With the rapid urbanization and fast growth of transportation, noise pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems in front of the people worldwide, it usually causes various disorders and greatly affects the work efficiency and living standards of human beings. Reducing noise by using sound absorption materials is an important approach to lessen the harm of noise pollution. As the most abundantly used materials, porous materials combine the properties of lightweight, wide absorption frequency range and highly sound absorption ability, and they hold great potential in the field of sound absorption. In this review, the recent progress in the design and fabrication of porous sound absorption materials is summarized and highlighted. This review covers the introduction of the sound absorption mechanism and evolution of prediction models for porous sound absorption materials, and the research and development of the design concepts and fabrication of sound absorption foams and fibrous sound absorption materials. The review concludes with some perspectives and outlook for the porous sound absorption materials.