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Motor coordination problems and psychological distress in young adults: A test of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis

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Background and aims: The Environmental Stress Hypothesis (ESH) has been used to examine how the relationship between poor motor coordination and psychological distress is affected by physical health and psychosocial factors. However, work applying the ESH is still limited, and no studies have used this framework with adults. The current investigation aims to examine the association between motor coordination and psychological distress among emerging adults, and examine potential mediators to this relationship based on the ESH. Methods: 225 young adults aged 17-23 years completed a survey of motor coordination, physical activity, secondary stressors (i.e., general stress and global relationships), perceived social support, self-concept, and psychological distress. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine mediating pathways and overall model fit. Results: The final model of the ESH showed good model fit (x2 = 83.24, p < .01; RMSEA=0.056; NNFI = 0.927; CFI = 0.954; GFI = 0.947), and indicated that the relationship between poor motor coordination and psychological distress was mediated by secondary stressors, perceived social support, and self-concept. Conclusions: This study highlights the effect of poor motor coordination on psychological distress in young adults, and suggests that interventions should target psychosocial well-being, in addition to motor coordination, to prevent psychological distress.

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... Furthermore, the most frequent cause of injury for sparring athletes was excessive desire to win and excessive tension. In addition, a previous study reported that excessive tension prevents athletes from performing to their original level of performance (Li et al., 2019). This indicates the need for psychological strategies to resolve the excessive tension or desire to win among sparring athletes. ...
... Lee et al. (2020) reported that athletes with insufficient ability often experience injuries while performing complex movements, such as jumping over high position obstacles or mid-air kicking; this supports the result of this study. In addition, excessive tension appears to cause injuries through unnatural movements, as it reduces coordination among movements (Li et al., 2019). ...
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... Suggestion of a direct impact on educational attainment provides another mediating pathway through which FMS may influence childhood development; a recent systematic review (Macdonald et al., 2018) found evidence generally in favor of positive associations existing between FMS and educational attainment in reading and mathematics. Studies have also linked low levels of motor ability with social and emotional problems including: being withdrawn in social settings, having a poor selfconcept, higher psychological distress, and increased anxiety levels (Brown & Cairney, 2020;Li et al., 2019a;Rodriguez et al., 2019). ...
... This finding is, perhaps, unsurprising as 85% of the sample do not recall having training on FMS. The lack of FMS in teacher training courses is particularly alarming, due to the wide-ranging impacts this group of motor skills has on childhood development (Ahn & Fedewa, 2011;Brown & Cairney, 2020;Burns et al., 2020;Li et al., 2019a;Stodden et al., 2008;De Waal, 2019). Additionally, the results of this questionnaire found that teachers who had previous training on FMS were more likely to work in schools where FMS assessments are being undertaken, and were also more likely to think that there would be sufficient time for a start of year assessment and that results of such assessments would aid teaching practices. ...
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... static balance) skills [1]. Competency of FMS has been found to be positively associated with children's socioemotional development [2][3][4], and educational outcomes [5][6][7][8][9][10]. Additionally, research suggests that FMS play a crucial role in childhood physical activity [11][12][13], which in turn is associated a wide range of physical, mental, and social well-being outcomes [14][15][16][17][18][19]. ...
... It is therefore likely that participants from study three will have had fewer difficulties with FMS, compared to the schools from studies one and two that were situated within the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods in the UK. This influenced the decision of the working group to not change the scoring of the running activity in the finalised FUNMOVES battery, despite running having disordered thresholds (children not scoring [1][2][3][4][5] in the final study, as it was believed that removing the lower scoring categories would impact upon FUNMOVES' utility for measuring running ability in low SES children. ...
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Background A large proportion of children are not able to perform age-appropriate fundamental movement skills (FMS). Thus, it is important to assess FMS so that children needing additional support can be identified in a timely fashion. There is great potential for universal screening of FMS in schools, but research has established that current assessment tools are not fit for purpose. Objective To develop and validate the psychometric properties of a FMS assessment tool designed specifically to meet the demands of universal screening in schools. Methods A working group consisting of academics from developmental psychology, public health and behavioural epidemiology developed an assessment tool (FUNMOVES) based on theory and prior evidence. Over three studies, 814 children aged 4 to 11 years were assessed in school using FUNMOVES. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate structural validity and modifications were then made to FUNMOVES activities after each study based on Rasch results and implementation fidelity. Results The initial Rasch analysis found numerous psychometric problems including multidimensionality, disordered thresholds, local dependency, and misfitting items. Study 2 showed a unidimensional measure, with acceptable internal consistency and no local dependency, but that did not fit the Rasch model. Performance on a jumping task was misfitting, and there were issues with disordered thresholds (for jumping, hopping and balance tasks). Study 3 revealed a unidimensional assessment tool with good fit to the Rasch model, and no further issues, once jumping and hopping scoring were modified. Implications The finalised version of FUNMOVES (after three iterations) meets standards for accurate measurement, is free and able to assess a whole class in under an hour using resources available in schools. Thus FUNMOVES has the potential to allow schools to efficiently screen FMS to ensure that targeted support can be provided and disability barriers removed.
... Suggestion of a direct impact on educational attainment provides another mediating pathway through which FMS may influence childhood development; a recent systematic review (Macdonald et al., 2018) found evidence generally in favor of positive associations existing between FMS and educational attainment in reading and mathematics. Studies have also linked low levels of motor ability with social and emotional problems including: being withdrawn in social settings, having a poor selfconcept, higher psychological distress, and increased anxiety levels (Brown & Cairney, 2020;Li et al., 2019a;Rodriguez et al., 2019). ...
... This finding is, perhaps, unsurprising as 85% of the sample do not recall having training on FMS. The lack of FMS in teacher training courses is particularly alarming, due to the wide-ranging impacts this group of motor skills has on childhood development (Ahn & Fedewa, 2011;Brown & Cairney, 2020;Burns et al., 2020;Li et al., 2019a;Stodden et al., 2008;De Waal, 2019). Additionally, the results of this questionnaire found that teachers who had previous training on FMS were more likely to work in schools where FMS assessments are being undertaken, and were also more likely to think that there would be sufficient time for a start of year assessment and that results of such assessments would aid teaching practices. ...
... Although rarely diagnosed, these problems are common during childhood [3][4][5] and less than half of affected children receive adequate treatment. 6 In order to avoid the early appearance of mental health problems, it is essential to understand the risk factors that can affect the development of these problems 7 . Among them, motor skills can be mentioned, defined as the ability to perform precise and coordinated movements in a wide range of motor abilities, and essential for the psychosocial development of children 8,9 . ...
Article
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Poor motor skills may be associated with the incidence of problems with mental health, especially with regard to social, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. The aim of the current study was to analyze the association of emotional and behavioral problems with motor skills in students aged 7 to 10 years. For this, 339 children (187 girls and 152 boys) were evaluated. The variables were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd ed. (MABC-2) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The results indicated that children with poor motor skills were more likely to present abnormal development in terms of emotional and behavioral problems when compared to children from the reference group. Thus, empirical data such as these can assist in raising public and professional awareness, considering the social and psychological consequences of poor motor skills, in addition to the individual costs arising from mental health problems. Keywords: Emotional problems; Behavioral problems; Motor skills; Child
... It can also be supplemented with various motor screening tools, however the current gold standard motor tests screen for likely DCD in youth (e.g., MABC-2; Henderson et al., 2007;BOT-2, Bruininks & Bruininks, 2005), and have not been validated in adults (ages 16 + and 21 +, respectively). Further, ADC scores do not necessarily correlate positively with objective motor skill measures (e.g., Li et al., 2019) but this could be attributed to the questionnaire scoring scheme not distinguishing motor versus non-motor dimensions (Barnett, 2014). Importantly, the evaluation by a professional clinician is crucial to the diagnosis of DCD; it cannot be based solely on ADC scores. ...
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... A recent systematic review concluded that strong positive associations exist between FMS and educational achievements in reading and mathematics [11]. Studies have also linked low levels of FMS with social and emotional problems, including being withdrawn in social settings, having a poor self-concept, higher stress, and increased anxiety levels [12,13]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the BRAINballs program on second graders’ gross motor skills in a primary school in Vietnam. A total of 55 students (23 boys and 32 girls) aged seven years participated in the study. The research used the method of a pedagogical experiment and parallel group technique (experimental and control group) with pre- and post-testing. The study was conducted in the school year 2019/2020. The gross motor skills performance was assessed by the Test of Gross Motor Development—2nd Edition. The BRAINballs program was conducted twice a week and combined physical activity with subject-related contents by means of a set of 100 balls with painted letters, numbers, and signs. The results showed that the experimental and control groups improved their motor skills after one school year (p < 0.001). However, the analysis of covariance demonstrated that students from the experimental group, compared to students from the control group, showed significantly better scores in both subtests: locomotor (p = 0.0000) and object control skills (p = 0.0000). The findings of this study show that the BRAINballs program had a positive effect on children’s motor performances and may help to better understand the development of basic motor skills of seven-year-old students in Vietnam.
... A recent systematic review (7) concluded that strong positive associations exist between FMS and educational attainment in reading and mathematics. Studies have also linked low levels of FMS with social and emotional problems including: being withdrawn in social settings, having a poor self-concept, higher psychological distress, and increased anxiety levels (8)(9)(10). ...
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Background Evidence suggests that significant numbers of school children fail to acquire age-appropriate fundamental movement skills (FMS), despite the importance of FMS in facilitating participation in physical activities. This has led to calls for an increase in routine screening of children’s FMS in school settings. However, there is limited research exploring teachers’ knowledge of FMS, and the capacity of schools to conduct such assessments. This project therefore aimed to explore primary school teachers’ knowledge of FMS, and investigated what factors might influence the acceptability of FMS assessments in primary schools. Methods Primary school staff working in roles that directly impact the learning of children were invited to take a brief (10–15 minutes) online questionnaire developed using the COM-B Behaviour Change Model. Results Primary school staff (n = 851) from 32 countries (UK: n = 746, 88%) completed the questionnaire. A majority reported that knowledge of their pupils’ FMS ability would be beneficial (65.3%), and 71.8% said they would assess FMS if appropriate support was provided. Identified barriers to school-based FMS assessments included: Capability – few (15%) possessed knowledge of FMS; Opportunity – teachers reported that 30–60 minutes would be acceptable for assessing the FMS of a whole class, a substantially shorter period than current assessments require; Motivation – 57.2% stated FMS assessments would increase workload stress and 48% of teachers would be influenced by their peers. Solutions to these issues are discussed using the COM-B theoretical framework. Conclusions Current FMS assessment tools are not acceptable, or feasible for use in schools. There is a need for existing measures to be modified, or new tools to be developed, underpinned by the considerations outlined in this paper, if FMS screening in schools is to become a reality.
... Variables with missing values were entered into a regression model, including body height and weight, time spent in different domains of physical activity, and item scores for all other measures (e.g., ADC and PSDQ-S). Taking into account the potential effect of sex on the variables measured in this study, the missing values were imputed for males and females, separately [29]. ...
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Introduction Individuals with developmental coordination disorder frequently report emotional and functional difficulties. A stressful era as COVID-19 pandemic may enhance emotional load. The present study aimed to (1) examine the emotional distress and quality of life among adults with developmental coordination disorder during COVID-19 as compared to typical controls, and (2) examine the relationships between these factors in adults with developmental coordination disorder. Method Participants were 317 adults, aged 18–66, recruited during the first year of COVID-19: 227 were included in the developmental coordination disorder group, and 90 in the control group (normal motor performance) based on the Adult Developmental Co-ordination Disorders/Dyspraxia Checklist cutoff score. Participants completed a sociodemographic health status/daily life under COVID-19 questionnaire and self-reports about their emotional status (depression, anxiety, stress) and a quality of life. Results The developmental coordination disorder group had significantly greater depression, anxiety, stress, and lower quality of life. Participants with developmental coordination disorder who were infected by COVID-19 or reported reduction of working hours due to COVID-19 had the lowest social and environmental quality of life. Depression significantly predicted reduced quality of life and mediated between developmental coordination disorder severity and quality of life. Conclusions Prevention and intervention programs for adults with developmental coordination disorder should be elaborated, with reference to emotional load and to implications on daily life, especially in times of crisis, like COVID-19.
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The Environmental Stress Hypothesis (ESH) is a causal theoretical framework that provides a flexible context for understanding factors that mediate the relationship between low motor proficiency and internalizing problems in children. The purpose of the present study was to use the ESH framework to determine whether body mass index (BMI), physical activity levels, psychosocial health and physical health, self-efficacy, perceived social status, prosocial behavior and externalizing problems were potential mediators between motor proficiency and internalizing factors in a population of Brazilian children. 431 children aged 7- to 10 years (240 females, 191 males) participated in the study. The variables were measured with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd ed. (MABC-2), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the MacArthur Subjective Social Status Scale (MacArthur SSS), the Self-efficacy Sense Assessment Roadmap (RASAE), and the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). The results indicated a direct relationship between motor proficiency and internalizing problems in a population of Brazilian children, with externalizing problems being the only variable mediating that relationship. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that externalizing problems were tested in the context of the ESH. Understanding and evaluating potential mediators in the relationship between motor proficiency and internalizing problems using the ESH framework is essential to promote prevention policies and interventions for school-age children.
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Background: Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) tend to be less active than typically-developing (TD) children. Current evidence, however, is based on cross-sectional and self-reported activity, and little is known about sedentary time among children with significant movement impairments such as DCD. The current study examines the longitudinal patterns of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in children with and without possible DCD (pDCD). Methods: Data is from a longitudinal nested case-control study, with 103 participants (n=60 males ages=12 and 13 at baseline). Participants averaging ⩽16th percentile on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children were considered having significant movement impairments and pDCD (n=49). All participants wore accelerometers for seven days. Results: There were significant main effects for time (Estimate=-23.98, p<.01) and gender (Estimate=59.86, p<.05) on total physical activity, and time spent being sedentary (Estimate=15.58, p<.05). Significant main effects for pDCD (Estimate=-5.38, p<.05) and gender (Estimate=26.89, p<.01), and time by gender interaction (Estimate=-7.50, p<.05) were found for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Sedentary time did not differ between children with and without DCD. Conclusions: Results suggest children with pDCD engaged in less MVPA compared to TD children. Consistent patterns of MVPA over time, however, suggest that the divergence in MVPA occurs earlier in childhood. Further longitudinal research following a younger cohort is necessary to identify the specific point that differences in MVPA emerge.
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Adolescents with low motor competence have diminished perceptions of their physical self and tend to avoid physical activities. This study examined the outcomes of an exercise intervention that focused on improving aerobic fitness, strength, and self-perceptions in the physical domain in adolescents with poor motor coordination. The sample included 35 adolescents with low motor competence, comprising boys (n=25) and girls (n=10) ranging in age from 13 to 17years, who attended two sessions per week in the 13week exercise intervention study (AMP it up). Physical self-perceptions were measured before and after the intervention using the Physical Self Perception Profile and Perceived Importance Profile. Significant improvements in perceived Physical Condition, Attractive Body and Physical Strength sub domain scores were identified between pre and post-test. Adjusting for age, gender, BMI and attendance, regression analyses revealed that Attractive Body was the strongest predictor of Physical Self Worth at pre-test, joined by Physical Condition at post-test. This exercise intervention had a positive impact on adolescent physical self-perceptions, in particular males, with improvements in those sub domains specifically related to the exercise program. Changes in specific aspects of Physical Self Worth can be facilitated by exercise interventions, after a relatively short period of time, in adolescents with poor motor coordination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common, neurodevelopmental disorder of children that results in significant impairment in everyday activities of living. Over the past two decades, a large body of work has documented associations between DCD, physical inactivity, and poor health-related fitness. The exact nature of these relations, however, has been relatively little studied. In this paper, we ask whether the balance of evidence supports the proposition that DCD is a fundamental cause of inactivity and poor fitness. To address this question, we apply Hill's criteria for causation. We conclude that the evidence is consistent with, and reasonably supportive of, this proposition, but does not exclude alternative explanations.
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Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a chronic disability that impacts children's performance of everyday motor-based activities and is associated with the development of secondary social and mental health problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate peer victimization and depression in children who were and were not at risk for DCD. Selected from a population-based sample, 159 at-risk fifth graders were matched for age and gender to 159 controls. Children completed measures of depression and frequency of peer victimization. Results showed that children at risk for DCD reported more symptoms of depression and more frequent verbal and relational victimization than their peers. Being at risk for DCD and being bullied more frequently, especially relationally, significantly predicted increased depression symptoms. Findings highlight the importance of school psychologists remaining aware that children with DCD are at increased risk of experiencing bullying and depression. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Impaired motor development can deprive a child of constructive engagement in early motor activities and thus diminish opportunities for the acquisition of key cognitive, social and emotional abilities. The aim of the current study was to test a model where social skills mediate the relationship between motor ability and internalizing symptoms in pre-primary children. A cross-sectional research design was employed to assess the mediation model using data from 234 boys and 241 girls aged 4 to 6 years. Structural equation modelling provided support for the mediating role of social skills as assessed by the child's teacher. Replication of these findings in longitudinal studies, elucidating how social skills relate to motor impairment, could have implications for the prevention of psychopathology in young children with motor impairment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This study explored whether or not a population-based sample of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), with and without comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), experienced higher levels of psychological distress than their peers. A two-stage procedure was used to identify 244 children: 68 with DCD only, 54 with ADHD only, 31 with comorbid DCD and ADHD, and 91 randomly selected typically developing (TD) children. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured by child and parent report. Child sex and caregiver ethnicity differed across groups, with a higher ratio of boys to girls in the ADHD only group and a slightly higher proportion of non-Caucasian caregivers in the TD group. After controlling for age, sex, and caregiver ethnicity, there was significant variation across groups in both anxiety (by parent report, F(3,235) = 8.9, p < 0.001; by child report, F(3,236) = 5.6, p = 0.001) and depression (parent report, F(3,236) = 23.7, p < 0.001; child report, F(3,238) = 9.9, p < 0.001). In general, children in all three disorder groups had significantly higher levels of symptoms than TD children, but most pairwise differences among those three groups were not significant. The one exception was the higher level of depressive symptoms noted by parent report in the ADHD/DCD group. In conclusion, children identified on the basis of motor coordination problems through a population-based screen showed significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than typically developing children. Children who have both DCD and ADHD are particularly at heightened risk of psychological distress.
Article
There is a growing literature connecting poor motor coordination to physical and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents. These studies suggest that children with disorders such as developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are at greater risk for depression and anxiety, as well as obesity, and poor physical fitness. With regard to internalizing problems (symptoms of depression and anxiety), there is also evidence to suggest that the environment may play an important role in the etiology of psychological distress in this population. Cairney, Veldhuizen, & Szatmari, 2010 used the phrase “environmental stress hypothesis” to highlight the role that negative exposure to personal and interpersonal stressors might play in accounting for higher rates of internalizing symptoms in children with DCD. In this paper, we elaborate further on this basic premise, offering a model linking DCD to internalizing problems based on Pearlin’s stress process framework. In addition to stressors (risk) and protective factors, we incorporate both physical activity and obesity into our stress model. Next, we review the existing literature to see if there is evidence supporting specific components (pathways) of the model. In doing so, areas in need of further research are identified. Implications for intervention are also provided.
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Adolescence is a transitional life phase that is associated with heightened risk for two major health conditions - obesity and mental health problems. Given the established comorbidity of obesity and depression, one avenue that warrants further exploration is the association between obesogenic risk and obesity in the expression and maintenance of depressive symptoms. The aim of the current systematic review was to identify and evaluate the empirical literature reporting the relationships between obesogenic risk factors (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet and weight status) and depression in adolescents. A search of five databases for studies published over the last decade found 24 studies eligible for review. Relationships were found between lack of physical exercise, heightened sedentary behaviour, poor diet quality, obese or overweight and depression in adolescence. However, the finding that obesogenic risk factors are associated with poor adolescent mental health should be interpreted with caution as data typically come from non-representative samples with less than optimal study design and methodology.
Article
Background: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) affects up to 6% of the population and is diagnosed on the basis of poor motor coordination. While we know rather little about its lifetime consequences, clear and significant difficulties remain through the lifespan for the majority. Reduced physical activity and, outside of the motor domain, significant mental health issues exist for many with DCD. Aims: This study provides the first investigation of the presence of mood disorders in adults with DCD. Method: Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Beck Depression and Spielberger Anxiety Inventories in 36 adults previously diagnosed with DCD vs. 49 age- and gender-matched typical controls. Amount and type of physical activity undertaken each week were also reported. Results: After controlling for their reduced level of weekly physical activity, the group with DCD reported significantly more symptoms of depression, state and trait anxiety than their peers. Conclusions: This finding has important implications for consideration of intervention in DCD, as well as for investigation of the risk and protective factors at play in long-term outcome. Finally, the findings highlight the need for awareness of motor difficulties in those presenting with high levels of anxiety and depression, and vice versa.
Article
Measurement invariance is usually tested using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis, which examines the change in the goodness-of-fit index (GFI) when cross-group constraints are imposed on a measurement model. Although many studies have examined the properties of GFI as indicators of overall model fit for single-group data, there have been none to date that examine how GFIs change when between-group constraints are added to a measurement model. The lack of a consensus about what constitutes significant GFI differences places limits on measurement invariance testing. We examine 20 GFIs based on the minimum fit function. A simulation under the two-group situation was used to examine changes in the GFIs (ΔGFIs) when invariance constraints were added. Based on the results, we recommend using Δcomparative fit index, ΔGamma hat, and ΔMcDonald's Noncentrality Index to evaluate measurement invariance. These three ΔGFIs are independent of both model complexity and sample size, and are not correlated with the overall fit measures. We propose critical values of these ΔGFIs that indicate measurement invariance.
Article
Selected research on the learning and performance of physical skills from a knowledge-based perspective provides the introduction for a discussion of the importance of practice in the developmental skill learning process. Recent evidence on the activity deficit hypothesis as well as knowledge-base differences as they relate to children with movement difficulties in physical activity settings provides the basis from which to present the developmental skill-learning gap hypothesis, which contends that as children with movement difficulties grow older, the skill-learning gap between them and their more physically proficient peers widens across instructional, practice, and competitive settings. Implications and suggestions for the learning and instruction of children with movement difficulties conclude the paper. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Few studies have looked at the strengths and weaknesses and needs of students with developmenal co-ordination disorder (DCD). This paper describes a cohort of 93 UK students currently studying at further or higher education and who have reported motor difficulties present since childhood. The study group consisted of 21 reporting to have DCD only, 38 with DCD plus another diagnosis (a combination of any of the following: dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), learning difficulties); 23 subjects reporting dyslexia only, and 11 students who have not been formally diagnosed. The aim of this study was to first ascertain the similarities and differences between the students in the type of support received in childhood and while at university. The second goal was to examine the reported strengths and difficulties and see how they vary for each subgroup. The DCD group reported higher levels of motor-related difficulties such as handwriting and also executive functioning difficulties. They also had higher levels of professional support given in childhood and were also more likely to be living at home with parents compared with the dyslexia group. Despite different types of difficulties reported in the DCD group, the range of student support given across all groups was similar. Significantly more of the dyslexia group were reported to be in receipt of disability student allowance than the DCD group. The DCD and other disorders group were seen to be an intermediary group in most of the areas studied.
Article
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) affects around 5% of the population and is diagnosed on the basis of poor motor coordination. Although we know rather little about the lifetime consequences of this disorder, it is clear that significant difficulties remain through adolescence and into adulthood for the majority. It is also clear that significant psychosocial consequences exist for many individuals with DCD. In the current study, quality of life satisfaction was investigated in a group of emerging adults with and without DCD using the Quality of Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (Endicott et al. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 29, 321–326, 1993). Overall, the group of adults with DCD reported significantly lower levels of quality of life satisfaction across all domains on the scale. This finding has important implications for consideration of early and later intervention for these individuals, as well as for studies to consider the risk and protective factors at play in long-term outcome with respect to both the motor skills and psychosocial aspects of this disorder. KeywordsDevelopmental coordination disorder–Quality of life satisfaction–Emerging adulthood–Lifespan
Article
To synthesise reviews investigating physical activity and depression, anxiety, self-esteem and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents and to assess the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health by performing a brief review. Searches were performed in 2010. Inclusion criteria specified review articles reporting chronic physical activity and at least one mental health outcome that included depression, anxiety/stress, self-esteem and cognitive functioning in children or adolescents. Four review articles reported evidence concerning depression, four for anxiety, three for self-esteem and seven for cognitive functioning. Nine primary studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and mental health. Physical activity has potentially beneficial effects for reduced depression, but the evidence base is limited. Intervention designs are low in quality, and many reviews include cross-sectional studies. Physical activity interventions have been shown to have a small beneficial effect for reduced anxiety, but the evidence base is limited. Physical activity can lead to improvements in self-esteem, at least in the short term. However, there is a paucity of good quality research. Reviews on physical activity and cognitive functioning have provided evidence that routine physical activity can be associated with improved cognitive performance and academic achievement, but these associations are usually small and inconsistent. Primary studies showed consistent negative associations between mental health and sedentary behaviour. Association between physical activity and mental health in young people is evident, but research designs are often weak and effects are small to moderate. Evidence shows small but consistent associations between sedentary screen time and poorer mental health.
Article
Research has identified a relationship between social-emotional problems and motor impairment in both pre-school and school-age children. The aim of the current study was to determine how motor performance in infancy and early childhood is related to levels of anxious and depressive symptomatology at age 6-12 years. Fifty participants were assessed by their parents 11 times between the ages of 4 months and 4 years using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), and once between the age of 6 and 12 years using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The ASQ scores were used to obtain the stability (variance) of fine and gross motor performance. Once gestational age, sex and age of testing were taken into account, the stability of gross motor scores predicted both the anxiety/depression measure and the anxious score from the CBCL. It appears that how variable a young child's gross motor development is from 4 months to 4 years predicts the level of anxious/depressive symptoms at school age. These findings may assist in the early identification of children at risk of anxiety disorders and depression at school age.
Article
Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD), also known as Dyspraxia in the United Kingdom (U.K.), is a developmental disorder affecting motor co-ordination. In the past this was regarded as a childhood disorder, however there is increasing evidence that a significant number of children will continue to have persistent difficulties into adulthood. Despite this, there remains little information as to how the difficulties might present at this stage, and additionally the impact on every day functioning. As young people move into further and higher education there is a need for screening and assessment tools. Such tools allow for identification of these difficulties, access to support, and clarification of areas where appropriate support needs to be targeted. This paper describes the first adult screening tool for DCD. The development and the results from testing this tool in two countries, Israel and the U.K. are outlined and the implications for its use in further and higher education discussed.
Article
The question of whether problems of motor co-ordination in early childhood recede with age has rarely been addressed. This paper reports the findings from a follow-up study of 17 children, identified by their teachers as having poor motor co-ordination at age six. Now age 16, these children and their matched controls completed a battery of assessments. The results suggest that the majority of children still have difficulties with motor co-ordination, have poor self-concept and are experiencing problems of various kinds in school. However, there are individual differences in the extent to which the children have learned to cope with their continuing difficulties over the years.
Article
This paper presents a critical overview of current concepts and analytic practices in stress research and considers how they can be changed to make the research more consistent with core sociological interests. An overarching concern of the paper is the analytic use of basic information about people's social and institutional affiliations and statuses. It is important that such information be treated not simply as data that need to be controlled statistically; we must examine the bearing of these data on each domain of the stress process: the exposure to and meaning of stressors, access to stress mediators, and the psychological, physical, and behavioral manifestations of stress. The conceptualization and measurement of stressors should move away from their focus on particular events or chronic strains and should seek instead to observe and assess over time constellations of stressors made up of both events and strains. Moreover, the effects of the mediators--coping and social support--are evaluated most fruitfully in terms of their effects in limiting the number, severity, and diffusion of stressors in these constellations. Finally, sociological stress researchers should not be bound to outcomes that better serve the intellectual interests of those who work with biomedical and epidemiological models of stress, nor should the research be committed exclusively to a single outcome.
Article
There is a need for controlled longitudinal studies in the field of attention disorders in the general population. In a community-based follow-up study, 55 of 61 subjects aged 22 years, who had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbid developmental coordination disorder (DCD) at initial workup at age 7 years, were compared, on a multitude of outcome variables, with 46 of 51 age-matched subjects without such diagnoses. None of the subjects had received stimulant treatment. Psychiatrists performing the follow-up study were blind to original diagnostic group status. In the ADHD/DCD group 58% had a poor outcome compared with 13% in the comparison group (p < .001). Remaining symptoms of ADHD, antisocial personality disorder, alcohol abuse, criminal offending, reading disorders, and low educational level were overrepresented in the ADHD/DCD groups. The combination of ADHD and DCD appeared to carry a particularly gloomy outlook. Childhood ADHD and DCD appears to be a most important predictor of poor psychosocial functioning in early adulthood. It would seem appropriate to screen for such disorders in schools and clinics so that therapies may be started early.
Article
Utilising Harter's theory of competence motivation (Harter, S. The determinants and mediational role of global self-worth in children. In: N. Eisenberg, Contemporary topics in developmental psychology, Wiley, New York, 1987, pp. 219-242.), the current study examined perceived competence and social support, and their influence on self-worth and anxiety in children and adolescents with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A group of children aged 8-10 years, and a group of adolescents aged 12-14 years, with significant movement problems were compared with matched control groups on measures of perceived competence, perceived social support, self-worth and anxiety. Those with DCD were found to perceive themselves as less competent in several domains, and having less social support than control participants. Overall, DCD groups had lower self-worth and higher levels of anxiety than the control groups. Adolescents also perceived themselves as less competent with poorer social support and lower self-worth than younger children. In addition, anxiety was significantly higher for the adolescent group compared to their younger counterparts.
Article
Neurodevelopmental impairments have been associated with early-onset schizophrenia, early-onset bipolar disorder, and childhood-onset affective disorder. The authors investigated whether delayed childhood motor skills predicted persistent anxiety in adolescence among 6,850 subjects from a national 1958 U.K. birth cohort. This historic cohort study used data from the National Child Development Study that was collected when its subjects were 7, 11, and 16 years old. Boys with poor motor skills had more than threefold the odds of maternally rated anxiety at the ages of 11 and 16, but no effect was observed for girls. Childhood motor impairment was strongly associated with persistent anxiety among male, but not among female, adolescents. The effect modification by sex was greater than expected, as was the effect size for boys. Both findings warrant replication and further examination.