content was found to be 95.58%. The texture of formulated emulgel was found to be soft and smooth, with shear-thinning, pseudoplastic behavior, and easily spreadable. The in vitro permeability study of emulgel shows slow and complete release of curcumin in 10 h. The microemulsion and developed emulgel showed promising antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusion: The developed curcumin-loaded emulgel showed promising antifungal activity against Candida albicans as compared to the Fluconazole as an standard antifungal antibiotic. Our formulated Curcumin-containing emulgel can be a potential alternative as compared to the conventional dosage form for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.
... 8,9 Curcumin is an active natural polyphenol component of Curcuma longa. 10,11 It has been recently demonstrated that curcumin may inhibit protein aggregation, such as amyloid-β (Aβ) protein, which is related to several neurological pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). 12 Never the less, no clinical studies have shown the efficacy of oral curcumin in treating AD. ...
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of oral administration of acomplex of curcumin with 1,3-β-glucan extracted from Vietnamese mushrooms named Bioglucur to increase drug delivery efficiency and biological effectin Alzheimer’s model mice. Materials and Methods: Alzheimer’s disease was induced in mice and treated in parallel by Bioglucur. Results: Results obtained show that the Bioglucur improves impart mental concentration and memory and decrease anxiety thus the storage capacity is improved during the Morris test and even neurons improvement in the histological study in treated mice. Conclusion: The mixture preparation of curcumin and 1,3-β-glucans from Vietnamese medicinal mushrooms increase the bioavibility of curcumin and helps recover neurons in mice Alzheimer’s model. © 2020, Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India. All rights reserved.
... 8,9 Curcumin is an active natural polyphenol component of Curcuma longa. 10,11 It hasbeen recently demonstrated that curcumin may inhibit protein aggregation, such as amyloid-β (Aβ) protein, which is related to several neurological pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). 12 Never the less, no clinical studies have shown the efficacy of oral curcumin in treating AD. ...
Full-text available
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of oral administration of acomplex of curcumin with 1,3-β-glucan extracted from Vietnamese mushrooms named Bioglucur to increase drug delivery efficiency and biological effectin Alzheimer’s model mice. Materials and Methods: Alzheimer’s disease was induced in mice and treated in parallel by Bioglucur. Results: Results obtained show that the Bioglucur improvesimpart mental concentration and memory and decrease anxiety thus the storage capacity is improved during the Morris test and even neurons improvement in the histological study in treated mice. Conclusion: The mixture preparation of curcumin and 1,3-β-glucans from Vietnamese medicinal mushrooms increase the bioavibility of curcumin and helps recover neurons in mice Alzheimer’s model.
Human health and herbal spices have an indispensable relationship been used in many different ways since ages, spices, and culinary herbs added to food to enhances flavor and improves organoleptic properties. Herbal spices have been gaining attention in research for their medicinal and therapeutic use. The naturally derived compounds are innately better tolerated in the human body and are therefore becoming more popular as therapeutic alternative against several diseases, including viral infections. The herbal exploration is continually performed in the present scenario also to diminish coronavirus-related diseases. Researchers all over the world are extensively studying the potency of spices and herbs in various diseases due to the high antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in certain spices and their beneficial effects on humans. Extraction of the herbs and spices can be done by various methods. Novel drug delivery system can be regarded as a complete processing system that combines the methods of drug formulation (pharmaceutics), biochemistry, molecular biology, and process and technology offering miraculous promises. There are many advantages to the targeted drug release system, for example, it reduces the frequency of the dosages taken by the patients, has a more uniformed effect of the drug, reduces any possibility of side effects, and controls fluctuation in circulating drug levels. Hence, extensive studies are required to explore this area of spices-based formulations as novel nanomedicines. Encapsulation in nanoemulsions enhances the stability and oral bioavailability of the spices and herbs which offer health benefits. The present review discusses the importance of Indian spices and their metabolites as herbal nanomedicines. The applications of spices and their impacts on human health are briefly described.
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The recent development of the “eco-friendly” current has brought to the attention of researchers natural dyes that are biodegradable, do not cause allergies and generally have anti-UV protection, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties. In this study, we aimed to obtain hybrid materials of the dye–host matrix type, by using the sol–gel process. The silica network was generated by tetraethylorthosilicates and modified with organic siloxane derivatives: phenyltriethoxysilane, 3-glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane, dimethoxydimethylsilane and dimethoxydiphenylsilane. The nanocomposites obtained by embedding curcumin in siloxane matrices were deposited on polyester fabric and evaluated for their properties, relative to the type of organic network modifier used. Fabrics covered with curcuminoid hybrid systems provide a hydrophobic surface, have fluorescent properties and a UPF +50, and, therefore, they can be used in various fields where it is necessary for textiles to provide signaling, self-cleaning or protection properties against ultraviolet radiation. The coated textile materials have very good resistance properties after several repeated washing cycles, and maintain the original UV protection factor at high values even after washing or during rubbing tests.
Curcumin is widely used in spices in Asia. It has been widely explored for various diseases as therapeutic agent. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with dementia and cognitive disabilities. With the progression of disease, various changes appear in the brain cells that greatly affect the daily routine of the patient including sleep-wake disturbances. In the last few decades, extensive research has been carried out on this disease suggesting the development of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for its treatment. Since long, turmeric has been used in Asian countries as a home remedy for treating various ailments. Curcumin is an active ingredient isolated from the turmeric plant and is composed of curcuminoids. Because of its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective properties, curcumin can be safely administered to stop the progression of dementia and can be used for the development of such drugs that can reverse the neurotic damage caused by AD. This review article provides a comprehensive overview on the research carried out for AD using curcumin as active model drug.
Spermatogenesis process is sensitive to heat stress because the testicular temperature is 2 to 4 °C lower than the core body temperature. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles containing curcumin on spermatogenesis in mice induced by long-term scrotal hyperthermia. In this experimental study, 18 mice were equally divided into the following three groups: control, scrotal hyperthermia, and scrotal hyperthermia + curcumin-loaded iron particles (NPs) (240 μL) (mice were treated for 20 days). Hyperthermia was induced by exposure to the temperature of 43 °C for 20 min every other day for 5 weeks. Afterward, the animals were euthanized; sperm samples were collected for sperm parameters analysis, and testis samples were taken for histopathology experiments, evaluation of serum testosterone level, and RNA extraction in order to examine the expression of c-kit, STRA8 and PCNA genes. Our study showed that curcumin-loaded iron particles could notably increase the volume of testis, length of seminiferous tubules, sperm parameters, and stereological parameters (i.e., spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, round spermatid, and Leydig cells) thereby increasing serum testosterone level; in addition, TUNEL-positive cells showed a significant decrease in curcumin-loaded iron particle group. Thus, based on the obtained results, the expression of c-kit, STRA8, and PCNA genes was significantly increased in treatment groups by curcumin-loaded iron particles compared with scrotal hyperthermia-induced mice. In conclusion, curcumin-loaded iron particles can be considered an alternative treatment for improving the spermatogenesis process in scrotal hyperthermia-induced mice.
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Vitamin C plays a role in neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelin formation and modulation of the cholinergic, catecholinergic, and glutaminergic systems. This review evaluates the link between vitamin C status and cognitive performance, in both cognitively intact and impaired individuals. We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, SciSearch and the Cochrane Library from 1980 to January 2017, finding 50 studies, with randomised controlled trials (RCTs, n = 5), prospective (n = 24), cross-sectional (n = 17) and case-control (n = 4) studies. Of these, 36 studies were conducted in healthy participants and 14 on cognitively impaired individuals (including Alzheimer’s and dementia). Vitamin C status was measured using food frequency questionnaires or plasma vitamin C. Cognition was assessed using a variety of tests, mostly the Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE). In summary, studies demonstrated higher mean vitamin C concentrations in the cognitively intact groups of participants compared to cognitively impaired groups. No correlation between vitamin C concentrations and MMSE cognitive function was apparent in the cognitively impaired individuals. The MMSE was not suitable to detect a variance in cognition in the healthy group. Analysis of the studies that used a variety of cognitive assessments in the cognitively intact was beyond the scope of this review; however, qualitative assessment revealed a potential association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and cognition. Due to a number of limitations in these studies, further research is needed, utilizing plasma vitamin C concentrations and sensitive cognitive assessments that are suitable for cognitively intact adults.
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Background: Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal diseases, farmers have used fungicides to manage the damage of plant pathogenic fungi. Drawbacks such as development of resistance and environmental toxicity associated with these chemicals have motivated researchers and cultivators to investigate other possibilities. Materials and methods: Several databases were accessed to determine work done on protecting plants against plant fungal pathogens with plant extracts using search terms "plant fungal pathogen", "plant extracts" and "phytopathogens". Proposals are made on the best extractants and bioassay techniques to be used. Results: In addition to chemical fungicides, biological agents have been used to deal with plant fungal diseases. There are many examples where plant extracts or plant derived compounds have been used as commercial deterrents of fungi on a large scale in agricultural and horticultural setups. One advantage of this approach is that plant extracts usually contain more than one antifungal compound. Consequently the development of resistance of pathogens may be lower if the different compounds affect a different metabolic process. Plants cultivated using plants extracts may also be marketed as organically produced. Many papers have been published on effective antimicrobial compounds present in plant extracts focusing on applications in human health. More research is required to develop suitable, sustainable, effective, cheaper botanical products that can be used to help overcome the scourge of plant fungal diseases. Conclusions: Scientists who have worked only on using plants to control human and animal fungal pathogens should consider the advantages of focusing on plant fungal pathogens. This approach could not only potentially increase food security for rural farmers, lead to commercial rewards, but it is also much easier to test the efficacy in greenhouse or field experiments. Even if extracts are toxic it may still be useful in the floriculture industry.
Background and aims: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a medicinal plant with potential applications in the medicinal purposes. Fenugreek has been used in food as a flavouring agent since ancient times in many countries like Greece, Rome and Egypt. It has a special place in the traditional medical system. The aim of this study was to review phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum.Methods: This research was a review study. Data were collected using articles in various databases and books about pharmacological effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum.Results: The seeds are rich sources of lipids, protein, mucilage, calcium, dietary fiber B vitamins, Iron, protease inhibitors and several steroid saponins, tiny amounts of alkaloid, furostanol glycosides and steroidal peptide. As a medicinal plant, fenugreek recognized as a galactagogue or lactation stimulant in women after child birth as well as for its ability to treat wounds and sore muscles. In addition, it has the ability to be as antibacterial, anti-ulcer, anti-cancer, anthelmintic (antagonistic effect against parasitic worms), and antinociceptive (pain-reducing) properties. In recent years, laboratory studies and clinical trials have focused on the potential activity of fenugreek as a natural medicine.Conclusion:These studies have shown that fenugreek plants possess immunomodulatory, hypocholesterolaemic, hypoglycaemic, gastro- and hepatoprotective and antioxidative properties. Pharmacological properties of fenugreek have been explored to identify a role for the plant in diabetes management and in cardiovascular health, indicating the presence of bioactive compounds in fenugreek, which may be responsible for its health benefits.
The diseases attributable to virus remain the global burden. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is considered as the major viral pathogen of the lower respiratory tract of infants, has been implicated in severe lung disease. In this contribution, we developed a -cyclodextrin (CD) functionalized graphene oxide (GO) composite, which displayed excellent antiviral activity and could load curcumin efficiently. RSV, a negative-sense single-stranded enveloped RNA virus, was employed as a model virus to investigate the antiviral activity of multifunctional GO. Proved by the tissue culture infectious doses assay and immunofluorescence assay, the curcumin loaded functional GO was confirmed with highly efficient inhibition for RSV infection and great biocompatibility to the host cells. The results showed that the composite could prevent RSV from infecting the host cells by directly inactivating virus and inhibiting the viral attachment, which possessed the prophylactic and therapeutic effects towards virus. Our data indicate that the composite may provide new insights into antiviral therapy for RSV infection.
Carpets have been implicated in prolonged and reoccurring outbreaks of human noroviruses (HuNoV), the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Viral recovery from environmental surfaces, such as carpet, remains undeveloped. Our aim was to determine survival of HuNoV surrogates on an understudied environmental surface, carpet. First, we measured the zeta potential and absorption capacity of wool and nylon carpet fibers, we then developed a minispin column elution (MSC) method, and lastly we characterized the survival of HuNoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), over 60 days under 30 and 70% relative humidity (RH) on two types of carpet and one glass surface. Carpet surface charge was negative between relevant pH values (i.e., pH 7 to 9). In addition, wool could absorb approximately two times more liquid than nylon. The percent recovery efficiency obtained by the MSC method ranged from 4.34 to 20.89% and from 30.71 to 54.14% for FCV and MNV on carpet fibers, respectively, after desiccation. Overall, elution buffer type did not significantly affect recovery. Infectious FCV or MNV survived between <1 and 15 or between 3 and 15 days, respectively. However, MNV survived longer under some conditions and at significantly (P < 0.05) higher titers compared to FCV. Albeit, surrogates followed similar survival trends, i.e., both survived longest on wool then nylon and glass, while 30% RH provided a more hospitable environment compared to 70% RH. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR signals for both surrogates were detectable for the entire study, but FCV genomic copies experienced significantly higher reductions (<3.80 log10 copies) on all surfaces compared to MNV (<1.10 log10 copies). IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Classical symptoms of illness include vomiting and diarrhea which could lead to severe dehydration and death. HuNoV are transmitted by the fecal-oral or vomitus-oral route via person-to-person contact, food, water, and/or environmental surfaces. Published laboratory-controlled studies have documented the environmental stability of HuNoV on hard surfaces, but there is limited laboratory-based evidence available about survival on soft surfaces, e.g., carpet and upholstered furniture. Several epidemiological reports have suggested soft surfaces may be HuNoV fomites illustrating the importance of conducting a survival study. The three objectives of our research were to demonstrate techniques to characterize soft surfaces, develop a viral elution method for carpet, and characterize the survival of HuNoV surrogates on carpet. These results can be used to improve microbial risk assessments, the development of much-needed soft surface disinfectant, and standardizing protocols for future soft surface studies.
Natural products (NPs) are secondary metabolites produced and used by organisms for defending or adapting purposes. These molecules were naturally selected during thousands of years to improve the specificity and cover a very wide range of functions, depending on the origin, the habitat and the specific activity carried out in the organism of origin. Due to these intrinsic features, NPs have been used as healing agents since thousands of years and still today continue to be the most important source of new potential therapeutic preparations.The purpose of this review is to provide information about the historical evolution of the NPs investigation methods, focusing attention on the relative benefit/problems emerged after the improvement of the scientific investigations about them, especially over the last two centuries. Taken together, the reported information lead to the central role of NPs in the future of drug development for human needs.
Cancers have been found to be the leading causes of death worldwide, with 8.2 million people dying in 2012 and approximately 14 million new cases reported. These cases are estimated to rise by about 70% over the next 2 decades. More than 60% of the world's new annual cancer cases occur in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. The analysis, literature survey, and observed reports have indicated cancer is responsible for 70% of all deaths. In men, the 5 most common sites of cancer diagnosed in 2012 were lung, prostate, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer while in women breast, colorectal, lung, cervix, and stomach cancer were more prevalent.
Maternal immunization directed to control RSV infection in newborns and infants is an appealing vaccination strategy currently under development. In this work we have modeled maternal vaccination against RSV in cotton rats (CR) to answer two fundamental questions on maternal vaccine safety. We tested (i), whether a known, unsafe RSV vaccine (i.e., FI-RSV Lot 100 vaccine) induces vaccine enhanced disease in the presence of passively transferred, RSV maternal immunity, and (ii) whether the same FI-RSV vaccine could induce vaccine enhanced disease in CR litters when used to immunize their RSV-primed mothers. Our data show that FI-RSV immunization of pups with subsequent RSV infection results in vaccine-enhanced disease independent of whether the pups were born to RSV-seropositive or RSV-seronegative mothers, and that FI-RSV immunization of RSV-seropositive mothers does not present a health risk to either the mother or the infant. Our study also raises a novel concern regarding infant immunization, namely that “safe” RSV vaccines (e.g., live RSV administered intramuscularly) may induce vaccine-enhanced disease in RSV-infected pups born to seropositive mothers. Finally, we describe for the first time a sharp decrease in RSV neutralizing antibody titers in immunized seropositive CR at the time of delivery. This decline may reflect maternal immune suppression, potentially pinpointing a window of increased vulnerability to RSV infection that could be alleviated by effective immunization of expectant mothers.
Thanks to the ability to suppress the proliferation and to kill tumour cells, several studies have shown the anti-cancer effects of curcumin (CUR) and its derivatives, i.e. diacetylcurcumin (DAC) and bis-dehydroxycurcumin (bDHC). This study is focused onto the development of curcuminoid complexes with gallium-68 employed as potential new radio-labelled probes to detect neoplastic tissues through imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography. To this purpose, the uptake of three Ga-curcuminoid complexes, namely Ga(CUR)2⁺, Ga(DAC)2⁺, Ga(bDHC)2⁺, by various tumour cell lines was compared with the uptake of the same compounds by normal human lymphocytes by flow cytometry using the intrinsic fluorescence of the curcuminoids. Ga(CUR)2⁺, and particularly Ga(DAC)2⁺, showed a higher uptake by colorectal carcinoma (HT29) and lymphoma (K562) cell lines than lymphocytes, while the uptake of Ga(bDHC)2⁺ was higher in lymphocytes than in all the other cell lines. Based on the fluorescence data, Gallium-68 labelled complexes were then tested in HT29 cell line. ⁶⁸Ga(DAC)2⁺ showed the highest uptake by HT29 cells (higher internalization with a lower externalization) and the highest affinity. The obtained results are promising and the findings foster further investigation on the development of curcumin-metal-based radiopharmaceuticals.
The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Curcuma longa (200 mg kg⁻¹, po) and curcumin (80 mg kg⁻¹, po) for their hepatoprotective efficacy against mercuric chloride (HgCl2: 12 μmol kg⁻¹, ip; once only) hepatotoxicity. The HgCl2 administration altered various biochemical parameters, including transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and cholesterol contents with a concomitant decline in protein and albumin concentration in serum which were restored towards control by therapy of Curcuma longa or curcumin. On the other hand, both treatments showed a protective effect on drug metabolizing enzymes viz. aniline hydroxylase (AH) and amidopyrine-N-demethylase (AND), hexobarbitone induced sleep time and BSP retention. Choleretic, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH)-free radical scavenging activities and histological studies also supported the biochemical findings. The present study concludes that Curcuma longa extract or curcumin has the ability to alleviate the hepatotoxic effects caused by HgCl2 in rats.