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The scope of this report is to summarize the process of data collection required for the open source tool Hotmaps as generic default information with regard to the 28 European Union member states at different spatial levels. Data has been collected at national or if available at regional/local levels. Data has been generated for four different sectors: residential (single family houses, multifamily houses, and apartment blocks), service (offices, trade, education, health, hotels and restaurants, and other non‐residential buildings), industry (iron and steel, non‐ferrous metals, paper and printing, non‐metallic minerals, chemical industry, food, drink and tobacco, engineering and others not classified), and transport (passenger transport ‐ public, private, rail and freight transport ‐ heavy goods and light commercial vehicles). Data for heating, cooling and domestic hot water differ widely in their quality regarding completeness, accuracy, and reliability. Concerning buildings, in contrast to space heating and domestic hot water, the European Union space cooling market is barely explored in scientific literature. While the focus of previous research has been on the residential sector, a shortfall of data for services exists. With regard to the industrial sector, national average values are used even though there is a high variety of production processes, utilized energy carriers and efficiency measures for industrial sites within the same subsectors. Regarding transport, data availability on the electricity need is underexplored. All collected information on space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water have been filtered and statistically evaluated. According to the number of sources, the coefficient of variation has been used as statistical indicator of uncertainty and to exclude values outside a range of plus or minus the standard deviation around the average. The filtered values have been used to compute a more robust average. Filling in the gaps, implied not only extrapolating and assembling data from large data tools (e.g. EU Building Stock Observatory, Invert/EE‐Lab, BPIE etc.), but also researching data source‐by‐source from single scientific literature fonts as journal papers, conference proceedings and project deliverables. It is only by following such an in‐depth approach that we were able to fill lacks of data. With regard to the total useful energy demand (residential and service sectors) for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water within the entire European Union 28, the highest position is held by space heating with approximately 2685 TWh/y, followed by domestic hot water with around 429 TWh/y and space cooling (207 TWh/y). The European Union 15 is responsible for practically the entire useful energy demand for space cooling of the European Union 28, with about 87%. Concerning nearly zero‐energy building, it has to be pointed out that the Energy Performance of Building Directive implementation at national level is very diverse from country to country and some member states have not defined yet what a nearly zero‐energy building is. This makes almost impossible a direct comparison between member states. The requirements used in national nearly zero‐energy building definitions accustomed to be principally the same, i.e. primary energy, share of renewable energy and thermal transmittance of building envelope components. Nevertheless, the methodologies to calculate primary energy are different, and the shares of renewable energy, as well as the values of the primary energy factors, are politically defined by each member state. Concerning the other nearly zero‐energy building requirements, these tend to depend on climatic conditions. Regarding the heat density maps, it was possible to produce these at hectare level –100 x 100 m. Concerning the climate context, it was possible to collect the main variables with a spatial resolution of 1 km in average. With regard to industrial processes, results include an EU‐wide database on energy consumption and excess heat potentials of energy‐intensive companies, a dataset with techno‐economic characteristics of steam generation technologies, and benchmarking indicators for energy consumption in industrial sectors. The part on heating and cooling supply provides two data sets related to heat supply. First, the regional heat supply mix by type of energy carrier broken‐down to the European Union 28 regions. Second, techno‐economic characteristics of heat supply technologies. Concerning the renewable energy sources data collection and potential review, it was possible to assess the potential for the entire European Union 28 at hectare level regarding forest biomass, solar energy, and wind. In contrast, other renewable energy sources potentials (e.g. municipal solid waste, agriculture biomass etc.) could be estimated at regional level. With regard to the hourly load profiles, results contain a data set for useful heating and cooling energy demand in industry, services and residential sectors. The data set provides time series for all European Union 28 regions. The data sets on electricity, include hourly electricity prices, CO2 emissions and the generation mix per country. These data will be used to link heating and cooling planning with the electricity system in the Hotmaps toolbox. Concerning transport, the dataset was created specifically to analyze the heating and cooling need within the project, it includes sets of data on final energy demand in different transport sectors and specific data on the electricity request for transport and rail. There is still room for improvement in the quality as well as coverage of data. Therefore, we added a section on the specific limitations of provided data in each chapter.
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... Regarding Europe, investigations of district heating potential at a large scale have been already performed, but they all deal with the current 3rd generation technology. Among them, Heat Roadmap Europe 4 (HRE4) [9] and Hotmaps [10] projects, both financed by means of the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program established from 2016 to 2019, proved to be at the basis of the methodology presented in this work (HRE project especially). Indeed, even if their focus was the estimation of district heating potential at a large-scale level in the current configuration, i.e., 3rd generation district heating, they addressed all the key steps of DH potential analysis: analysis of the building stock and of the heat demand, analysis of heat resources and their potential, mapping and definition of suitable DH regions. ...
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