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Abstract

Previous research has shown that teamwork between students underpins the communication interactions among team members, and these interactions are underscored in the work environment, job quality, work outcome and, of course, grades. Analysing the interactions among the members of a team using a learning analytics system allows for a formative evaluation that indicates the progress of each team member and taking remedial actions if appropriate progress has not been made. This paper uses a learning analytics system to study interactions between students and detect the values and attitudes demanded of a leader by society. The results of this analysis are keys for avoiding corruption and wrong practices and can even provide a solution to global intercultural troubles. In this study, a validated questionnaire of authentic leadership was given to 78 team members in a university context; the influence of some values and attitudes on leadership is proved with grades; and a learning analytics system was used to analyse information that could predict a leader’s behaviour during the development of teamwork.

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... These data can be observed manually by teachers, such as seeing the results of the micro-activity, the doubts raised or the interaction with the resources where the concepts are exposed. They can also be analysed by learning analytics systems [42,43] through, for example, the interaction data provided by the e-learning platform (resources viewed, dates, duration, messages in forums, etc.). ...
... On the other hand, both the classical FC model [2,3] and the MFT model [4,6,44] have been shown to be active methodologies. In the case of the MFT model applied to work teams, it has been shown that the cooperative process is transparent [45] for both the team and the entire teaching group, that there is shared leadership [43] based on values [42] and that teamwork skills [6] and cooperation are acquired for the creation of knowledge [5]. The 4.0 learning model requires cooperative skills [38,46], and in this sense, the MFT method already includes them. ...
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This article integrates two visions on the creation of knowledge by students: an academic vision where the person who creates knowledge uses high-level cognitive abilities and, therefore, acquires deeper learning, and an organisational learning vision, where the creation of knowledge adds value to the organisation and the individuals who work in this matter. It starts from a validated flipped classroom model and then adds procedures and cycles of knowledge that make it an active methodology, in such a way that it simultaneously supports organisational learning, using cooperative competencies characteristic of Education 4.0. This proposed hybrid model has been applied online during confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic and, subsequently, in dual mode (students partly in person and the rest online at the same time) and face-to-face mode. The evidence of this research shows that the creation of knowledge by the students, cooperatively and with an organisational learning perspective, has repercussions for improvements in their academic performance by producing deeper learning. In addition, the development of cooperative skills is observed to create and manage a large amount of helpful knowledge for them and other students in their learning process.
... AL is a positive, authentic, and ethical leadership style that is generally recognized as a positive organizational leadership method and that can help companies cope with various challenges [2,3,4]. By reviewing the literature, we found that previous studies have separately addressed the role of AL at the individual level [5]and at the team level [6]. At the individual level, many scholars have investigated AL's impact process on follower outcomes [7]. ...
... First, it is believed that there is a positive correlation between team-oriented AL and psychological safety at the individual level. Team-oriented AL treats all team members with fairness, justice and openness, and this nondiscriminatory attitude greatly enhances the psychological security and trust not only between leader and followers but also among followers [5]; thus, it is beneficial to the production of a better psychological safety relationship. Based on the above discussion, we propose the following hypothesis: ...
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The impact of Artificial Intelligence(AI) on industrial change has transformed the practice of enterprise management, and impacted the traditional management theory born in the industrial era. This paper discusses the impact of AI on the practice and theory of enterprise management, including the transparency of human beings and the employ ability of AI. Based on the characteristics of the AI technology development team. In this study, 102 AI technology team leaders and 697 team members from AI companies in China were used as subjects both to investigate the influence mechanism of AL at both the individual and team levels and to explore the cross-level relationship between the two levels. The results show that at the individual level, the psychological safety plays a mediating role between individual-oriented AL behavior and an individual’s performance. At the team level, the team’s atmosphere plays a mediating role between team-oriented AL behavior and the individual’s performance. This study has important implications for the theory of leadership behavior and leadership practice. AI belongs to a new type of technology, and the pressure of technology development work is great. It will display a kind of authentic leadership and can effectively promote the technology of the subordinates.
... Mechanisms to collect evidence should be developed to evaluate the teamwork skills and compromise of individual team members (ABET, 2017). Analyzing the interaction of the team members, through a learning analysis system, permits a formative evaluation that indicates the progress of each member and allows for corrective measures in case of inadequate progress (Sein-Echaluce et al., 2018). The evidence for assessing the acquisition of teamwork competences is classified into three dimensions: (i) the individual dimension, acquired by each team member; (ii) the group dimension, composed by the results of the teamwork; and (iii) the final outcome dimension . ...
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Training future programming teachers requires an innovative approach. Not only students need to handle the most current trends in technologies and teaching-learning methodologies, but also they must develop the capacity and criteria to search and select the most adequate to their context. This work analyzes the application of a collaborative Research-Based Learning methodology in the Programming subject of a master's degree in teacher training. The objective was to create a digital learning ecosystem and analyze the impact on the development of programming teaching skills. The results show that students perceive positive effects on the development of teaching skills, generating useful resources. However, teamwork has conditioned the quality of such resources. The digital ecosystem has allowed students to share knowledge with their peers and forthcoming students. Students who already had the generated ecosystem available valued it very positively. Future programming teachers require lifelong learning which can be supported by this living ecosystem.
... FC has been shown to be effective in higher education settings, particularly in areas of knowledge such as sciences and biomedical sciences (Baepler et al., 2014;Chen et al., 2017;Gutiérrez-Fraile et al., 2011;Njie-Carr et al., 2017;Presti, 2016;Sein-Echaluce et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2018) and also in the social sciences (Albert and Beatty, 2014;Roach, 2014) and social work (Gómez-Poyato et al., 2020;Holmes et al., 2015;Oliván Blázquez et al., 2019;Sage and Sele, 2015). ...
Article
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Active learning methodologies, such as flipped classroom (FC), generate a higher level of student engagement, greater dynamism in learning and more significant interactions with course content. Some other active methodologies used in the academic environment are problem-based learning (PBL) and case study (CS). There are few studies that analyse FC combined with PBL class activities or with course-based learning (CBL) activities, however, in fact, there are no studies that analyse which combination of activities would lead to better academic performance and student satisfaction. The main aim of this study is to comparate FC methodology, combined with PBL activities or with CBL activities, in improving the academic performance of undergraduate social work students. This work also intends to analyse the level of satisfaction with the course and the methodology used. A class level randomisation study was performed. Both groups in the study used an FC active methodology, but group 1 applied this methodology with PBL, whereas group 2 applied it in conjunction with a CBL methodology. The students also had to do activities at home that were related to the PBL or CS methodology. There were significant differences in both categorical and quantitative exam scores, with the group that had applied the FC + PBL methodology achieving a higher grade in the exam and containing a higher percentage of students who passed or received merit and outstanding grades. In general, there was a good level of satisfaction in both groups and there were no significant differences across all items asked, except for ‘It helps critical thinking’ and ‘It helps to apply theory to assessment’, which were evaluated more favourably by the FC + CBL students.
... Teamwork experience and an ability to be a good team member is a quality that many employers value and is an essential skill that needs efficient assessment at the undergraduate level [3,4]. Unfortunately, the hands-on concept with complex systems of the unit operations laboratory experience to physical systems is a new concept for many students, which adds complexity to working efficiently as a team -a well-recognized problem in many academic levels [5][6][7][8]. Thus, the difficulty of achieving an effective level of teamwork performance in a laboratory is not only based on the encountered technical hands-on challenges, but also on the approach used for the team formation, each individual's technical knowledge and communication, and the desired learning goals of each student. ...
Article
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This study focuses on the impact of team formation approach on teamwork effectiveness and performance spanning three years of instruction of the chemical engineering unit operations laboratory, which is an upper-level undergraduate laboratory course. Team formation approaches changed each year, and assessment tools, including peer-assessment, academic performance, and course evaluations, were employed to evaluate team performance. Approaches included three cases: instructor-selected teams based on GPA with the objective of a similar cumulative average GPA for each team, student self-selected teams, and a combination of self-selected teams with instructor-selected teams for a final experiment. For the third case, new teams were assigned based on a common interest to learn about a specific final laboratory experiment or research topic, and the instructor identification of both low-and high-performing students in the prior teams. Team effectiveness and performance were assessed using CATME, a teamwork VALUE rubric developed by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U), and numerical peer-contribution forms. In addition, assigned team leaders for each experiment provided feedback regarding individual team member performance, including contributions to reports and presentations. Results demonstrated that less than five percent of the students presented team conflicts when students self-selected teams for the laboratory course; however, strong or weak teams were formed leading to unbalanced laboratory performance. On the contrary, course evaluation outcomes were improved when students were assigned to teams based on cumulative GPA or reassigned by the instructor for the completion of a final experiment. Overall, this study demonstrates that a combination of student-selected and instructor-selected teams during the same semester led to better course outcomes and enhanced individual experiences, as shown by the students' evaluations of the laboratory course.
... BlockChain, Realidad Mixta, Realidad Aumentada Adaptativa, Inteligencia colectiva [8], Aula Invertida [9]- [11], Ecosistemas de aprendizaje [12], Learning Analytics [13], [14], Sistemas y Aprendizaje Adaptativos [11], [15], Gamificación, MOOC's [16]y Aprendizaje Servicio. ...
Presentation
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Resumen Hasta hace poco, el profesorado que innovaba lo hacía para conseguir mejoras en el aprendizaje de su alumnado, lo hacía de forma vocacional, sin recursos y ayudas. Lo cierto es que a este profesorado poco le importaba que su experiencia fuese reconocida como innovación educativa por algún organismo externo. Le bastaba con conseguir sus objetivos. Actualmente hay un nuevo escenario basado en la necesidad de acreditar que el profesorado realiza innovación educativa. Esta acreditación es necesaria para recibir ayudas de la institución y, en algunos casos, para acceder a determinados puestos docentes. Independientemente del motivo por el que innova (por obligación o por vocación) es necesario garantizar que realmente está haciendo innovación educativa. Así podrá alcanzar las mejoras que necesita introducir en su aula de una forma eficaz y eficiente. Para saber si se está innovando hay que comprender qué es la innovación educativa y su alcance (primer punto). El alcance es lo que nos va a definir el grado de innovación real. Una vez definido el alcance se contemplan dos escenarios: el de las tendencias de innovación educativa (segundo punto) y el diseño de una innovación a partir de un método concreto (tercer punto). Finalmente veremos las características que definen a una buena práctica de innovación educativa, independientemente del escenario elegido. La charla se enmarca en la XIII Jornada Académica Virtual 20-21 organizada por el Vicerrectorado Académico de la Universidad Peruana Unión a celebrar del 9 al 12 de agosto de 2021. 1. Introducción. En este punto se dará una definición de innovación educativa, se propondrá un caso para su reflexión y a partir de la misma se definirá el alcance de la innovación. La figura 1 muestra una definición de innovación educativa y una reflexión para generar debate.
... El origen. Las distintas innovaciones que se aplican en el contexto docente tienen un origen variado, las hay que han nacido en la innovación tecnológica como por ejemplo Realidad Virtual Mixta, otras tienen un origen en la economía como Block-Chain, también las hay que han nacido en sectores concretos como la Gamificación y también las hay que tienen su origen en las nuevas formas de acceso a la información como Learning Analytics [1], [2]. Todas estas innovaciones requieren un esfuerzo de adaptación, suelen ser complicadas, costosas y con cierto riesgo en la obtención de resultados en el ámbito docente. ...
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Los objetivos de este curso son: • Dar pautas para aumentar la participación activa del alumnado en su aprendizaje. • Conocer e identificar tipos de contenidos, tecnologías y actividades propias de la metodología Aula Invertida. • Aplicar el modelo de Aula Invertida en contextos híbridos (online y presencial) • Conocer y aplicar técnicas de Aprendizaje Personalizado en la metodología Aula Invertida. • Diseñar y desarrollar un plan de acción personalizado adaptado a las distintas asignaturas de las personas participantes. Los contenidos se estructuran en cuatro apartados: • Qué es y qué no es Flip Teaching / Aula Invertida. • Indicadores para medir la participación activa del alumnado. • Ingredientes (tipos de contenidos), herramientas (tecnologías) y actividades: cómo elaborar la receta. • Tipos de aprendizaje personalizado y su aplicación en el Aula Invertida. La metodología del curso se basa en el modelo de Aula Invertida, de esta forma se tendrá un aprendizaje experiencial del propio modelo. El curso se organiza en dos partes, cada una compuesta de dos bloques, uno asíncrono (“lección en casa”) y otro síncrono (“deberes en clase”). En la primera sesión asíncrona (bloque 1) se trabajó con los indicadores de mejora que se desean obtener aplicando el Aula Invertida en cada asignatura de las personas participantes. En la primera sesión síncrona (bloque 2) se ampliaron las características de los indicadores y se impartieron micro-lecciones sobre el método de Aula Invertida. En la segunda sesión asíncrona (bloque 3) se trabajó con la identificación de actividades, TIC (Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación) y tipos de contenidos para diseñar una “lección en casa”. En la segunda sesión síncrona (bloque 4) se mostraron ejemplos de Aula Invertida aplicada a lecciones magistrales, trabajo en equipo y laboratorios. Las sesiones síncronas (bloques 2 y 4) se impartieron los días 11 y 13 de mayo de 2021. En este documento se complementa la presentación utilizada, con enlaces y referencias bibliográficas de, mayoritariamente, trabajos realizados por el profesorado del seminario.
... This includes the design of effective interfaces for guiding learners or provoking reflection to improve the effectiveness of teamwork or learning. In role-based group situations, people could gain a better understanding of competencies that are particularly important to develop in certain roles, such as leadership (Echaluce, Fidalgo-Blanco, Esteban-Escano, Peñalvo, & González, 2018). Educators and coaches can also play a critical role by acting upon group insights by performing interventions, providing expanded feedback, or changing the task design or their pedagogical approaches. ...
Article
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Using data to generate a deeper understanding of collaborative learning is not new, but automatically analyzing log data has enabled new means of identifying key indicators of effective collaboration and teamwork that can be used to predict outcomes and personalize feedback. Collaboration analytics is emerging as a new term to refer to computational methods for identifying salient aspects of collaboration from multiple group data sources for learners, educators, or other stakeholders to gain and act upon insights. Yet, it remains unclear how collaboration analytics go beyond previous work focused on modelling group interactions for the purpose of adapting instruction. This paper provides a conceptual model of collaboration analytics to help researchers and designers identify the opportunities enabled by such innovations to advance knowledge in, and provide enhanced support for, collaborative learning and teamwork. We argue that mapping from low-level data to higher-order constructs that are educationally meaningful, and that can be understood by educators and learners, is essential to assessing the validity of collaboration analytics. Through four cases, the paper illustrates the critical role of theory, task design, and human factors in the design of interfaces that inform actionable insights for improving collaboration and group learning.
... Las tendencias nos indican lo que está llegando o lo que está por llegar, aunque esto no significa que se vayan a quedar en nuestras aulas. Hay tendencias que responden a demandas históricas del profesorado, otras a demandas de la sociedad y otras permiten cambiar totalmente el enfoque de los procesos de formación y aprendizaje [10] Ejemplos de tendencias BlockChain, Realidad Mixta, Realidad Aumentada Adaptativa, Inteligencia colectiva [11], Aula Invertida [12]- [15], Ecosistemas de aprendizaje [16], Learning Analytics [17], [18], Sistemas y Aprendizaje Adaptativos [14], [19], Gamificación, MOOC's [20]y Aprendizaje Servicio. ...
Presentation
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El objetivo de la charla es transmitir que realizar y aplicar innovación educativa en las aulas es un proceso necesario, sencillo, que puede ayudarnos en el progreso profesional científico. La realidad actual es que el profesorado que innova lo hace por vocación, por su alumnado y por la mejora del aprendizaje. Pero este proceso conlleva un esfuerzo para el profesorado, esfuerzo que no es compensado con subidas salariales ni con una repercusión en el progreso científico. A pesar de estas condiciones cada vez hay más profesorado que decide aplicar innovación educativa en sus asignaturas, así como universidades que prestan servicios para potenciar la aplicación de la innovación educativa docente. Por esta situación es necesario conocer métodos que permitan realizar y aplicar innovación de tal forma que:  Se optimice el esfuerzo del profesorado.  Garantizar la consecución de las mejoras.  Que se consiga realizar una buena práctica.  Se pueda publicar la experiencia de innovación educativa docente en contextos científicos. Y todo ello con un coste igual o menor al que llevaría aplicar la innovación educativa sin este tipo de métodos. Este trabajo complementa al mapa de conceptos utilizado en el curso. Se puede acceder al mismo a través de la dirección web: https
... Consequently, addressing these issues requires the involvement of professionals from different disciplines and the participation of various stakeholders from the government, private sector, and non-governmental organizations (Grasso and Burkins, 2010). Accordingly, engineers need to be trained with a more comprehensive set of skills to include competencies in effective communication to different audiences, negotiation, team and resource management, planning and task assignment, use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and comprehensive data analysis, and the development of lifelong learning strategies (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2016;Sein-Echaluce et al., 2018). Despite higher education institutions' efforts to develop the needed skills, only two out of three workers end up having adequate competencies to succeed in the pressing technology-based environment of today's marketplace (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2015). ...
Article
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The development of a comprehensive set of skills, including technical, professional, and technology expertise, is critical to succeeding in the increasingly competitive global job marketplace. We proposed to develop such skills in our junior students (third year) via a flipped-classroom approach, a PO-PBL problem, and interactive e-learning tools. The intervention was implemented in the core course of Unit Operations and led to an increase in the students’ perception of the development of teamwork and people-related skills. Despite the benefits of promoting student learning, our intervention revealed that we still need to conduct work to approach more robust peer-to-peer interactions and connectedness. In this regard, students showed a marked tendency to have superficial discussions, which reflected their inability to develop superior emotional connections with peers. This is critical to promote complex thinking and ideation as well as continued engagement with the course contents and will be the focus of our future work.
... • El método CTMTC sigue el modelo IPMA [18] utilizado en la acreditación internacional de la competencia de trabajo en equipo. • En el liderazgo distribuido (todas las personas pertenecientes al equipo de trabajo realizan labores de liderazgo) se adquiere el liderazgo auténtico 4 [19] Como información complementaria se puede acceder a un conjunto de videos que explican las distintas fases del método CTMTC. En el pie de página 5 correspondiente se muestra el enlace. ...
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Conferencia impartida a través de la Webinar organizada el 7 de abril de 2020 por la Dirección de Desarrollo Académico de la Universidad Central de Ecuador. La pandemia originada por el Covid-19 ha causado una situación sin precedentes en nuestros centros de formación: aulas cerradas y la obligación de continuar las actividades presenciales de forma online. En esta guía se establecen unas recomendaciones para abordar esta situación.
... Several contexts could benefit from the adaptation of information dashboards, especially the educational context, in which data mining and analytics are becoming more widespread given their benefits in supporting decisions regarding learning methodologies [69][70][71][72][73][74][75]. Tailored educational dashboards could support knowledge generation through visual analysis, no matter the end user's characteristics, improving and making decision-making processes more accessible. ...
Article
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Information dashboards are everywhere. They support knowledge discovery in a huge variety of contexts and domains. Although powerful, these tools can be complex, not only for the end-users but also for developers and designers. Information dashboards encode complex datasets into different visual marks to ease knowledge discovery. Choosing a wrong design could compromise the entire dashboard's effectiveness, selecting the appropriate encoding or configuration for each potential context, user, or data domain is a crucial task. For these reasons, there is a necessity to automatize the recommendation of visualizations and dashboard configurations to deliver tools adapted to their context. Recommendations can be based on different aspects, such as user characteristics, the data domain, or the goals and tasks that will be achieved or carried out through the visualizations. This work presents a dashboard meta-model that abstracts all these factors and the integration of a visualization task taxonomy to account for the different actions that can be performed with information dashboards. This meta-model has been used to design a domain specific language to specify dashboards requirements in a structured way. The ultimate goal is to obtain a dashboard generation pipeline to deliver dashboards adapted to any context, such as the educational context, in which a lot of data are generated, and there are several actors involved (students, teachers, managers, etc.) that would want to reach different insights regarding their learning performance or learning methodologies.
... • Se produce aprendizaje entre iguales (peer to peer) [15] • Aumentan las interacciones entre el alumnado [9] • El alumnado crea recursos de conocimiento tanto en la lección en casa como en los deberes en clase [10] • El alumnado comparte y utiliza recursos creados por otro alumnado [10] • El alumnado genera lecciones aprendidas a partir de su propia experiencia de aprendizaje [15] • Se intercambian más mensajes durante la cooperación y se incrementan los debates [9] • Se utilizan capacidades cognitivas de nivel superior [9] • Aumenta la demanda de retroalimentación educativa por parte del alumnado [16] • Aumenta la asistencia a clase [11] • Aumentan las responsabilidades individuales durante el trabajo en equipo [2] • Aumentan las actividades cooperativas entre los componentes del equipo de trabajo [2] • La acción de liderazgo en los equipos de trabajo es distribuida y se realiza con valores éticos y morales [17] En el artículo "Impact indicators of educational innovations based on active methodologies" [13] se incluye un estudio donde se muestran los indicadores de mejora especificados por profesorado de distintos ámbitos. ...
Technical Report
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En este informe se presentan ventajas y conclusiones de la aplicación del método de Aula Invertida en diversas situaciones de aprendizaje. Se ha elaborado a partir de la recopilación de artículos científicos e informes técnicos realizados por los propios autores del informe, que transmiten la experiencia de más de 8 años aplicando dicho método. El objetivo es dar a conocer el impacto de la aplicación del método de Aula Invertida, tanto en los resultados académicos como en la forma de actuar del alumnado.
... Students engage in content learning prior to the class, thereby maximizing inclass time for active learning (Chen et al., 2018). The effectiveness of this pedagogic method has been examined in several fields, mainly in the Health Sciences (Betihavas, Bridgman, Kornhaber, & Cross, 2016;Bonnes et al., 2017;Bossaer, Panus, Stewart, Hagemeier, & George, 2016;Deprey, 2018;Geist, Larimore, Rawiszer, & Sager, 2015;Heitz, Prusakowski, Willis, & Franck, 2015;Moffett & Mill, 2014;Njie-Carr et al., 2017;Pierce & Fox, 2012;Presti, 2016;Tune, Sturek, & Basile, 2013;Wu, Chi, Wu, & Kang, 2018), Physics and Chemistry (Baepler, Walker, & Driessen, 2014), Engineering (Sahin, Cavlazoglu, & Zeytuncu, 2015;Sein-Echaluce, Fidalgo-Blanco, Esteban-Escano, Garcia- Penalvo, Conde, 2018;Weinstein, 2015), etc. Studies on the effectiveness of FC in the social sciences (Albert & Beatty, 2014;Roach, 2014), especially in the specific field of Social Work, however, are more scarce (Holmes et al., 2015;Sage & Sele, 2015). ...
Article
The inclusion of active learning methodologies in university degrees, such as Flipped Classroom and Role-playing require a higher degree of student involvement, greater dynamism in learning and increased content interaction. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Flipped Classroom and Role-Playing (FC + RP) methods as compared to the traditional lecturer-based (LB) method, on the academic performance of social work students. It also aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the FC + RP in terms of satisfaction with the subject and the method used, and finally, with respect to the perceived difficulty of each theoretical topic. The hypotheses stating that students using FC+RP methods obtained a higher academic performance, and a lower perception of difficulty of the content as compared to students using the traditional LB method were verified. However, it was not verified that students using FC + RP methods have greater satisfaction with the subject and the method used.
... Fidalgo-Blanco, Sein-Echaluce, & García-Peñalvo, 2017).¿Hay indicadores de calidad contrastados científicamente?En múltiples artículos científicos se pueden encontrar resultados validados científicamente que demuestran que el método funciona si es aplicado de una forma determinada.Para el método MFT se dispone de un conjunto de indicadores validados científicamente en diversos artículos Ángel Fidalgo-Blanco, Sein-Echaluce, & García-Peñalvo, 2018a Ángel Fidalgo-Blanco et al., 2018b;Sein-Echaluce, Fidalgo-Blanco, Esteban-Escaño, García-Peñalvo, & Conde, 2018).Dichos indicadores etán disponibles en el siguiente enlace: Acceso indicadores validados Aula Invertida. ...
Presentation
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Resumen del método: "La lección en casa, los deberes en clase" ¿Para qué sirve? Principalmente para que el alumnado esté activo en el aula. Nuestro modelo educativo prima clases (teóricas o de problemas) donde el alumno o bien escucha al profesorado o sigue sus pasos de la pizarra. Esto origina que el alumnado permanezca pasivo en el aula la mayor parte del tiempo. Sin embargo, este método se basa en aprovechar la presencia simultánea de alumnado y profesorado para realizar un aprendizaje activo y cooperativo. Y todo ello sin renunciar a las lecciones magistrales. ¿Es mejor que el alumnado esté activo en clase que pasivo? Aunque haya una pequeña parte del profesorado que prefiera que su alumnado esté en silencio total para que no le interrumpan, lo cierto es que está demostrado (por autores de reconocido prestigio) que, si el alumnado participa de forma activa, entonces se consigue su participación y cooperación (Ausubel, 1969; Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956; Kolb, 1984; Piaget, 1964), intervienen en el proceso de aprendizaje más acciones cognitivas (Dewey, 1916, 1929) y el alumnado reflexiona (Bonwell & Eison, 1991). En este sentido, se puede considerar el método de aula invertida como una metodología activa novedosa y que actualmente es una tendencia (Ángel Fidalgo-Blanco, Sein-Echaluce, & García-Peñalvo, 2019). ¿Cómo se hace? Básicamente "sacando" la lección fuera del aula y "llevándola" aprendida a clase. La idea es que el alumnado, de forma previa a la clase presencial, realice un aprendizaje de la lección. La lección se puede aprender en casa o en cualquier otro lugar (por ejemplo, visionando un video a través del móvil). Independientemente del lugar donde se aprenda la lección (en casa, en el parque, en el transporte público, en la cafetería de la escuela, etc.) y cómo se lleva a cabo (a través de un video, artículo, noticia, libro, etc.), la lección siempre debe llevarse aprendida a clase. ¿Cuándo surge este método?
... BlockChain, Realidad Mixta, Realidad Aumentada Adaptativa, Inteligencia colectiva [5], Aula Invertida[6]- [8], Ecosistemas de aprendizaje [9], Learning Analytics [10], [11], Sistemas y Aprendizaje Adaptativos [8], [12], Gamificación, MOOC's [13]y Aprendizaje Servicio. ...
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En numerosas ocasiones las tendencias se ven como algo lejano, algo que está por venir y por tanto, de momento, no es aplicable en nuestras aulas. Nada más lejos de la realidad, éstas se pueden aplicar de forma inmediata. En función del objetivo y estrategia de uso, la aplicación de las tendencias será costosa y compleja. En otros casos barata y sencilla. En este artículo se definen un conjunto de procesos que permitirán: • Clasificar las tendencias en función de la "proximidad de aplicación en el aula". • Aplicar un proceso para seleccionar las que se integren de forma más adecuada con el objetivo de la innovación educativa docente a aplicar. • Describir un método de aplicación de las tendencias de innovación educativa en el aula. El método MAIN. Nota importante. Esta charla es una nueva versión del documento
... BlockChain, Realidad Mixta, Realidad Aumentada Adaptativa, Inteligencia colectiva [7], Aula Invertida[8]- [10], Ecosistemas de aprendizaje [11], Learning Analytics [12], [13], Sistemas y Aprendizaje Adaptativos [10], [14], Gamificación, MOOC's [15]y Aprendizaje Servicio. ...
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La aparición de nuevas tendencias es continua, variada, numerosa y, en algunos casos, fugaz. Ante esta situación, siempre cabe plantearse cuáles de ellas pueden indicar realmente el camino futuro. Algunas tendencias servirán para mejorar el camino que se está recorriendo, otras permitirán vislumbrar las metas a las que se pretenda llegar y otras, ni tan siquiera se utilizarán. En esta ponencia se identificarán tendencias y se analizarán las mismas en base a escenarios de cambio donde el profesorado y el centro educativo pueden interactuar. Palabras clave. Tendencias de Innovación Educativa, Aprendizaje Adaptativo, BlockChain, Habito Activo. ¿Qué es una tendencia de innovación educativa? Una tendencia en innovación educativa es una nueva tecnología, metodología o producto que tiene grandes posibilidades de impactar en el modelo educativo produciendo alguna mejora [1]. Las tendencias nos indican lo que está llegando o lo que está por llegar, aunque esto no significa que se vayan a quedar en nuestras aulas. Hay tendencias que responden a demandas históricas del profesorado, otras a demandas de la sociedad y otras permiten cambiar totalmente el enfoque de los procesos de formación y aprendizaje [2] ¿Para qué sirven las tendencias de innovación educativa? ¿Es algo más que un desfile de moda? Es habitual que en cualquier congreso internacional sobre innovación educativa una de las conferencias plenarias verse sobre tendencias de innovación educativa. En ella se muestran tecnologías, metodologías, procesos o productos que no nos dejarán indiferentes. Unas tendencias nos producirán admiración, otras, desconfianza y algunas, indiferencia. Pero, además, siempre imaginamos cómo sería la aplicación de esa tendencia en nuestro contexto docente.
... El uso intensivo de TIC genera una gran cantidad de evidencias fruto de la interacción de las personas (alumnado y profesorado) -TIC. Las tendencias que se basan en este hecho son: Learning Analytics (Conde, García-Peñalvo, Fidalgo-Blanco, & Sein-Echaluce, 2017; F.J. García-Peñalvo et al., 2015; Sein-Echaluce, Fidalgo-Blanco, Esteban-Escaño, García-Peñalvo, & Conde, 2018) , Ecosistemas Tecnológicos(Francisco J. García-Peñalvo et al., 1AD), Evaluación por evidencias y toma de decisiones. Todas ellas están relacionadas y se aplican de forma integrada. ...
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Las tendencias en innovación educativa representan las innovaciones que tienen posibilidades de producir un alto impacto transformador en el contexto educativo. Puede ser una nueva tecnología, metodología o producto. Cada vez son más las tendencias que aparecen y en menos espacio de tiempo. Este hecho hace que tengamos la impresión de que es prácticamente imposible estar al día en la aplicación de las tendencias. En el punto 1 se establece el símil de las tendencias en innovación educativa con un desfile de moda de alta costura. Este símil es importante para comprender de forma sencilla el punto 2. En el punto 2 se muestra los tipos de innovación educativa (2.1), un método para aplicar la innovación educativa teniendo en cuenta la tendencia (2.2) y el ciclo de vida de las tendencias de innovación educativa para saber gestionarlas de forma incremental (2.3). En el punto 3 se establece una agrupación de las tendencias de innovación educativa en base al uso de las tecnologías, la personalización del aprendizaje, el desaprendizaje del hábito inactivo, la gestión de los recursos que genera el alumnado y la experimentación de nuevos procesos. Utilidad En esta conferencia se muestran las tendencias de innovación educativa, no como una moda pasajera, sino como una forma de incrementar el impacto en la innovación educativa, siempre y cuando se integre en una línea de innovación ya establecida, o que se va a comenzar a realizar. Así mismo, se agrupan las tendencias de innovación educativa en función de las principales líneas de actuación del profesorado.
Chapter
In our current society the acquisition of competences such as teamwork is essential. However, the evaluation of how this competence is developed is not easy and requires methodologies and tools to support the assessment process. In this sense several Learning Analytics tools have been developed. They explore students’ interactions in different types of tools such as forums or instant messaging apps. However those tools are especially focused on the quantitative evaluation of the interaction and are not very usable. This work presents a new dashboard that analyzes students’ Telegram interactions while they work as a team to address a project. The innovation of this tool lies in the functionalities included to explore not only numbers about messages, replies, type of messages, characters, etc., but the content of the texts. To do so natural language processing and sentiment analysis libraries were used. The tool has been tested successfully with 4 subject editions in which it is possible to appreciate an evolution in students’ interactions.
Chapter
The subjective experiences and satisfaction of using technology to collaborate remotely may differ due to the individual differences of personal characteristics. The present study aims to investigate the influence of empathy tendency on user experience. Twelve groups of three participants completed a decision-making task in the virtual environment. The results revealed a significant correlation between personal traits (i.e., empathy and the big five personalities), user experience (i.e., social presence), and satisfaction. The level of cognitive empathy has a positive effect on the feeling of social presence, social immersion, and outcome satisfaction in the virtual environment, while is not associated with media satisfaction. The findings of this study suggest that the cognitive ability of empathy, namely the ability to identify with and understand the views of others may increase one’s experience and satisfaction in remote collaboration. This study provides an empirical exploration of team interactions in virtual environments and advances user research by identifying the relationship between user’s traits (empathy), user experience, and satisfaction.
Chapter
The CTMTC method, to develop teamwork competency, includes a set of phases and, for each of them, a set of processes and evidence that allow knowing if the team has acquired the group and individual competencies. However, in many cases, this structure is too complicated to apply with all its phases when it is a question of carrying out work that must be cooperative but of short duration, for example. For these cases, the “Agile CTMTC” method is proposed to reduce the teamwork processes and allow its application in an agile and simple way in any cooperative situation, but maintaining the acquisition of individual agile competencies. Employing a case study, it is concluded that this method allows that the professional and the members of the work team, under the rules by which each team is governed, can know, in real-time and transparently, the evolution of the tasks of both the team and its members, as well as contrast the expected workload with the real one.
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Lecturers are often reluctant to set examinations online because of the potential problems of fraudulent behaviour from their students. This concern has increased during the coronavirus pandemic because courses that were previously designed to be taken face-to-face have to be conducted online. The courses have had to be redesigned, including seminars, laboratory sessions and evaluation activities. This has brought lecturers and students into conflict because, according to the students, the activities and examinations that have been redesigned to avoid cheating are also harder. The lecturers' concern is that students can collaborate in taking examinations that must be taken individually without the lecturers being able to do anything to prevent it, i.e. fraudulent collaboration. This research proposes a process model to obtain evidence of students who attempt to fraudulently collaborate, based on the information in the learning environment logs. It is automated in a software tool that checks how the students took the examinations and the grades that they obtained. It is applied in a case study with more than 100 undergraduate students. The results are positive and its use allowed lecturers to detect evidence of fraudulent collaboration by several clusters of students from their submission timestamps and the grades obtained.
Chapter
Instant Messaging tools are a part of our technified daily life. Tools such as WhatsApp or Telegram have millions of users that send continuously billion of messages. This can be used in different context and one of them is in Education. An important part of education is students’ interaction and specially how they interact when working together as a team. This paper deals with an analysis of which of this tool is better in this specific context, especially when students are developing teamwork competences. To facilitate the analysis of the messages two Learning Analytics tools were developed and applied in the context of a Computer Science degree subject, with an important increment in students’ number of messages regarding previous years but several issues to explore, such as: how to deal with the students that employs other tools different to this for interacting with peers, how to encourage students to employ instant messaging tools as real communication mechanisms, how to measure messages content and not only quantity or how to identify the acquisition of other competences analyzing the conversations.
Conference Paper
Society´s permanent changes require that teachers of future generations focus on the development of personal and professional skills, introducing new teaching-learning methodologies in the classrooms. This work analyzes the application of the Research-Based Learning methodology and collaborative learning in two subjects of a master's degree in teacher training. The objective of their application is to personalize learning and bring it closer to future professional reality. For its implementation, the Comprehensive Training Model of the Teamwork Competence was followed, which allows for evidence of individual work within the team. This methodology combined with collaborative work has been successful. Resources of great use have been generated for current and future students, and the foundations of a knowledge network have been laid that will serve future teachers in their teaching challenges.
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Resumen Curso impartido en la Universidad del País Vasco. Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea. 20 y 21 de Enero de 2020. Este texto contiene las principales diapositivas utilizadas en las presentaciones teóricas junto con enlaces a videos o explicaciones adicionales con referencias a trabajos de investigación (principalmente del autor). Así mismo se incluyen (al final de cada apartado) una descripción más detallada de los mismos. Introducción Es muy habitual que en nuestras aulas el alumnado no coopere ni sea partícipe de su propio aprendizaje. Para solucionar esta situación surgen los métodos activos como Flip Teaching / Aula Invertida. FlipTeaching (FT) es un método para que el alumnado participe de forma activa y cooperativa en el aula. Básicamente consiste en cambiar el lugar donde se imparten las dos principales actividades académicas: la lección y los deberes. Es decir, la lección se toma en casa (por ejemplo, a través de un video), y en clase se hacen los deberes.
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Moodle fue una tendencia de innovación educativa en la década de los 90, pero ahora mismo no está en ninguna lista de las tendencias actuales. ¿Esto significa que no puedo utilizar Moodle en innovación educativa? O, lo que es lo mismo, ¿si utilizo Moodle no hago innovación educativa? En esta charla responderemos a estas preguntas. Para animar al profesorado a asistir, les adelanto la respuesta: Sí se puede hacer innovación educativa con Moodle pero ¿qué papel tiene? ¿qué tipo de innovación se puede hacer? Y además ¿ esa innovación se podría publicar en una revista científica? También responderemos a estas preguntas, pero eso sí, durante la ponencia Palabras clave: Innovación Educativa, Moodle
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Las tendencias de innovación educativa suelen presentar las últimas novedades en tecnologías, procesos y metodologías. Algunas de ellas son tan novedosas que no contemplamos la posibilidad de utilizarlas en nuestras aulas (bien por complejas, caras, o porque pensamos que son modas pasajeras). Hay un proceso que nos a ayuda a seleccionar las tendencias de innovación más adecuadas a nuestras necesidades. El proceso consiste en aplicar un conjunto de filtros
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Una tendencia de innovación educativa es una nueva tecnología, metodología o producto que tiene grandes posibilidades de impactar en el modelo educativo produciendo una mejora del mismo. Una misma tendencia tiene dos puntos de análisis que son convergentes: el tecnológico y el metodológico. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico las tendencias se identifican por la novedad e impacto de la tecnología. Algunos ejemplos son: BlockChain, Realidad aumentada adaptativa y Ecosistemas de aprendizaje. Bajo este punto de vista, Moodle no se suele considerar una tendencia de innovación educativa. Sin embargo, en el contexto educativo las tendencias se centran más en el cambio del modelo de aprendizaje. Por ejemplo con las tendencias como: Aula Invertida, Gamificación, Aprendizaje adaptativo, Evaluación por evidencias o Inteligencia colectiva se centran en el cambio metodológico en el aula. Bajo este enfoque metodológico, Moodle es la plataforma reina en el mundo de las tendencias de innovación educativa. Eso sí, es un reinado silencioso y poco conocido. En esta charla se mostrarán las tendencias en innovación educativa más relevantes en el contexto del aula y el papel de Moodle como facilitador del éxito en la implantación de las mismas. Palabras clave. Tendencias de Innovación Educativa, Método MAIN, Aprendizaje Adaptativo, BlockChain, Habito Activo.
Technical Report
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El GRupo de Investigación en InterAcción y eLearning (GRIAL) es un Grupo de Investigación Reconocido (GIR) de la Universidad de Salamanca y, actualmente, Unidad de Investigación Consolidada (UIC) de la Junta de Castilla y León. Su mayor seña de identidad es que es un grupo de investigación multidisciplinar que surge en torno a la creación y aplicación de tecnología educativa, por tanto, en su composición integra fundamentalmente ingenieros en informática y pedagogos, pero en él se incluyen humanistas, bibliotecólogos, filósofos o filólogos entre otros perfiles. El presente informe tiene como objetivo presentar la producción científica más sobresaliente del grupo de investigación en el período 2011-2019 (el año 2019 solo hasta el mes de abril), aunque previamente se contextualizará la historia y evolución del grupo de investigación, su composición actual y sus líneas de investigación. Se incluye también información sobre el correcto uso de la imagen corporativa del grupo.
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Background The flipped classroom (FC) is a pedagogical approach that means that the activities that have traditionally taken place within the classroom are carried out outside the classroom. Fundamentally it implies the way in which the student studies the subject. This change of perspective in teaching—learning has raised many questions regarding its effectiveness and student satisfaction in the university studies in the degree of Social Work. Objective The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Flipped Classroom methodology in the academic performance of students of the Social Work Degree. Methods An educational study, with two parallel groups was developed. The randomization was carried out by class groups. Group 1 was assigned an active teaching methodology of Flip Teaching and it was implemented during theoretical teaching hours. The other group of students, Group 2, was assigned a traditional lecturer-based learning (LB) methodology. The participants were all the students of the morning shift who studied the subject Social Work with Groups of the Social Work Degree during the academic year 2017–2018. The sample was composed of 110 subjects, with 60 subjects who developed an active teaching methodology and 50 subjects who received a LB. Results In terms of the academic performance result variable, the FT group had a mean of 6.56 (SD: 1.58) and the LB group had a mean of 5.42 (SD: 1.97) (p-value: 0.002). The FT group also had a higher percentage of students receiving merit and outstanding scores (34.5% and 6.9% respectively) and a lower percentage of students who failed (19%) as compared to the LB group in which 20.9% and 2.3% of the students received merit or outstanding grades and 46.5% failed (p-value = 0.025). No significant differences were found with regards to satisfaction with the subject and the methodology used, long-term learning and time spent preparing for the exam. Conclusions The FC teaching methodology in comparison with the LB methodology has shown to be a more effective tool regarding academic performance evaluated in a quantitative and qualitative way with regards to Social Work education at university level.
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Teacher training in educational innovation is of vital importance to obtain quality education adapted to the new educational paradigm. Today's society requires versatile professionals in education who will pursue improvements in their field. During the academic years 2012-13; 2013-14, the doctoral program at the Universidad Católica de Valencia 'San Vicente Mártir' included a course entitled 'Didactic Resources for Teaching EFL in Secondary Schools'. The course implemented the simulation and gaming methodology and the flipped classroom model. The student-teachers experienced the potential of flipped learning as they analyzed on their own the theoretical framework of the methodology along with case studies, to go on to designing in class scenarios for studying literature in English. A qualitative study of the perceptions of the student-teachers enabled the analysis of the potential of simulation and gaming through the flipped classroom in the acquisition of core and generic competences.
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The gap between technology and learning methods has two important implications: on the one hand, we should not expect the integration of technological advances into teaching to be an easy task; and there is a danger that mature educational technologies and methods might not give an adequate answer to the demands and needs of society, underusing their transforming potential to improve learning processes. This study discusses the need for a new technological environment supporting learning services, and proposes the concept of the technological learning ecosystem as a solution to both problems. Educational ecosystems should be able to break the technological constraints of existing learning platforms and achieve an effective improvement in learning processes. Our proposed educational ecosystems pivot around five specific lines of action: 1) a framework architecture that supports learning service-based ecosystems; 2) learning analytics for educational decision making; 3) adaptive knowledge systems; 4) gamification of learning processes; 5) semantic portfolios to collect evidence of learning.
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The teamwork competence is one of the most demanded competences by the social environment and, therefore, is already a part of the learning objectives in the university studies. A comprehensive training model of the framework competence is presented on this paper which includes a description of this operational competence, within the training field, and the keys to design the training plan by using the ICT. Finally, a multidimensional empirical study of the students' experience in teamwork is presented, including the pre and post-implementation of a training prototype of this competence that was tested at the Technical University of Madrid and the University of Zaragoza in the 2012 spring term.
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This Especially for High School Teachers editorial describes some of the ways that one of the editors has used to share her passion for chemistry with students inside and outside the classroom and to engage them more over her years of teaching. Articles from the November 2011 issue of the Journal of Chemical Education are also highlighted, including those that emphasize guided inquiry and the use of technology in new and thoughtful ways. © 2011 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.
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This paper introduces the major components of, and standards associated with, the Web services architecture. The different roles associated with the Web services architecture and the programming stack for Web services are described. The architectural elements of Web services are then related to a real-world business scenario in order to illustrate how the Web services approach helps solve real business problems.
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In the academic context teamwork has a dual mission: to train students in teamwork competence and the active participation of students in their own learning. Authentic leadership of teams is the key to both goals. This paper presents a research which relates leadership, team grades (individual and group) and student-student interactions. The CTMTC teamwork method is used, as it allows continuous monitoring of teamwork and evaluates the work of the leader and the rest of the team members separately. The measurement tools, a survey for the individual opinion on the authentic leader actions, and a learning analytics system to analyze student-student interactions in forums, help to confirm the following hypothesis: that CTMTC encourages leadership role, that leadership skills are related with team grades and that learning analytics systems help predicting the behavior of teams with true leadership.
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The use of the flip teaching methodology, a new trend in educational innovation, has had a significant impact. It has led to the creation of spaces that provide online video for use in the classroom while also encouraging the active participation of students. However, the implementation of this methodology can be problematic in the classroom. A new micro flip teaching module has been designed and implemented to resolve these issues.The main objectives of this research were to measure the impact of learning, to determine the degree to which students are involved in the process through the creation of learning resources and to measure how participating students view their experience of micro flip teaching. This model incorporates answers to issues that currently pose a barrier, such as link activity or the major effort that would be required to change an entire course design.The results show that the micro flip teaching model has a direct impact on student learning. The study offers proof that the model is not in any way subject-dependent nor does it require a great effort for students to adapt. Student perception of the usefulness of the model is based more on the methodology itself than on either course content or the teachers participating in the experience.
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Cooperative learning is intended to maximize understanding of class material and acquisition of teamwork skills. To attain these goals, students must be individually accountable and credited for their efforts to help teammates. The Peer and Self Evaluation System ( PSES ) informs teachers about group interaction from the student point of view. Specifically, this system enables students to identify and record the team skills demonstrated by peers and themselves during group work. Based on these observations, which are kept anonymous, each student receives confidential feedback regarding personal strengths and limitations . Fieldtesting of the PSES has confirmed that it is valid, reliable, and practical. This new method for processing group work can be used in most subject matter areas and appears suitable for meeting the developmental needs of students from high school through college.
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This article is concerned with measures of fit of a model. Two types of error involved in fitting a model are considered. The first is error of approximation which involves the fit of the model, with optimally chosen but unknown parameter values, to the population covariance matrix. The second is overall error which involves the fit of the model, with parameter values estimated from the sample, to the population covariance matrix. Measures of the two types of error are proposed and point and interval estimates of the measures are suggested. These measures take the number of parameters in the model into account in order to avoid penalizing parsimonious models. Practical difficulties associated with the usual tests of exact fit or a model are discussed and a test of “close fit” of a model is suggested.
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A general formula (α) of which a special case is the Kuder-Richardson coefficient of equivalence is shown to be the mean of all split-half coefficients resulting from different splittings of a test. α is therefore an estimate of the correlation between two random samples of items from a universe of items like those in the test. α is found to be an appropriate index of equivalence and, except for very short tests, of the first-factor concentration in the test. Tests divisible into distinct subtests should be so divided before using the formula. The index [`(r)]ij\bar r_{ij} , derived from α, is shown to be an index of inter-item homogeneity. Comparison is made to the Guttman and Loevinger approaches. Parallel split coefficients are shown to be unnecessary for tests of common types. In designing tests, maximum interpretability of scores is obtained by increasing the first-factor concentration in any separately-scored subtest and avoiding substantial group-factor clusters within a subtest. Scalability is not a requisite.
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The present study focuses on a specific learner characteristic in the management of time – procrastination-, and its role in an online learning environment. More specifically, it was expected that procrastination would influence the successfulness of online learning and that this could be explained by the level of participation of learners in discussion forums. A study was conducted to test this hypothesis among a sample of learners taking a 10-week course on environmental and land use issues. As predicted, a negative relationship was found between procrastination and performance, and this relationship was mediated by the level of the learners’ participation in discussion forums. In other words, it appears that if high procrastinators are less successful online learners than low procrastinators, it is partly due to their lack of participation in discussion forums during the learning process. Additionally, some behavioral differences between high and low procrastinators were found in the times they decided to (re)start working at a distance, felt motivated to work on their course, and felt like dropping out of the course. To conclude, some practical implications for tutoring online activities and for stimulating participation in online learning environments have been proposed.
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This Special Issue is the result of the inaugural summit hosted by the Gallup Leadership Institute at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 2004 on Authentic Leadership Development (ALD). We describe in this introduction to the special issue current thinking in this emerging field of research as well as questions and concerns. We begin by considering some of the environmental and organizational forces that may have triggered interest in describing and studying authentic leadership and its development. We then provide an overview of its contents, including the diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives presented, followed by a discussion of alternative conceptual foundations and definitions for the constructs of authenticity, authentic leaders, authentic leadership, and authentic leadership development. A detailed description of the components of authentic leadership theory is provided next. The similarities and defining features of authentic leadership theory in comparison to transformational, charismatic, servant and spiritual leadership perspectives are subsequently examined. We conclude by discussing the status of authentic leadership theory with respect to its purpose, construct definitions, historical foundations, consideration of context, relational/processual focus, attention to levels of analysis and temporality, along with a discussion of promising directions for future research.
Guia de apoyo para la redacción, puesta en práctica y evaluación de los resultados de aprendizaje
  • Aneca
Aneca, Guia de apoyo para la redacción, puesta en práctica y evaluación de los resultados de aprendizaje, Madrid, 2013.
Competencies for the Future
  • K Annan
K. Annan, ''Competencies for the Future,'' 2000. [Online]. Available: https://careers.un.org/lbw/attachments/compe tencies_booklet_en.pdf [Accessed: 07-May-2017].
Conceptual and operational framework
  • Intercultural Unesco
  • Competences
Unesco, Intercultural competences. Conceptual and operational framework, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www. unesco.org/new/en/bureau-of-strategic-planning/themes/cul ture-of-peace-and-non-violence/ [Accessed: 07-May-2017].
Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy
  • M E P Seligman
M. E. P. Seligman, Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy, Handb. Posit. Psychol., 2, 2002, pp. 3-12.
Authentic leadership and eudaemonic well-being
  • R Ilies
  • F Morgeson
  • J Nahrgang
R. Ilies, F. Morgeson and J. Nahrgang, Authentic leadership and eudaemonic well-being, Leadersh. Q., 16, 2005, pp. 373-394.
Developmental sequence in small groups, Classics for Group Facilitators
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B. Tuckman, Developmental sequence in small groups, Classics for Group Facilitators, Psychol. Bull., 63(6), 1965, pp. 384-399.
  • Ö A Arda
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Ö. A. Arda, T. Aslan and L. Alpkan, Review of Practical Implications in Authentic Leadership Studies, Procedia-Soc. Behav. Sci., 229, 2016, pp. 246-252.
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