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Automated Text Readability Assessment For Russian Second Language Learners



This paper presents an outline of the readability assessment system construction for the purposes of the Russian language learning. The system is designed to help educators easily obtain the information about the difficulty level of reading materials. The estimation task is posed here as a regression problem on data set of 600 texts and a range of lexico-semantic and morphological features. The scale choice and annotated text collection issues are also discussed. Finally, we present the results of the experiment with learners of Russian as a foreign language to evaluate the quality of a predictive model.
Laposhina А. N. (,
Veselovskaya Т. V. (,
Lebedeva M. U. (,
Kupreshchenko O. F. (
Pushkin State Russian Language Institute (Moscow, Russia)
This paper presents an outline of the readability assessment system con-
struction for the purposes of the Russian language learning. The system
is designed to help educators easily obtain the information about the dif-
ficulty level of reading materials. The estimation task is posed here as a re-
gression problem on data set of 600 tex ts and a range of lexico-semantic
and morphological features. The scale choice and annotated tex t collec-
tion issues are also discussed. Finally, we present the results of the experi-
ment with learners of Russian as a foreign language to evaluate the quality
of a predictive model.
Keywords: readability, text complexity, reading difficult y, graded readers
Лапошина А. Н. (,
Веселовская Т. В. (,
Лебедева М. Ю. (,
Купрещенко О. Ф. (
Государственный институ т русского языка
им. А. С. Пушкина (Москва, Россия)
1. Introduction and related works
Today’s information and text-rich world opens great opportunities for personal-
ized learning, but at the same time, it sets the task of estimation and selection the
suitable information. Suitable is understood as relevant to the educational purposes
1 This research has been supported by the RFBR grant No.17-29-09156.
Automated Text Readability Assessment for Russian Second Language Learners
on the one hand and interesting and meaningful for this particular student on the
As R. Reynolds notes, tools for automatic identification of complexity of a given
text would help to avoid one of the most time-consuming steps of text selection, al-
lowing teachers to focus on pedagogical aspects of the process. Furthermore, these
tools would also make it possible for learners to find appropriate texts by themselves
[Reynolds, 2016].
In general, automated text difficulty assessment is the task of labeling a text with
a certain difficulty level, such as grades, the age of the student, CEFR2 levels, or some
other abstract scale. The need of estimating texts by difficulty is not new: it starts
from the beginning of the 20th century in a context of school education with quite
simple formulas based on words and sentences length.
Nowadays both methods and possible application areas of such systems have
widely expanded. Originated in the field of school education, researches on esti-
mation of text complexity and search of appropriate ways of its simplification can
play a significant role in specific applications where the accessibility of information
is extremely important: for instance, readability assessing of government documenta-
tion for the general public3, applications helping readers with dyslexia [Rello et al.,
2012] or with intellectual disabilities [Feng et al., 2009], other groups of poor read-
ers. Finally, the issue of finding educational texts with appropriate difficulty level for
the second language learners is our particular interest. In modern NLP researches
readability assessment posed as a data-driven machine learning task, is using a va-
riety of text features from habitual word length to complex syntactic [Schwarm and
Ostendorf, 2005] and discourse features [Pitler and Nenkova, 2008], features from
statistical language models [Collins-Thompson and Callan, 2004], etc.
The task of text complexity estimation for the second language learners has some
peculiarities. Thus, Heiman indicates the greater role of grammatical features in the
second language readability research compared to native language one [Heilman
et al., 2008]. The differences in the vocabulary level are also worth noticing. In our
previous research [Laposhina, 2017] we have found out that the lexical group of fea-
tures demonstrates one of the best correlation scores with text complexity in Rus-
sian. Perhaps, this is due to the difference in vocabulary acquisition of native and
foreign languages. Walker et al. notes the disparity of reading in the native and the
second or foreign language: when we first learnt to read in our first language, we al-
ready knew at least 5,000 words orally [Cunningham 2005], whereas we are usually
plunged into reading a second language at an early stage, when we know very little
of the language. L2 readers are constantly confronted with vocabulary they do not
know [Walker, 2013]. Moreover, the differences in readability assessing for a second
language include sufficiently clear and rigorous scale levels, knowledge and skill re-
quirements for each level, word lists, and vocabulary.
There are a few readability researches for the Russian as a Foreign Language.
R. Reynolds builds a six-level Random Forest classifier with a range of lexical,
2 Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.
Laposhina А. N., Veselovskaya Т. V., Lebedeva M. U., Kupreshchenko O. F.
morphological, syntactic, and discourse features and obtains F-score of 0.671. Better
results were shown in binary classification task with two adjacent reading levels (e.g.
A1-A2): F-score here is about 0.8–0.9. The author also provides information about
feature`s information gain. [Karpov et a l. 2014] use Classification Tree, SVM, and
Logistic Regression models for binary classification of 4 CEFR levels (A1-C2, A2-C2,
and B1-C2). The design of the given classification task seems not to fit the author’s ob-
jective ‘to retrieve appropriate material for their (students) language level’ [Karpov
et al., 2014], as the classification of adjacent reading levels is absent. A predictive
model was trained on the base of 219 texts and 25 features including sentence and
word length, the percentage of words from vocabulary lists and the number of several
POS. The most predictive one were word lists. The authors also examine the sentence-
level readability classification on ‘B1 level and lower’ and ‘higher than B1’ using trans-
formed Dale-Chall model. [Sharoff et al. 2008] use Principal Component Analysis
(PCA) in the aim to find the range of features that make a text difficult to read across
a variety of languages without requiring complex resources, such as parsers. In order
to realize that, they use word and sentence length, Flesch Readability Formula, aver-
age number of some specific word forms and coverage by frequency lists. The two
main components from PCA can be interpreted as grammatical and lexical dimen-
sions of difficulty. Authors also present the results of the experiment on using this
system in actual language teaching.
2. Readability Assessment
As noticed by [Kevyn Collins-Thompson 2014], a machine-learning approach
to readability prediction consists of three basic steps:
First, a gold-standard training corpus of individual texts is constructed.
Second, a set of features is defined that are to be computed from a text.
Third, a machine learning model learns how to predict the gold standard label
for a text from the text’s extracted feature values.
Our work has been done in the established t radition. In section 1, the scale choice
and training data set construction is discussed. Section 2 is devoted to feature extrac-
tion and selection; section 3 represents machine-learning algorithms training; and
finally section 4 presents an evaluation experiment with a real educational life.
2.1. Scale choice and corpus constructing
For text complexity research a scale selection is being required: this will deter-
mine the way of corpus annotation and the type of machine learning task. Discuss-
ing traditional readability formulas, the text is considered to be suitable based on the
reader’s age or grade, but this differentiation does not reflect information about real
reader’s competence. This situation is clearly illustrated by the authors of the project
on the personalization of the readability metrics Lexile4: in their video presentation
Automated Text Readability Assessment for Russian Second Language Learners
they show a family who has come to a store to buy kid’s sneakers; searching for a suit-
able pair, parents do not use child’s individual shoe size, but focus on his age. The
authors of this project offer an abstract numerical index that consists of text metrics
and the vocabulary of a particular student as a scale.
An abstract scale is also widely used among readability studies: from 0 to 100
[Or phee De Clercq, 2017], 1 to 5 [Pitler and Nenkova, 2008], binary—easy/difficult
or suitable/not suitable for this level, triple—simple/average/difficult [Selegey et al.,
2015]. Quite easy and effective way to get annotated training data may be using par-
allel collections of texts: e.g. Simplified VS Normal Wikipedia, [Sharoff et al, 2008],
Children VS Adult version of Encyclopedia Britannica [Schwarm and Ostendorf,
2005]. Regarding the multi-level scale, it can be graded reader collections such
as Weekly Reader, an educational newspaper with texts targeted at different grade
levels [Weekly Reader, 2004].
As for a second language readability studies, the most common decision here
is to use a standard grading scale for foreign language proficiency which is already
developed for assessment and certification of foreign students ([Reynolds, 2016];
[K arpov, 2014]; [Schwarm and Ostendorf, 2005]). For European languages, this
is the CEFR5 level system that is measured with a six-level scale from A1 (Beginner)
up to C2 (Proficiency). This system of levels has several advantages:
1. The availability of the specific regulatory documents that clarify the require-
ments for knowledge of vocabulary, grammar and syntax for each level.
2. Independence from such subjective categories as grade / age / number of years
of study. These levels have a specific amount of language material that a per-
son who claims to have a certificate of appropriate level should know.
3. The textbooks contain information on what levels they are intended.
4. There is a correlation with the real-life situations (for example, it is neces-
sary to have a certain level to enter Russian universities, get a job in Russia,
get Russian citizenship, get permission to teach Russian, etc.). Thus, the level
of text complexity becomes a less abstract category.
A2 word list coverage of a text
Formula SMOG
Mean sentence length
Median number of punctuation per sentence
Percentage of words in genitive case per text
Table 2. Examples of correlation coefficient for different groups of features
number of text
Table 1.
Corpus content distribution
There are 6 basic CEFR levels, translated into numerical form (A1 = 0, A2 = 1 etc)
at the core of our scale. So the complexity of the text is presented as an increasing
value, that reflects the concept of process of language acquisition more naturally,
than 6 closed classes. Our corpus contains about 600 texts from the CIE resource6 and
several textbooks. Authors of these books provided the information about the target
level. The content distribution is shown in Table 1.
Laposhina А. N., Veselovskaya Т. V., Lebedeva M. U., Kupreshchenko O. F.
For the C2 (the level of an educated native speaker) texts from news portals and
articles from popular magazines on various subjects were used. However, it is obvi-
ous that the reading difficulty of texts marked as native speaker level can also differ
greatly. Therefore, we added to our scale the C2+ level, which will include texts sup-
posedly perceived as difficult by Russian native speakers: texts of laws, articles from
the popular science magazine N+17, noted by the editors as complicated (they defined
complexity as an amount of the scientific background in this field which is needed
to understand the article).
We have faced several issues while collecting corpus: a) information about level
could be absent in the textbook; b) this information may not contain a clear indication
of the CEFR levels (B1-B2, «advanced», «for the second semester»); c) the difficulty
level reflects the author’s subjective evaluation. Therefore, in the future we are plan-
ning to perform expert or crowdsourcing annotation of our text collection to fix these
limitations and to get more objective information about complexity of given texts us-
ing average score from several annotators.
2.2. Feature extraction and selection
We select the features to extract taki ng into account the following principles: 1) the
features should reflect the information provided in the regulatory documents. 2) fol-
lowing [Sharoff et al. 2008], we believe that the features should be quite simple and
reproducible if we are talking about the real usage of this system in language learning.
First, we extract some basic text metrics such as average and median word
length, sentence length, average number of syllables per word, percentage of ‘long
words (more than 4 syllables), average number of punctuation marks per sentence.
This group of features is easy to get but it is still capable to show high correlation with
a difficulty level in an obvious way: the longer the text and the words in it, the more
likely it is difficult to read.
[François and Miltsakaki 2012] in their readability study have found that the
best prediction performance was obtained using both classic (readability formulas)
and non-classic features. Considering this, we have applied as a feature 5 commonly
used readability formulas, which are using following parametres:
1. Flesch–Kincaid: (words / sentences) + (syllables / sentences);
2. Сoleman Liau index: (characters / words) + (sentences / words);
3. Automated Readability Index: (characters / words) + (words / sentences);
4. Dale-Chall formula: (‘difficult’ words that are out of Dale’s 3000 simple words
list / all words) + (words / sentences);
5. Simple Measure of Gobbledygook: (words more than 4 syllables / sentences).
More information about readability formulas adaptation for Russian is available
in [Begtin, 2015].
Following previous researches (e.g. [Pitler and Nenkova, 2008]; [Zeng et al.,
2008]; [Laposhina, 2017]), we paid attention to the group of lexical features: there
7 ht t p s : //n p l u s1 . r u
Automated Text Readability Assessment for Russian Second Language Learners
are subsets of features based on coverage by vocabulary lists for each level (“lexi-
cal minimums”), frequency lists by Lyashevskaya and Sharoff8 and Brown [N. Brown,
1996], and number of words from some specific word lists: abstract words, emotional
words, verbs of motion, modal constructions, Dale’s list of 3000 “simple words”9, lists
of 1000 and 2000 basic words from the Basic English Project10. As for the last ones,
we realize the roughness of the English word lists` translation, but even approximate
information on their correlation to the text complexity in Russian can motivate our
further study in this field.
The next feature subset provides data about grammatical information. The per-
centage of POS or grammatical forms is counted here for a sentence and for a whole
text, e.g. ‘percent of nouns in a sentence’, ‘percent of nominative case in a text’.
To estimate the impact of these features in Russian second language readability
assessment, the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients and p-value were cal-
culated11. Top-30 features contains all groups of features but in different proportions.
A2 word list coverage of a text
Formula SMOG
Mean sentence length
Median number of punctuation per sentence
Percentage of words in genitive case per text
Table 2. Examples of correlation coefficient for different groups of features
level A1
number of text
Table 1. Corpus content distribution
The highest correlation was shown by the lexical minimums coverage—this fact
not only confirms the connection between the lexical minimums and text difficulty,
but also characterizes the corpus content, which consists mostly of the textbooks, de-
signed, in turn, according to the lexical minimums,—this has led to a vicious circle.
All five readability formulas, sentence and word length information have also shown
top results. The presence of features from specific word lists as Dale Word List and
Basic English translated versions encourage us to continue research in this area and
to develop similar lists for Russian.
The top morphological features are presented by the percentage of neuter nouns,
words in nominative and genitive cases, and participles. Most of the grammatical
Laposhina А. N., Veselovskaya Т. V., Lebedeva M. U., Kupreshchenko O. F.
features have positive correlation (e.g. the high proportion participles can indicate
passive forms and specific Russian participle constructions which cause difficulties
in understanding among foreigners; a number of neuter nouns may be connected with
a number of special terms and abstract concepts). In contrast, there is a negative cor-
relation between the percentage of words in nominative case and the difficulty level,
as the less often the nominative case occurs in the sentence, the larger a proportion
of the oblique cases is in it, which is also difficult. Mean sentence length, number
of prepositions and conjunctions may indicate a syntactical aspect of difficulty.
A number of linear correlations between these text features was detected, e.g.
connection between different readability formulas or lexical minimums, frequency
lists. We will keep it in mind while model fitting.
2.3. Regression model
The aim of this part of work was to predict the correct assessment of a text from
the continuous-valued scale from 0(A1) to 6(C2+). In order to do this, we have experi-
mented with two linear regression algorithms: ordinary least squares Linear Regres-
sion and Ridge Regression (linear least squares w ith l2 reg ularization) by scikit-learn12.
The mathematical objective of this techniques is to minimize mean squared error.
The models were built with:
a) all 149 features
b) 44 features with correlation by Pearson > 0.3.
To evaluate the results we have used a standard metrics as explained variance
score and mean squared error. The best result was achieved by Ridge regression based
on 44 best correlation features. We assumed that Ridge Regression better results may
be explained by its resistance to multicollinearity of features. Twenty-fold cross-vali-
dation test showed accuracy 0.82 (±0.05) for Ridge Regression and 0.80 (±0.07) for
Linear Regression.
To visualize the output of an algorithm a confusion matrix was constructed.
Rows represent here an actual level by the corpus data while columns represent pre-
dicted levels.
Automated Text Readability Assessment for Russian Second Language Learners
Table 4 shows, that mispredictions more than 1 level are only 10% of a test set,
that is quite encouraging. It’s also interesting to note ‘the direction’ of errors: algo-
rithm more often underestimates the difficulty (47 VS 12), especially at high levels.
One of the reasons of such phenomenon may be connected with the peculiarity of the
corpus content: texts in B2 and C1 textbooks are aimed at confident users of Russian
and provide information on complex grammatical constructions and various func-
tional styles of the Russian language, so they can be more difficult, than the usual
news articles that we collected for the C2 level.
The examples of system working with authentic Russian texts are shown below.
These results correspond both to the intuition of the expert teachers and to the require-
ments of the state standards for Russian learners, where reading authentic texts with
minimal adaptation are appropriate for readers beginning with B1 level and above.
More details on the evaluation experiment will be described in the next section.
2.4. Evaluation
To test the accuracy of our approach to automatic text complexity measurement
and to estimate its applicability in real educational life, we have proceeded an ex-
periment with 78 international students at B1 level of Russian language proficiency.
It took place at the Pushkin State Russian Language Institute in February 2018. Three
authentic texts on the similar topic with minimal adaptation were prepared; our sys-
tem evaluated them as A2, B1 and B2 respectively. The students were asked to read
Laposhina А. N., Veselovskaya Т. V., Lebedeva M. U., Kupreshchenko O. F.
each text without dictionary, to mark unknown vocabulary, to do post-reading quiz
and to note how difficult to understand these texts were.
The core insights from this study are shown below. The scale of text difficulty
is readily seen here: the more difficult by our algorithm text is, the more words and
syntactic constructions are marked by students as unknown and the less percentage
of correct quiz answers are given. During personal interview students also easily or-
dered given texts by difficulty level highlighting that text 3 is the most difficult. Be-
sides, they avoided to pick the option ‘I understand almost nothing, this text was too
difficult’ in the questionnaire: this can be caused both by psychological factors, when
intermediate-level students are not comfortable to admit such an overgeneralized op-
tion and by weak ness of our program due to it’s tendency to overestimate the real level
of the text difficulty. We will take it into account while our further research.
3. Conclusion and further work
In this article we presented a supervised approach for text complexity assess-
ment for Russian as a Second Language using linear regression. The best result was
performed by Ridge Regression algorithm, trained on the 44 best correlation features
set. As our further work we can point out such directions as:
1. Corpus expansion, adding the segment with authentic texts, mainly annotated
by different experts;
2. Searching for new lexico-semantic features (polysemantic words, idioms and
collocations, archaisms and historicisms, conversational vocabulary, genre-
specific words seem particularly promising).
Automated Text Readability Assessment for Russian Second Language Learners
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Costa Mesa, California.
... Such materials are used for studying the properties and text comprehension of simplified texts (Crossley et al., 2014) or in creating and testing simplification systems (Arfé et al., 2014). For the Russian language, texts for L2 learners were used for building systems of automatic complexity estimation Laposhina et al., 2018), refining objective parameters of text complexity (Solovyev et al., 2019), and studying L2 adaptation strategies (Sibirtseva and Karpov, 2014;Dmitrieva et al., 2021). ...
... We identified a set of quantitative features that determine the difficulty level of the text, building on relevant research on automated readability assessment Reynolds, 2016;Laposhina et al., 2018, Sharoff et al., 2008. Our current study makes use of 95 features which can be divided into four groups. ...
Full-text available
Studies on simple language and simplification are often based on datasets of texts, either for children or learners of a second language. In both cases, these texts represent an example of simple language, but simplification likely involves different strategies. As such, this data may not be entirely homogeneous in terms of text simplicity. This study investigates linguistic properties and specific simplification strategies used in Russian texts for primary school children with different language backgrounds and levels of language proficiency. To explore the structure and variability of simple texts for young readers of different age groups, we have trained models for multiclass and binary classification. The models were based on quantitative features of texts. Subsequently, we evaluated the simplification strategies applied to readers of the same age with different linguistic backgrounds. This study is particularly relevant for the Russian language material, where the concept of easy and plain language has not been sufficiently investigated. The study revealed that the three types of texts cannot easily be distinguished from each other by judging the performance of multiclass models based on various quantitative features. Therefore, it can be said that texts of all types exhibit a similar level of accessibility to young readers. In contrast, binary classification tasks demonstrated better results, especially in the R-native vs. non R-native track (with 0.78 F1-score), these results may indicate that the strategies used for adapting or creating texts for each type of audience are different.
... The metrics of readability [40] of the texts include a number of basic properties, e.g. its length in characters, the number of words in a post, the number of punctuation marks, etc., as well as more complex metrics [41,42]. ...
... In addition, the following readability indices were considered [41]. The formulae of these indices contain language-specific constants and multipliers. ...
The article deals with the question of the link between readability and engagement rates on social media. On one hand, easy-to-read texts can be useful to attract and involve broader audience, but on the other hand, texts which draw attention and spark discussions often tend to be complex, controversial, even sophisticated, and consequentially less readable. Our database consisted of 115245 posts retrieved from social networking site VKontakte, the most popular SNS in Russia. The sample included all publicly available posts in online communities of 47 Russian state bodies: ministries, federal services and federal agencies published from 01.01.2017 to 16.09.2020. For each post, engagement rate (ER) and 79 other metrics of the texts were calculated. Gradient Boosted Decision Trees were used to build the regression model which took into account all the features including 10 different readability metrics and other measures, such as topics, linguistic characteristics, sentiment and so on. As a result, the most significant factors were the variables determining the presence of certain topics. All readability scores were weak predictors of engagement rate. And furthermore, our data provided no evidence that topics can help to increase ER, but only the topics causing lowering of ER. Using correlation analysis, we showed that in the case of communication strategies in online communities in social network VKontakte, the readability of posts is not directly related to engagement rates.
... Similarly, a series of works [18,[21][22][23][24] has been devoted to automatic classification of readability/complexity of tests of Russian as a foreign language. Several classification algorithms were considered in [18]: Random Forest, NNge (nearestneighbor with non-nested generalized exemplars), FT (Functional Trees), Multilayer Perceptron, and SMO (sequential minimal optimization for support vector machine) from WEKA data mining software [19]. ...
... Random Forest [20] is a commonly used classification algorithm, the merits of which are well known. It was also successfully used in [21,22]. Several methods were applied in [24]: Classification Tree, SVM, and Logistic Regression models. ...
Education policy makers view measuring academic texts readability and profiling classroom textbooks as a primary task of education management aimed at sustaining quality of reading programs. As Russian readability metrics, i.e. “objective” features of texts determining its complexity for readers, are still a research niche, we undertook a comparative analysis of academic texts features exemplified in textbooks on Social Science and examination texts of Russian as a foreign language. Experiments for 7 classifiers and 4 methods of linear regression on Russian Readability corpus demonstrated that ranking textbooks for native speakers is a much more difficult task than ranking examination texts written (or designed) for foreign students. The authors see a possible reason for this in differences between two processes: acquiring a native language on the one hand and learning a foreign language on the other. The results of the current study are extremely relevant in modern Russia which is joining the Bologna Process and needs to provide profiled texts for all types of learners and testees. Based on a qualitative and quantitative analysis of a text, the research offers a guide for education managers to help build consensus on selecting a reading material when educators have differing views.
... Tomina [42] considered the lexical and syntactic features of the text complexity level. A. Laposhina et al. [22] evaluated a wide range of different types of features, such as readability, semantic, lexical, grammatical and others. M. Shafaei et al. [33] estimated age suitability rating of movie dialogs using genre and sentiment features. ...
The ability to automatically determine the age audience of a novel provides many opportunities for the development of information retrieval tools. Firstly, developers of book recommendation systems and electronic libraries may be interested in filtering texts by the age of the most likely readers. Further, parents may want to select literature for children. Finally, it will be useful for writers and publishers to determine which features influence whether the texts are suitable for children. In this article, we compare the empirical effectiveness of various types of linguistic features for the task of age-based classification of fiction texts. For this purpose, we collected a text corpus of book previews labeled with one of two categories – children’s or adult. We evaluated the following types of features: readability indices, sentiment, lexical, grammatical and general features, and publishing attributes. The results obtained show that the features describing the text at the document level can significantly increase the quality of machine learning models.
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The importance of extensive reading for the acquisition of the Russian language has been insufficiently studied in Serbia. The aim of our research was to establish the educational stage when the introduction of a beginner-level program of extensive reading into the teaching of Russian as a second foreign language would be most effective, taking into account the specific character of the acquisition of Russian as another Slavic language. For the purposes of our research we designed a questionnaire aimed at identifying the stage of schooling when the average student is able to read graded readers at A1 level. The research involved 148 respondents - 77 seventh-and eighth-grade primary school students and 71 first-and second-grade students of general and vocational secondary schools. The research was conducted in February and March 2021. A statistical analysis of results was carried out in the JASP program, and data were processed using measures of descriptive statistics and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. The results unequivocally show that a beginner-level program of extensive reading can be introduced both in primary and in secondary schools, as our research proved that students in these age groups can understand graded readers and find them interesting.
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In an effort to make reading more accessible, an automated readability formula can help students to retrieve appropriate material for their language level. This study attempts to discover and analyze a set of possible features that can be used for single-sentence readability prediction in Russian. We test the influence of syntactic features on predictability of structural complexity. The readability of sentences from SynTagRus corpus was marked up manually and used for evaluation.
Conference Paper
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Readability formulas are methods used to match texts with the readers' reading level. Several methodological paradigms have previously been investigated in the field. The most popular paradigm dates several decades back and gave rise to well known readability formulas such as the Flesch formula (among several others). This paper compares this approach (henceforth "classic") with an emerging paradigm which uses sophisticated NLP-enabled features and machine learning techniques. Our experiments, carried on a corpus of texts for French as a foreign language, yield four main results: (1) the new readability formula performed better than the "classic" formula; (2) "non-classic" features were slightly more informative than "classic" features; (3) modern machine learning algorithms did not improve the explanatory power of our readability model, but allowed to better classify new observations; and (4) combining "classic" and "non-classic" features resulted in a significant gain in performance.
Conference Paper
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We combine lexical, syntactic, and discourse features to produce a highly predictive model of human readers' judgments of text readabil- ity. This is the first study to take into ac- count such a variety of linguistic factors and the first to empirically demonstrate that dis- course relations are strongly associated with the perceived quality of text. We show that various surface metrics generally expected to be related to readability are not very good pre- dictors of readability judgments in our Wall Street Journal corpus. We also establish that readability predictors behave differently de- pending on the task: predicting text readabil- ity or ranking the readability. Our experi- ments indicate that discourse relations are the one class of features that exhibits robustness across these two tasks.
Conference Paper
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We demonstrate a new research approach to the problem of predicting the reading difficulty of a text passage, by recasting readability in terms of statistical language modeling. We derive a measure based on an extension of multinomial naïve Bayes classification that combines multiple language models to estimate the most likely grade level for a given passage. The resulting classifier is not spe- cific to any particular subject and can be trained with relatively little labeled data. We perform pre- dictions for individual Web pages in English and compare our performance to widely-used semantic variables from traditional readability measures. We show that with minimal changes, the classifier may be retrained for use with French Web documents. For both English and French, the classifier main- tains consistently good correlation with labeled grade level (0.63 to 0.79) across all test sets. Some traditional semantic variables such as type-token ratio gave the best performance on commercial cal- ibrated test passages, while our language modeling approach gave better accuracy for Web documents and very short passages (less than 10 words).
Assessing text readability is a time-honored problem that has even more relevance in today’s information-rich world. This article provides background on how readability of texts is assessed automatically, reviews the current state-of-the-art algorithms in automatic modeling and predicting the reading difficulty of texts, and proposes new challenges and opportunities for future exploration not well-covered by current computational research.
This dictionary contains 10,000 Russian words in order of importance starting with the most common and finishing with words that occur about 8 times in a million. All the words have English translations, many have examples of usage and the entries include information on stress and grammatical irregularities. There is also a complete alphabetical index to the words in the list. A learner who knows all or most of these 10,000 words can be regarded as competent in Russian for all normal purposes. The list takes you from a beginner's core vocabulary through to postgraduate level.
Conference Paper
We investigate linguistic features that correlate with the readability of texts for adults with in- tellectual disabilities (ID). Based on a corpus of texts (including some experimentally meas- ured for comprehension by adults with ID), we analyze the significance of novel discourse- level features related to the cognitive factors underlying our users' literacy challenges. We develop and evaluate a tool for automatically rating the readability of texts for these users. Our experiments show that our discourse- level, cognitively-motivated features improve automatic readability assessment.
Conference Paper
Reading procienc y is a fundamen- tal component of language competency. However, nding topical texts at an appro- priate reading level for foreign and sec- ond language learners is a challenge for teachers. This task can be addressed with natural language processing technology to assess reading level. Existing measures of reading level are not well suited to this task, but previous work and our own pilot experiments have shown the bene- t of using statistical language models. In this paper, we also use support vector machines to combine features from tradi- tional reading level measures, statistical language models, and other language pro- cessing tools to produce a better method of assessing reading level.