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El propósito de este trabajo es cuantificar el efecto del uso de zapatillas de clavos en el rendimiento de la carrera de velocidad de hombres velocistas, diferenciando entre el efecto de los clavos y de la masa de las zapatillas, para valorar la influencia del calzado en los parámetros biomecánicos de la carrera. Participaron 9 atletas varones de nivel regional y nacional (pruebas de 100, 200 y 400 m lisos) que realizaron tres sprints de 40 m, usando de forma aleatoria tres clases de calzado (zapatillas de clavos, zapatillas de running y zapatillas de clavos lastradas con plomo hasta igualar la masa de las zapatillas de running). Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el rendimiento mejoraba un 2,6% con las zapa-tillas de clavos respecto de las zapatillas de running, de los cuales un 1,7% era debido a los clavos y un 0,9% a la dife-rencia de masa. Al analizar las variables biomecánicas se observó que la velocidad aumentó debido al aumento de la fre-cuencia y la amplitud de paso. Con las zapatillas de clavos, la amplitud aumentó y el tiempo de contacto disminuyó, debi-do a un efecto combinado de los clavos y la masa. En conclusión, el rendimiento en carreras de velocidad se ve mejo-rado al utilizar zapatillas de clavos respecto a las zapatillas de running, siendo dos tercios de la mejora debida a los cla-vos, y el resto al efecto de la masa de la zapatilla. Palabras clave: zapatillas de clavos, biomecánica, velocidad, rendimiento. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the effect of the use of spikes on sprint performance in male athletes , separating between both cleats and mass effects; additionally, the influence of the footwear on biomechanical parameters of running was analyzed. Nine male regional-national sprint athletes (i.e., 100, 200 and 400 m distances) participated in this study, they performed three 40 m sprints in a randomized order (i.e., spikes, running shoes and mass-added spikes). Performance improved 2,6% with spikes with respect to running shoes, where 1,7% was due to the cle-ats and 0,9% was due to the mass. When analyzing the biomechanical variables, it was observed that the speed increased because both step rate and step length also increased. Step length increased and the contact time decreased due to a combined effect of the cleats and the mass. In conclusion, the sprint performance improved when using spikes with respect to running shoes, two third of the improvement was due to the cleats, and the rest to the shoe's mass. Abstract Recibido el 30 de julio; Aceptado el 21 de diciembre de 2017
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... Одежда и обувь могут способствовать достижению высоких результатов при беге [36]. Современные изделия не только удобны, но также учитывают биомеханику движений [37,38] и индивидуальные физиологические особенности [39], являются функциональными [40]. ...
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The development of modern sports is impossible without the use of innovative scientific and technical achievements and engineering developments. The states, in which the presented approach is successfully implemented, take leading positions in international competitions. This thesis is based on the relationship between the quality indicators of athletes and the use by them of progressive tools and equipment in the training, as well as the most advanced clothing and footwear. At first glance, outfit in running sports can be considered as an insignificant factor that does not contribute to the competition results. Field-specific manufacturers use various engineering and technological resources available and contribute to the effective activities of the sports consumers. There are certain discussions in professional running about an innovative topic — “technological doping”. Professionals involved in ensuring compliance with the rules and equal opportunities for winning in running competitions need special competences in information and digital technologies. Research with the use of specialized databases within the framework of intellectual property provides an opportunity to study innovative technical solutions introduced by manufacturers of sportswear and footwear
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The aim of this study is to determine the effect of two types of running shoes: standard training shoes and racing shoes, on kinematic and kinetic parameters of the foot contact phase in middle-distance runners. Thirteen male athletes with an experience in national and international competition have participated. Data was collected using a force platform operating at 500 Hz, and three video cameras operating at 210 Hz. An electronic signal was used to synchronize the temporary registration systems. Participants passed through all experimental conditions, one of them using their racing shoes and the other using their standard training shoes. Runners were informed to place their dominant foot in the force platform, located on one of the lanes of the running track. Running speed was stablished at two levels: reduced and competition velocity, respectively. Results have demonstrated that wearing standard training shoes promote a heel strike pattern, whereas wearing racing shoes promote a midfoot strike and a greater angular displacement of the ankle joint. Data relating to horizontal component of the ground reaction forces allow us to state that at low running speeds, standard training shoes are more efficient than racing shoes. RESUMEN El propósito de este estudio ha sido comprobar el efecto que tienen dos tipos de calzado: de competición y de entrenamiento, sobre los parámetros cinemáticos y cinéticos del apoyo del pie en corredores de medio fondo. Han participado 13 atletas varones, con una experiencia en competición nacional e internacional de más de cinco años. Para el registro de los datos, se ha utilizado una plataforma de fuerza, operando a 500 Hz y tres cámaras de vídeo, a 210 Hz. Una señal electrónica se utilizó para sincronizar temporalmente los sistemas de registro. Los atletas realizaron dos carreras lanzadas, una de ellas utilizando su calzado de competición habitual y la otra utilizando su calzado habitual de entrenamiento, debiendo apoyar el pie dominante sobre la plataforma de fuerza, situada en una de las calles de la pista de atletismo. La velocidad de carrera se bloqueó en dos niveles: reducida y de competición. Los resultados han puesto de manifiesto que el calzado de entrenamiento favorece el apoyo de retropié, mientras que el calzado de competición favorece el apoyo de mediopie y un mayor desplazamiento angular de la articulación del tobillo. Los datos relativos a las fuerzas horizontales nos permiten afirmar que, a velocidades reducidas, el calzado de entrenamiento es más eficiente que el calzado de competición.
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El propósito de este trabajo es cuantificar el efecto del uso de zapatillas de clavos en el rendimiento de la carrera de velocidad de hombres velocistas, diferenciando entre el efecto de los clavos y de la masa de las zapatillas, para valorar la influencia del calzado en los parámetros biomecánicos de la carrera. Participaron 9 atletas varones de nivel regional y nacional (pruebas de 100, 200 y 400 m lisos) que realizaron tres sprints de 40 m, usando de forma aleatoria tres clases de calzado (zapatillas de clavos, zapatillas de running y zapatillas de clavos lastradas con plomo hasta igualar la masa de las zapatillas de running). Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el rendimiento mejoraba un 2,6% con las zapa-tillas de clavos respecto de las zapatillas de running, de los cuales un 1,7% era debido a los clavos y un 0,9% a la dife-rencia de masa. Al analizar las variables biomecánicas se observó que la velocidad aumentó debido al aumento de la fre-cuencia y la amplitud de paso. Con las zapatillas de clavos, la amplitud aumentó y el tiempo de contacto disminuyó, debi-do a un efecto combinado de los clavos y la masa. En conclusión, el rendimiento en carreras de velocidad se ve mejo-rado al utilizar zapatillas de clavos respecto a las zapatillas de running, siendo dos tercios de la mejora debida a los cla-vos, y el resto al efecto de la masa de la zapatilla. Palabras clave: zapatillas de clavos, biomecánica, velocidad, rendimiento. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the effect of the use of spikes on sprint performance in male athletes , separating between both cleats and mass effects; additionally, the influence of the footwear on biomechanical parameters of running was analyzed. Nine male regional-national sprint athletes (i.e., 100, 200 and 400 m distances) participated in this study, they performed three 40 m sprints in a randomized order (i.e., spikes, running shoes and mass-added spikes). Performance improved 2,6% with spikes with respect to running shoes, where 1,7% was due to the cle-ats and 0,9% was due to the mass. When analyzing the biomechanical variables, it was observed that the speed increased because both step rate and step length also increased. Step length increased and the contact time decreased due to a combined effect of the cleats and the mass. In conclusion, the sprint performance improved when using spikes with respect to running shoes, two third of the improvement was due to the cleats, and the rest to the shoe's mass. Abstract Recibido el 30 de julio; Aceptado el 21 de diciembre de 2017
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ABSTRACT: The purposes were to analyze the shoes spikes’ effects on the performance of women sprinters, separating between both spike and weight effects, and to analyze the influence of this type of footwear on biomechanical parameters of running. Nine female sprinters of regional and national levels participated. They performed three 40 m sprints, using three different types of footwear (spikes, weighted spikes and running shoes) in a randomized order. The performance improved 1.8% using spikes with respect to running shoes, which 1.2% was due to the spikes and 0.6% was due to the weight effects. Analyzing the biomechanical variables, the step rate remains constant while the step length increased due to the spikes’ effect, and the contact time decrease due to a combined effect of the spikes and the weight. In conclusion, the performance of women sprinters improved about 2% with spikes shoes with respect to running shoes. One third of this improvement was due to the weight effect, and two third to the spikes effect. Future studies must try to identify the individual effect of these three variables. RESUMEN: Los objetivos de este trabajo han sido cuantificar el efecto del uso de zapatillas de clavos en el rendimiento de la carrera de velocidad, segregando entre el efecto del clavo y del peso, así la influencia del calzado en los parámetros biomecánicos de la carrera. Participaron 9 atletas femeninas de nivel regional y nacional (pruebas de 100 y 200 m lisos) que realizaron tres carreras de 40 m, usando de forma aleatoria tres clases de calzado (zapatillas de clavos, zapatillas de running y zapatillas de clavos lastradas hasta el peso de las zapatillas de running). Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el rendimiento mejoraba un 1.8% con las zapatillas de clavos respecto de las zapatillas de running, de los cuales un 1.2% era debido a los clavos y un 0.6% a la diferencia de peso. Al analizar las variables biomecánicas se observó que la frecuencia de zancada permaneció constante, la amplitud de zancada aumentó debido al efecto de los clavos (2 cm) y el tiempo de contacto disminuyó (5 ms) debido a un efecto combinado de los clavos y el peso. En conclusión, el rendimiento en carreras de velocidad se ve mejorado al utilizar zapatillas de clavos respecto a las zapatillas de running, siendo un tercio de la mejora debida a la diferencia de peso, y el resto al efecto de los clavos. Futuros trabajos deberían realizarse con hombres y mujeres de igual y superior nivel a los utilizados en el presente estudio.
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ABSTRACT. The purposes were to analyze the shoes spikes’ effects on the performance of women sprinters, separating between both spike and weight effects, and to analyze the influence of this type of footwear on biomechanical parameters of running. Nine female sprinters of regional and national levels participated. They performed three 40 m sprints, using three different types of footwear (spikes, weighted spikes and running shoes) in a randomized order. The performance improved 1.8% using spikes with respect to running shoes, which 1.2% was due to the spikes and 0.6% was due to the weight effects. Analyzing the biomechanical variables, the step rate remains constant while the step length increased due to the spikes’ effect, and the contact time decrease due to a combined effect of the spikes and the weight. In conclusion, the performance of women sprinters improved about 2% with spikes shoes with respect to running shoes. One third of this improvement was due to the weight effect, and two third to the spikes effect. Future studies must try to identify the individual effect of these three variables. Key words: spikes; biomechanics; sprint; performance. RESUMEN. Los objetivos de este trabajo han sido cuantificar el efecto del uso de zapatillas de clavos en el rendimiento de una carrera de 40 m en mujeres velocistas, segregando el efecto de los clavos y del peso, y la influencia de este tipo de calzado en los parámetros biomecánicos de la carrera. Participaron 9 mujeres velocistas de nivel regional y nacional, que realizaron tres carreras de 40 m usando aleatoriamente tres tipos de zapatillas (clavos, clavos lastradas y running). Los resultados mostraron que el rendimiento mejoró un 1.8% con las zapatillas de clavos respecto de las de running, de los cuales un 1.2% se debía a los clavos y un 0.6% a la diferencia de peso. Analizando las variables biomecánicas se vio que la frecuencia de zancada fue constante, la amplitud de zancada mostró una tendencia a aumentar, debido al efecto de los clavos, y el tiempo de contacto disminuyó, por un efecto combinado de los clavos y el peso. En conclusión, el rendimiento en la carrera de 40 m mejoró al utilizar zapatillas de clavos respecto a las de running, debiéndose un tercio de la mejora a la diferencia de peso, y el resto posiblemente a la amortiguación, rigidez y tracción (dos tercios). Futuros trabajos deben intentar separar el efecto de estas tres variables. Palabras clave: zapatillas de clavos; biomecánica; velocidad; rendimiento.
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RESUMEN El rendimiento en carreras de larga distancia depende de una serie de factores fisiológicos (VO2max, umbral anaeróbico, economía de carrera, edad, género, tipos de fibras musculares, fatiga y raza), ambientales (aire/viento, temperatura, humedad, altura y pendiente del terreno), psicológicos (intervención, dirección de la atención y música), ligados al entrenamiento (entrenamiento de resistencia, fuerza, aclimatación al calor y a la altitud) y biomecánicos (antropometría, ¿leg-stiffness¿, flexibilidad, patrón de pisada, calzado y parámetros espacio-temporales). A día de hoy, todavía existe un gran desconocimiento sobre la verdadera influencia de algunos de ellos. En concreto, la influencia de ciertos parámetros biomecánicos como el patrón de pisada y/o los parámetros espacio-temporales sobre la economía de carrera, su relación con parámetros fisiológicos y repercusión en el rendimiento sigue siendo difusa. Es posible que el origen de estas discrepancias esté en las limitaciones tecnológicas de los instrumentos de análisis utilizados. Para intentar dar respuestas a algunas de estas cuestiones, la presente Tesis se ha propuesto los siguientes objetivos: 1- adaptar y validar un nuevo método para registrar las variables espacio-temporales (i.e. tiempos de contacto y de vuelo, frecuencia y amplitud de zancada) durante la carrera en tapiz rodante, lo que permitirá analizar automáticamente un alto y representativo número de pasos con ambos pies, 2- analizar la influencia del patrón de pisada (talonador vs planta entera/antepié) en la economía de carrera y otras variables biomecánicas, 3- examinar simultáneamente la influencia de las variables antropométricas, fisiológicas y biomecánicas en el rendimiento. La validación del nuevo método (SportJump System Pro; plataforma de contacto láser insertada en un tapiz rodante y conectada a un software específico) se llevó a cabo con un total de 15 corredores, los cuales realizaron 7 series de carrera entre 10 y 22 km¿h-1. Se registraron simultáneamente los tiempos de contacto y de vuelo con una cámara de vídeo de alta velocidad (método de referencia) y el nuevo método. Éste sobreestimó el tiempo de contacto y subestimó el tiempo de vuelo a todas las velocidades de carrera analizadas. Sin embargo, las diferencias entre ambos métodos no dependieron del patrón de pisada y/o masa del corredor, y pudieron ser corregidas en función de la velocidad de carrera. En definitiva, el nuevo método mostró ser fiable y sensible a pequeños cambios en las variables espacio-temporales de la carrera, siendo la herramienta utilizada en las subsiguientes fases experimentales de esta Tesis Doctoral. El análisis de la influencia del patrón de pisada en la economía de carrera y las variables biomecánicas, se llevo a cabo comparando las variables biomecánicas y fisiológicas de la carrera de 10 atletas talonadores y 10 atletas de planta entera/antepié, con un buen y similar nivel de rendimiento en media maratón. No se observaron diferencias en el VO2max y umbrales aeróbico y anaeróbico, sin embargo, los corredores talonadores fueron entre 5.0-9.3% más económicos que los de planta entera/antepié a velocidades submáximas. A su vez, los corredores talonadores mostraron un mayor tiempo de contacto y un menor tiempo de vuelo a todas las velocidades de carrera, sin diferencias en la frecuencia y amplitud de zancada. Así, las diferencias en el tiempo de contacto y de vuelo podrían explicar las variaciones en la economía de carrera. Por último, la influencia de las variables antropométricas, fisiológicas y biomecánicas sobre en el rendimiento en la carrera fue examinada mediante el análisis de 48 corredores de diferente nivel. Estos fueron divididos en 4 grupos en función de su marca en media maratón. Se observaron diferencias entre grupos y correlaciones con el rendimiento en las variables ligadas al entrenamiento (experiencia y volumen de entrenamiento), antropométricas (masa, índice de masa corporal y sumatorio de pliegues cutáneos), fisiológicas (VO2max, umbral aeróbico y anaeróbico y economía de carrera) y biomecánicas (patrón de pisada). Los corredores de mayor nivel mostraron un menor de tiempo de contacto a la misma velocidad de carrera que los de menor nivel, pero esto fue debido al mayor porcentaje de corredores de planta entera/antepié en el grupo de mayor nivel. Teniendo en cuenta el patrón de pisada, estas diferencias desaparecieron. La frecuencia y amplitud de zancada fueron similares para todos los grupos de corredores a la misma velocidad de carrera. Por lo tanto, las variables espacio-temporales de la carrera (tiempo de contacto y de vuelo, frecuencia y amplitud de zancada) no fueron sensibles al rendimiento. En conclusión, a partir de la adaptación y validación de un nuevo método para la medición de los parámetros espacio-temporales durante la carrera, se han podido extraer las siguientes conclusiones: 1- los corredores talonadores son más económicos que los de planta entera/antepié a velocidades de carrera submáximas, 2- los corredores de planta entera/antepié presentan aproximadamente un 10% menos de tiempo de contacto que los corredores talonadores, lo que les puede favorecer a altas velocidades de carrera (> 20 km¿h-1), 3- las variables espacio-temporales de la carrera no parecen ser sensibles al nivel de rendimiento. ABSTRACT Long-distance running performance depends on several factors such as physiology (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, running economy, age, gender, muscle fibre composition, fatigue and ethnicity), environment (air/wind, temperature, humidity, altitude and slope), psychology (intervention, focus of attention and music), training (endurance, resistance, heat acclimation and altitude training) and biomechanics (anthropometry, “leg-stiffness”, flexibility, foot strike pattern and spatio-temporal parameters). Nowadays, the real influence of some of these variables is still unknown. In particular, the influence of some biomechanical parameters such as foot strike pattern and/or spatio-temporal parameters on running economy, their relationship with physiological parameters and the impact on running performance are controversial topics of discussion. It is possible that the technological limitations of the measuring instruments have generated this discrepancy. The present Thesis would try to explain these issues by the following aims: 1- adapt and validate a new method to measure spatio-temporal variables (i.e. contact and flight times, step rate and length) during treadmill running, which would allow to register automatically a high and representative number of steps of both feet, 2- analyze the influence of foot strike pattern (rearfoot vs midfoot/forefoot) on running economy and other biomechanical variables, 3- examine simultaneously the influence of anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical variables on running performance. The validation of the new method (SportJump System Pro; a contact laser platform inserted in a treadmill and connected to a specific software) was performed with 15 runners, who completed 7 sets of running between 10 and 22 km·h-1. Contact and flight times were registered with a high-speed video camera (gold stardard method) and the new method. The new technology overestimated the contact time and underestimated the flight time at every running speed. However, these differences between both methods did not depend on runners’ foot strike pattern or mass, and they could be corrected according to running speed. In conclusion, the new method was validated, being reliable and sensitive for detecting small changes in running spatio-temporal parameters, being the analysis tool used in next experimental phases of this Thesis. The analysis of the influence of foot strike pattern on running economy and biomechanical variables was perfomed by comparing biomechanical and physiological variables of 10 rearfoot and 10 midfoot/forefoot well-trained runners with a similar level of performance in a half-marathon. No differences were observed in VO2max and aerobic and anaerobic thresholds. Nevertheless, rearfoot strikers were between 5.0 and 9.3% more economical than midfoot/forefoot strikers at submaximal speeds. Step rate and length were not different between groups, but rearfoot strikers showed longer contact time and shorter flight time than midfoot/forefoot strikers at all running speeds. Thus, the differences in contact and flight time could explain running economy differences. Finally, the influence of anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical variables on running performance was carried out analyzing 48 runners of different level. They were divided into 4 groups according to their performance level in a half-marathon. Significant differences between groups and correlations with performance were observed in training-related (experience and km per week), anthropometrics (mass, body mass index and sum of six skinfolds), physiological (VO2max, aerobic and anaerobic thresholds and running economy) and biomechanical variables (foot strike pattern). Higher level runners showed shorter contact time than lower level runners at the same running speed. However, this was due to the higher percentage of midfoot/forefoot runners in the best group of runners. Taking into account foot strike pattern and speed, these differences disappeared. Step rate and length were not different between groups at the same running speed. Therefore, running spatio-temporal variables (contact and flight time, step rate and length) were not sensitive to performance. To sum up, from the adaptation and validation of the new method to measure running spatio-temporal parameters, the following conclusions were obtained: 1- rearfoot strikers are more economical than midfoot/forefoot strikers at submaximal running speeds, 2- midfoot/forefoot strikers have an approximately 10% shorter contact time than rearfoot strikers, which could be beneficial at high running speeds (> 20 km·h-1), 3- running spatio-temporal parameters (contact and flight time, step rate and length) seem not to be sensitive to performance level.
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Las carreras de fondo (comprendidas entre los 5 km hasta la maratón) han crecido en España tanto en número como en participación. Esto ha suscitado un gran interés en entrenadores y deportistas, que solicitan información y formación sobre los diferentes factores que afectan al rendimiento. Ante esta demanda, el número de investigaciones ha aumentado notablemente. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica ha sido analizar los factores que afectan al rendimiento en carreras de fondo desde sus diferentes perspectivas. Para ello, se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica en 3 bases de datos (Medline, SportDiscus y Google Scholar) y los factores han sido clasificados en 5 grandes grupos, subdivididos a su vez en diferentes apartados: 1- ambientales (aire/viento, temperatura, humedad, altura y pendiente del terreno), 2- ligados al entrenamiento (entrenamiento de resistencia, fuerza, en ambientes calurosos y en altura), 3- fisiológicos (VO2max, umbrales ventilatorios, economía de carrera, edad, género, tipos de fibras musculares, fatiga y raza), 4- biomecánicos (antropometría, leg-stiffness, flexibilidad, patrón de pisada, calzado, ortesis plantares y parámetros espacio-temporales) y 5- psicológicos (estrategias de intervención, dirección de la atención y música). La influencia de algunos de éstos sobre el rendimiento es ampliamente conocida; sin embargo, en el caso de algunos factores psicológicos (dirección de la atención y música) y biomecánicos (patrón de pisada y parámetros espacio-temporales) el número de estudios es escaso o los resultados poco concluyentes. La realización de más estudios, conjuntamente con el avance de las nuevas tecnologías y sistemas de medición, permitirá un mejor conocimiento sobre la temática. Abstract The number of competitions and participation on long-distance races (from 5 km to the marathon) in Spain has grown significantly during the last few years. Due to this popularity, both coaches and runners are interested on learning about the factors that affect long-distance running performance. Facing this new reality, scientific literature has been concerned about the aforementioned factors, and the amount of studies has considerably grown. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to analyse factors affecting long-distance running performance from different points of view. Literature review was performed through 3 different databases (Medline, SportDiscus and Google Scholar) and the factors were classified into 5 main groups, subdivided into different sections: 1- environmental (air/wind, temperature, humidity, altitude and slope of the ground), 2- training-related (endurance, resistance, training in hot environments and in altitude), 3- physiological (VO2max, thersholds, running economy, age, gender, muscle fibre type, fatigue and race), 4- biomechanical (anthropometry, leg-stiffness, flexibility, foot strike pattern, footwear, foot orthoses and spatio-temporal parameters) and 5- psychological (intervention strategies, direction of attention and music). Even though the influence of some of these factors on running performance in quite well-known, the influence of some psychological (direction of attention and music) and biomechanical factors (foot strike pattern and spatio-temporal parameters) is still unclear. There are few studies or the results cannot be generalized. Future studies and the progress of new technologies and measurement tools will provide a better understanding.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the sprinting performance in a 30m run in adolescent athletes’ by applying three testing conditions: wearing running shoes, spikes and barefoot. 33 runners aged 11.9±1.1 years (19 boys & 14 girls) were recruited for the study and competed at the testing conditions in a random order with a standard of 48-hour rest. The participants’ anthropometrical data (age, body mass, stature, foot length) were measured besides with their footwear parameters (running shoes & spikes masses). The t-test was applied in order to compare the runners’ sprinting performance and the ANOVA was used in order to evaluate the 30m finish times in all testing trials in relation to the gender. Pearson analysis measured the inter-correlations among the “testing protocols”, “anthropometry” and “footwear parameters”. The results showed that the participants’ performance with spikes (5.28±0.4s) was not significantly better than that with running shoes (5.30±0.5s) or barefoot (5.31±0.5s). The correlation analysis did not present any significant interaction between the foot length and running shoes-spikes mass with the athletes’ performance in all testing protocols. In summary, the findings of this study recorded that the adolescent athletes’ barefoot sprinting performance was not significantly worse than that of wearing running shoes and spikes.
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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoe mass on performance in basketball specific movements and how this effect changes if an athlete is aware or not of the shoe's mass relative to other shoes. In an experimental design, 22 male participants were assigned to two groups. In the "aware" group, differences in the mass of the shoes were disclosed, while participants in the other group were blinded to the mass of shoes. For both groups lateral shuffle-cut and vertical-jump performances were quantified in 3 different basketball shoe conditions (light = 352±18.4g; medium = 510±17g; heavy = 637±17.7g). A mixed ANOVA compared mean shuffle-cut and vertical-jump performances across shoes and groups. For blinded participants, perceived shoe weight ratings were collected and compared across shoe conditions using a Friedman two-way ANOVA. In the aware group, performance in the light shoes was significantly increased by 2% (vertical-jump: 2 %, p<0.001; shuffle-cut: 2.1 %, p<0.001) compared to the heavy shoes. In the blind group, participants were unable to perceive the shoe weight variation between conditions and there were no significant differences in vertical-jump and shuffle-cut performance across shoes. Differences in performance of the aware participants were most likely due to psychological effects such as positive and negative expectancies towards the light and heavy shoes, respectively. These results underline the importance for coaches and shoe manufacturers to communicate the performance enhancing benefits of products or other interventions to the athletes to optimize the performance outcome.
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Various shoes are worn by distance runners throughout a training season. This study measured the differences in ground reaction forces between running shoes, racing flats, and distance spikes in order to provide information about the potential effects of footwear on injury risk in highly competitive runners. Ten male and ten female intercollegiate distance runners ran across a force plate at 6.7 m·s -1 (for males) and 5.7 m·s -1 (for females) in each of the three types of shoes. To control for differences in foot strike, only subjects who exhibited a heel strike were included in the data analysis. Two repeated-measures ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc tests (p < 0.05) were used to detect differences in shoe types among males and females. For the males, loading rate, peak vertical impact force and peak braking forces were significantly greater in flats and spikes compared to running shoes. Vertical stiffness in spikes was also significantly greater than in running shoes. Females had significantly shorter stance times and greater maximum propulsion forces in racing flats compared to running shoes. Changing footwear between the shoes used in this study alters the loads placed on the body. Care should be taken as athletes enter different phases of training where different footwear is required. Injury risk may be increased since the body may not be accustomed to the differences in force, stance time, and vertical stiffness.
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Prior research has shown that footwear can enhance athletic performance. However, public information is not available on what basketball shoe properties should be selected to maximise movement performance. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of basketball shoe mass, outsole traction, and forefoot bending stiffness on sprinting, jumping, and cutting performance. Each of these three basketball shoe properties was systematically varied by ±20% to produce three shoe conditions of varying mass, three conditions of varying traction, and three conditions of varying bending stiffness. Each shoe was tested by 20 recreational basketball players completing maximal effort sprints, vertical jumps, and a cutting drill. Outsole traction had the largest influence on performance, as the participants performed significantly worse in all tests when traction was decreased by 20% (p < 0.001), and performed significantly better in the cutting drill when traction was increased by 20% (p = 0.005). Forefoot bending stiffness had a moderate effect on sprint and cutting performance (p = 0.013 and p = 0.016 respectively) and shoe mass was found to have no effect on performance. Therefore, choosing a shoe with relatively high outsole traction and forefoot bending stiffness should be prioritised, and less concern should be focused on selecting the lightest shoe.