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The Possible Curative Role of Fresh Cabbage Juice on Ethanol Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Adult Male albino Rat: Histological and Ultra Structural Study.

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New York Science Journal 2017;10(7) http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork
68
The Possible Curative Role of Fresh Cabbage Juice on Ethanol Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Adult
Male albino Rat: Histological and Ultra Structural Study.
Walaa H. E. Hamed, Nesreen M. Omar, Wafaa S. H. Eid and Nawal A. Hasanin
Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt.
walaahamedhistology@yahoo.com
Abstract: Background: Gastric ulcer is the most common disorder of the stomach. Brassica oleracae (Cabbage) is a
natural plant which has a protective effect on the gastro-intestinal mucosa. Aim of the work: This work aimed to
assess the possible curative role of fresh cabbage juice on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury. Materials and
Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats randomly assigned into five groups were used. Group A1; received distilled
water orally by gavage, daily, for one week. Group A2; given raw fresh cabbage juice 200 ml/kg body weight three
times per day orally by gavage, for one week. Group B; given a single dose of ethanol 1 ml/ rat then, scarified after
one hour. Group C; given a single dose of ethanol 1 ml/ rat and scarified after one week. Group D; given a single
dose of ethanol 1 ml / rat orally by gavage followed by administration of raw fresh cabbage juice 200 ml/kg
bodyweight three times per day orally by gavage, for one week. Specimens from the fundic mucosa were obtained
and processed for light and electron microscopic studies. Statistical study of the ulcer area percent was done.
Results: Intragastric application of ethanol induced severe mucosal injury, sloughing of mucosal surface cells and
disturbed glandular architecture. By electron microscope the gastric mucosal cells showed variable degenerative
changes. Surface mucous cells had irregular nucleus and damaged apical parts with variable sized mucous granules
released into the lumen. Peptic cells demonstrated shrunken nucleus, dilated rER, lysosomes and few zymogen
granules. Parietal cells also showed shrunken dense nucleus, dense mitochondria, dilated tubulovesicular system,
lysosomes and many cytoplasmic vacuoles. Administration of fresh cabbage juice was associated with preserved
gastric histoarchitecture. It also ameliorated the ultrastructural changes induced by ethanol in the fundic mucosal
cells. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in the ulcer area percent. Conclusion: Fresh cabbage juice
has a potent therapeutic efficacy in ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury.
[Walaa H. E. Hamed, Nesreen M. Omar, Wafaa S. H. Eid and Nawal A. Hasanin. The Possible Curative Role of
Fresh Cabbage Juice on Ethanol Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Adult Male albino Rat: Histological and
Ultra Structural Study. N Y Sci J 2017;10(7):68-78]. ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online).
http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnys100717.11.
Key words: gastritis, ethanol, cabbage, ultrastructure, stomach
1. Introduction
Peptic ulcer is the most common disorder of the
stomach. Gastric acid secretion is the main
pathogenesis of the ulcers so proton pump blockers or
antacids are used to control secretion (Araujo et al.,
2011). Ethanol has been used for inducing gastritis and
gastroduodenal ulcer in experimental animals. It
damages the gastrointestinal tract mucosa by vascular
endothelium injury, increasing vascular permeability
and edema formation (Miranda-Mendez et al., 2010).
Drugs used for treatment of gastric ulcer show
limited efficacy and have many side effects. Natural
products such as medicinal plants, herbs, spices and
vegetables are recently preferred for prevention and
treatment of peptic ulcer (De Lira Mota, 2009).
Plants, Spices, and herbs are natural antioxidants
sources protecting from oxidative stress and playing
important role in prevention of a lot of diseases.
Brassica oleracae (Cabbage) is very useful vegetable
crops in the world. There are two types of cabbage;
green cabbage and red cabbage. It contains riboflavin,
vitamins A, B6, C, thiamine, folate omega-3 fatty
acids, protein, glutamine, S methylmethionine and
glucoraphamin. Cabbage leaves and other green
vegetables possess anti-ulcer activity. It has a
protective effect on the gastro-intestinal mucosa,
gastric disorders and liver diseases (Arisha, 2017).
2. Materials and Methods
Materials
1. 80% alcohol (ethanol):
80% Ethanol was obtained from Al-Gomhoria
Co-operation- Egypt as a solution.
2. Raw fresh cabbage juice: 300ml/ kg
(Shoaib et al., 2016).
Ingredients: 3 cups (675 gm) chopped green
cabbage, 1 ¾ cup (435 ml) distilled water. The
chopped cabbage and water were put into the blender
at low speed until the water became green tinted. Then
a mesh strainer was used to separate the mixtures
liquid from the mixtures solid.
Experimental animals
The protocol of the study was approved by the
institutional research board (IRB) committee of
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Mansoura Faculty of Medicine. Fifty adult male
Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing (200 ± 10 gm) were
used in this study. The animals were housed in metal
cages and fed on a commercial basal diet and water
ad-libitum for 2 weeks before the experiment for
acclimatization. The rats were kept at room
temperature (22-26ºC) with a 12-h light: 12-h dark
cycle.
Animal grouping
Rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups (10
rats each):
1. Group A1 (Control group): fed on the basal
diet and received distilled water orally by gavage,
daily, for one week.
2. Group A2: given raw fresh cabbage juice
300 ml/kg body weight three times per day orally by
gavage, for one week (Corrigan, 2017).
3. Group B: fasted for 12 hours (overnight)
then given a single dose of 80% ethanol (0.5 ml / rat)
then they were sacrificed after one hour (Barka et al.,
2017).
4. Group C: fasted for 12 hours (overnight)
then were given a single dose of 80% ethanol (0.5 ml/
rat) then they were sacrificed after one week.
5. Group D: fasted for 12 hours (overnight)
then were given a single dose of 80% ethanol (0.5 ml/
rat) orally by gavage followed by administration of
raw fresh cabbage juice 300 ml/kg body weight three
times per day orally by gavage, for one week, then
they were sacrificed.
Animals from each group were sacrificed at the
appropriate time by decapitation after intraperitoneal
injection of thiopental sodium phosphate in a dose of
40mg/kg body weight. Samples of fundic mucosa
were obtained and prepared for the histological study
by light and electron microscopes.
I. Histological study:
Light microscopic study:
Specimens of the fundus of the stomach were
fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin fixative and
paraffin sections (5 µm thick) were prepared and
stained with;
1. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain for
histological study (Hansen et al., 2016).
2. Alcian blue/ PAS stain for studying
carbohydrate (Prasanna et al., 2017).
Electron microscopic study:
Very small pieces (1 x 2 mm²) of the fundus of
the stomach were rapidly fixed in a mixture of 2.5%.
Glutaraldehyde and 2.5% Para formaldehyde (PH 7.3).
Semithin sections (1µm) were prepared and stained
with 1% toluidine blue. Ultrathin sections (60-80nm)
were also prepared, double stained with uranyl acetate
and lead citrate for examination and photographing
with transmission electron microscope (TEM)
(Stirling et al., 2008).
Morphometric and Statistical study:
Data of the ulcer area percentage from each
group were tabulated, coded then analyzed using the
computer program SPSS (Statistical package for social
science) version 17.0 from USA (United States of
America). Descriptive statistics were calculated in the
form of Mean ±Standard deviation (SD). In the
statistical comparison between the different groups,
the significance of difference was tested using
ANOVA (analysis of variance) to compare between
more than two groups of numerical (parametric) data
followed by post-hoc tukey. A P value <0.05 was
considered statistically significant.
3. Results
Histological results:
Light microscopic results:
H & E stain
Sections stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H
& E) of control group demonstrated normal
architecture of gastric mucosa. Numerous fundic
glands occupied the whole thickness of the mucosa.
The fundic glands were simple tubular glands that
extended from the bottom of the gastric pits to the
muscularis mucosa. The glands were 3 to 4 times as
long as the pits and appeared straight, parallel close to
each other and perpendicular to the surface. The gland
was divided into the isthmus, the neck, the body and
the base (Fig. 1A).
H & E stained sections of group B revealed
severe mucosal injury and disturbed glandular
architecture. Also, the luminal surface cells and nearly
all the cells of the gastric pits were lost. The injury
extended to the isthmus and even to the base of the
glands. The injured mucosal surface showed sloughing
of epithelial cells into the gastric lumen. In some areas,
mucosal injury extended to the base of the gastric
glands and was associated with separation of the
lamina propria from the muscularis mucosa. Moreover,
the lamina propria showed congested blood vessels
and scattered inflammatory cells (Fig.1B).
In group C, H & E stained sections revealed
focal mucosal injuries with raw mucosal surface and
shedding of the degenerated epithelial cells into the
gastric lumen. In other areas, partial mucosal healing
and re- epithelization were detected (Fig. 1C).
H & E stained sections of group D revealed that
the glandular architecture of the gastric mucosa was
nearly re-established. The gastric pits were restored
and a continuous layer of the luminal surface cells was
observed (Fig. 1D).
Alcian blue/ PAS stain
Alcian blue/ PAS stained sections of the control
group demonstrated strong PAS positive reaction in
the surface mucous and superficial pit cells. Alcian
blue positive reaction appeared in the cells lining the
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70
deep part of the gastric pits and mucous neck cells.
PAS positive tissue was also demonstrated in the
lamina propria (Fig. 2A). Group B showed complete
loss of Alcian blue and PAS staining surface mucosal
cells and their exfoliation into the lumen. Some Alcian
blue positive cells were observed in the neck region
(Fig. 2B). Group C displayed focal loss of PAS
positive cells of the surface and superficial gastric pits.
Intact gastric mucosa with PAS positive cells covering
the surface and gastric pits was also observed.
Prominent expansion of the neck region with its
Alcian blue positive cells was also noted (Fig. 2C). On
the other hand, group D revealed strong PAS positive
reaction in the surface and superficial pit cells.
Noticeable expansion of the neck region with its
Alcian blue positive cells was also observed (Fig.2D).
Electron microscopic results:
Group A (Control group):
The surface mucous cells were columnar and had
oval basal nucleus with prominent nucleolus. The
apical cytoplasm showed ovoid or spherical moderate
electron dense mucous granules. Some mitochondria
and rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) were also seen.
In addition, the adjacent cells were joined by
intercellular junctions (Fig.3A).
Peptic cells contained large basal vesicular
nucleus with prominent nucleolus, some scattered
mitochondria, parallel cisterns of rough endoplasmic
reticulum and Golgi saccules. Variable sized moderate
electron dense zymogen granules occupied the apical
part of the cell. (Fig 4A).
Parietal cells had rounded vesicular nucleus with
prominent nucleolus, intracellular canaliculi,
prominent tubulovesicular system, numerous large
mitochondria and lysosomes (Fig.5 A).
Group B:
Surface mucous cells were highly distorted. The
apical parts were damaged with variable sized mucous
granulesreleased into the lumen. Irregular outline of
the nucleus, distorted mitochondria and dilated rER
were also observed (Fig.3B).
Peptic cells showed dense nucleus, focal
dilatations of rER, many lysosomes, dilated Golgi
saccules and few moderate electron dense zymogen
granules (Fig.4B).
Parietal cells were intensely affected. Parietal
cells showed shrunken dense nuclei with irregular
outline and wide perinuclear space. Cytoplasmic
vacuoles, dense mitochondria, dilated tubulovesicular
system and distorted microvilli were also observed
(Figs. 5B).
Group C:
The surface mucous cells were cubical in shape.
The nucleus appeared dense with irregular outline.
The cytoplasm showed apical variable sized moderate
electron dense mucous granules (Fig. 3C).
The peptic cellnucleus appeared dense and
irregular. The cytoplasm showed rER, Golgi saccules
and many variable sized moderate electron dense
zymogen granules (Fig. 4C).
Distorted parietal cells were observed. The nuclei
appeared shrunken. Their cytoplasm showed dense
mitochondria, dilated tubulovesicular system with
intracellular canaliculi containing many microvilli
(Fig.5C).
Group D:
The surface mucous cells were columnar with
irregular basal nucleus. The cytoplasm showed
numerous apical moderate electron dense mucous
granules. (Fig. 3 D).
The peptic cells had slightly intact large basal
oval indented vesicular nuclei. The cytoplasm showed
apical moderate electron dense zymogen granules
which were variable in size. Also, the cytoplasm
contained rER, dilated Golgi saccules and
mitochondria. Apical microvilli projecting into the
lumen were noticed (Fig.4D).
The parietal cell had intact large central rounded
vesicular nucleus. The cytoplasm showed preserved
tubulovesicular system and intracellular canaliculi
containing microvilli. Slightly intact mitochondria and
some lysosomes were also observed (Fig.5D).
Statistical Results
Table (1): Mean ulcer area percentage examined by LM in groups A1, B, C and D.
Groups
P
A
1
B
C
D
LM
Mean
0.00
1. 71
<0.001**
±SD
0.00
3.00
2.32
0.41
Post
-hoc
P1
<0.001**
<0.001**
0.18
P2
<0.001**
<0.001**
P3
<0.001**
P4
0.99
SD: standard deviation P: Probability *: significance <0.05 **: High significance <0.001
Test used: One way ANOVA followed by post-hoc tukey P1: significance relative to Group A1
P2: significance relative to Group B P3: significance relative to Group C P4: significance relative to Group D
71
Table (2): Mean ulcer area percentage examined by LM in groups A2, B, C and D
Groups
P
A2
B
C
D
LM
Mean
0.00
1.71
<0.001**
±SD
0.00
3.00
2.32
0.41
P1
<0.001**
<0.001**
0.19
P2
<0.001**
<
0.001**
P3
<0.001**
P4
SD: standard deviation P: Probability *: significance <0.05 **: High significance <0.001
Test used: One way ANOVA followed by post-hoc tukey P1: significance relative to Group A2
P2: significance relative to Group B P3: significance relative to Group C P4: significance relative to Group D.
Fig. (1)
: Representative photomicrographs of H
&
E stained sections of the gastric mucosa in
group (A)
showing
the fundic glands formed of isthmus (Is), neck, body and base. Group (B) showing severe mucosal injury with
sloughed epithelial tissue (arrows). The injury extends to the basal part of the fundic glands (crossed arrow).
Inflammatory cells (arrow heads) are also observed in the lamina propria. Note blood congested vessels (BV) and
separation of the lamina propria (asterisks) from the underlying muscularis mucosa (MM). Group (C) showing
focal mucosal injury with shedding of the mucosal epithelial cells (arrow) into the lumen. Mucosal healing and re-
epithelization are also observed (arrow heads). Note muscularis mucosa (MM) and blood vessels (BV) in the lamina
propria. Group (D) showing nearly re-established glandular architecture and continuous layer of the luminal surface
cells (arrow heads). The gastric pits (arrows) are restored. Note muscularis mucosa (MM) and blood vessels (BV) in
the lamina propria.
(H & E x 100)
72
Fig. (2):
Representative photomicrographs of Alcian blue/ P.A.S stained sections of the gastric mucosa in
group (A)
showing strong P.A.S positive reaction in the surface mucous and superficial pit cells (crossed arrows). Alcian blue
positive mucus is seen in the deep pit cells and in the neck region (arrows). Group (B) showing exfoliation of PAS
(crossed arrow) and Alcian blue staining injured glandular mucosal parts into the lumen. Some Alcian blue positive
cells (arrows) are also seen. Group (C) showing focal loss of P.A.S positive surface mucous and superficial pit cells
(crossed arrows). Note Intact gastric mucosa covered with P.A.S positive cells. Alcian blue positive mucus is seen in
the deep pit cells and in the apparently expanded neck region (arrows). Group (D) showing PAS positive reaction in
the surface mucous and superficial pit cells (crossed arrows). Note the apparent expansion of the neck region
(arrows) with its Alcian blue positive cells.
(Alcian blue/ PAS x 100)
73
Fig. (3) Representative transmission electron micrographs of the surface mucous cells of the gastric mucosa in group (A): showing
columnar cells with basal oval nucleus (N) and apical electron dense mucous granules (G). Note the intercellular junctions (crossed
arrows) and scarce microvilli (arrow) projecting into the lumen (L). Group (B): showing damaged surface columnar cells with variable
sized mucous granules (G) released into the lumen (L). Irregular outline of the nucleus (N), distortedmitochondria (M) and dilated rER
are also observed. A part of damaged parietal cells with distorted tubulovesicular system (asterisk) and intracellular canaliculi (C) is also
seen. Note the lumen (L) contains distorted microvilli (arrow). Group (C): showing surface mucous cells with irregulardense nucleus
(N) and apical moderate electron dense mucous granules (G). Group (D) showing surface columnar mucous cells with irregular basal
nucleus (N) and numerous apical moderate electron dense mucous granules (G).
Fig. (4) Representative transmission electron micrographs of the peptic cells of the gastric mucosa in group (A) showing three peptic
cells with large basal vesicular nuclei (N), apical numerous moderate electron dense zymogen granules (G) of variable in size, rER and
mitochondria (M). Group (B ) showing distorted peptic cell with rounded nucleus (N), focal dilatations of rER, dilated Golgi saccules
(arrow) and few moderate electron dense zymogen granules (G). Note EE cell (asterisk) is seen. Group (C) showing peptic cell with
dense nucleus (N), apical many variable sized moderate electron dense zymogen granules (G) and rER. Note few microvilli project into
the lumen (L). Mitochondria (M), tubulovesicular system (asterisks) and intracellular canaliculi (C) of the adjacent parietal cells are also
seen. Group ( D) showing peptic cells with vesicular indented nucleus (N), apical large zymogen granules (G), dilated Golgi saccules
(tailed arrow) mitochondria (m) and intact rER. Apical microvilli (arrows) projecting into the lumen (L) are also noticed.
N N
74
Fig. (5)
:
Representative transmission electron micrographs of the parietal cells of the gastric mucosa in
group (A1)
showing parietal cells with rounded vesicular nucleus (N), prominent nucleolus (Nu) tubulovesicular system
(asterisks), intracellular canaliculi (C), and numerous mitochondria (M). Note mucous granules (G) in the adjacent
mucous neck cells. Group (B) showing distorted parietal cells (PC) and mucous neck cells (MC). Parietal cells
show shrunken dense nuclei with irregular outline and wide perinuclear space. Cytoplasmic vacuoles (V), dense
mitochondria (M), dilated tubulovesicular system (asterisk) and distorted microvilli (arrow) are also observed.
(MCs) show oval flattened nucleus (N) and release of mucous granules (G) into the lumen L Group (C) showing
parietal cell with shrunken nucleus (N), numerous dense mitochondria (M) and dilated tubulovesicular system
(asterisks) with intracellular canaliculi (C). Group (D) showing parietal cell with large vesicular nucleus (N),
numerous intact mitochondria (M), some lysosomes (LY) and intact tubulovesicular system (asterisks) and
intracellular canaliculi (C).
As shown in table (1, 2), the percentages of ulcer
area for group B (19.11± 3) and C (10.39±2.32) rats
were significantly higher compared to control groups
A1, A2 rats while this percentage for group D rats
(1.71± 0.41) showed non-significant change compared
to control group A rats. The percentage of ulcer area
for group C and D rats showed significant reduction
compared to group B rats. However, the percentage of
ulcer area for group D rats was significantly lower
compared to group C rats.
4. Discussion
Gastric ulcer is a complex pluricausal disease
and is known to develop due to lack of balance
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75
between aggressive and protective factors affecting the
stomach. Various factors have been known to cause
gastric mucosal damage, including systemic stresses
and the application of local irritants (Hadda et al.,
2014).
Many drugs provide optimum cicatrizing
response to the ulcerated tissue due to their anti-
secretory effect. However, the use of these anti-
secretory drugs has been found to be related to
development of many pathological conditions such as
achloride dependent bacterial growth, gastric cancer,
hypergastrinemia and carcinoid tumor (Chia et al.,
2016).
Accumulating data has pointed to the effective
role of herbal drugs in the protection and treatment of
hyperacidity and gastric and duodenal ulcers. These
herbal medications could be applied as drugs
supplementing or enhancing the activity of synthetic
medicines (Ayala et al., 2014).
The current work was performed in order
toevaluate the protective effects of fresh cabbage
juiceon ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury.
Intragastric application of absolute ethanol is the
model widely used to induce gastric lesions and to
evaluate the gastroprotective and healing activity of
many drugs in experimental animals (Hussein et al.,
2016).
The microscopic examination of H & E stained
sections of the fundic mucosa of (group B) rats
obtained after one hour from absolute ethanol
administration revealed severe mucosal injury and
disturbed glandular architecture. The luminal surface
cells and nearly all the cells of the gastric pits were
also detached. These results are in parallel to Arisha,
(2017) who revealed extensive gastric lesions and
distortion in the general architecture of gastric gland.
On the other hand, Hussein et al. (2016) demonstrated
that intragastric ethanol induced mild desquamations
of the epithelial cell lining of the gastric mucosa, few
leukocytic infiltrations and mild congestion of the
blood vessels.
The microscopic examination of H & E stained
sections of the fundic mucosa of (group C) rats
revealed focal mucosal injuries with raw mucosal
surface, shedding of the degenerated epithelial cells
into the gastric lumen and some mucosal vacuoles.
These results come in accordance with Abshenas et
al. (2014) and Baiubon et al. (2016) who revealed
multifocal areas of necrosis and haemorrhage in the
entire portion of the gastric mucosa. In contrast,
Hussein et al. (2016) demonstrated severe
desquamation of the glandular epithelium lining of the
gastric mucosa and heavy leukocytic mononuclear
infiltration in the gastric mucosa one week after
intragstric application of ethanol.
In alcohol treated groups, mucosal damage was
also evident in PAS stained sections which revealed
loss of PAS positive cells of the surface and
superficial gastric pits and their exfoliation into the
lumen. This comes in agreement with Kim et al.
(2016) who noticed depletion of the PAS stained
granules together with a relatively thin mucous coat
over the surface of the gastric mucosa after intragastric
application of ethanol.
The current histopathological findings observed
in alcohol treated groups are in agreement with those
of previous researchers who attributed these
alterations to decreased antioxidant enzymes such as
glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and
superoxide dismutase (Ismail Suhaimy et al., 2017).
Several mechanisms have been reported to
explain the pathogenesis of mucosal ulceration after
intragstric ethanol application. Ethanol administration
was found to increase the volume of gastric juice
secretion and total acidity, decrease bicarbonates and
mucus production leading to sloughing ulceration of
the mucosa (Prakash et al., 2007). Moreover, Ethanol
reduces levels of non-protein sulfhydryl groups, such
as glutathione, thereby increasing the reactive oxygen
species (ROS) that have an ulcerogenic activity.
Ethanol was also found to induce vascular endothelial
cell injury leading to a decrease of blood flow which
reduces the oxygen and nutrients supply (Carvalho et
al., 2011).
In the present study, the fundic mucosa of group
B showed areas of partial mucosal healing and re-
epithelization. Similar findings were reported by
Salim and Rashdi (2013). This partial re-
epithelization is mostly mediated by cytokines and
growth factors, including the transforming growth
factor β, epidermal growth factor and fibroblast
growing factors which are essential for healing process
(Mnich et al., 2016).
Our study demonstrated that the lamina propria
of (group B, C) showed congested blood vessels and
scattered inflammatory cells. These results are
consistent with those of Arisha (2017) who attributed
these changes to the direct toxic effect of ethanol on
the vascular wall leading to ischemia followed by
vasodilatation. This may be also attributed to the
destructive action of alcohol on the mucosal barrier
leading to exposure of capillaries and venules to the
harmful effect of hydrochloric acid of the gastric
secretion (Hagras et al., 2014).
Electron microscopic examination of ethanol
treated rats (group B) revealedmarked distortion of the
surface columnar cells and loss of their apical part into
the lumen and few variable sized mucous granules
released into the lumen. Similar findings were
reported by Hui and Fangyu, (2017). cells were also
greatly damaged. The nucleus appeared small, dense.
New York Science Journal 2017;10(7) http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork
76
The cytoplasm showed dilated rER, lysosomes and
few zymogen granules. These results are in
accordance with Polat et al. (2011) who attributed
these changes to impairment of the tight junction
complex morphology and permeability between viable
gastric mucosal epithelial cells.
In this work, ethanol produced electron
microscopic changes in the parietal cells in the form
of, dense irregular nucleus and dense mitochondria,
dilated tubulovesicular system and cytoplasmic
vacoules. These results are in harmony with Lo et al.
(2017) who confirmed that the early signs of parietal
cell damage were disruption of their canaliculi and
presence of dense bodies which were secondary
lysosomes. El-Mehi and El-Sherif (2015) suggested
that the vacuolations of parietal cells could be
explained by the disruption and dilatation of their
intracellular canaliculi together with increased number
of microvesicles within their cytoplasm. Moreover,
Martinac and Cox (2016) also reported that vacuoles
are due to ionic disturbance caused by alcohol with
retention of H2o and Na leading to swelling of the
cell.
Mitochondrial damage of parietal cells could be
explained by lipid peroxidation through formation of
free radicals initiating oxidative stress. The free
radicals bind to DNA of the mitochondria, resulting in
impaired mitochondrial structure (Lakhani et al.,
2016). Mitochondrial alterations may be also due to
lowered activity of a succinic dehydrogenase
cytochrome oxidase and diphosphopyridine nucleotide
diaphorase (Singer and Ramsay, 2013). It has been
reported that intragastric ethanol could increase Na+
and K+ flow, increase pepsin secretion, promote loss
of H+ into the lumen and therefore induce direct
damage of mucosal cells and finally cause cell
necrosis ( Salga et al., 2011; Lee et al., 2012; Liu et
al., 2012).
In this study, cabbage exhibited an effective role
in the treatment of ethanol induced gastric ulceration.
It produced restoration of glandular architecture and
cells of the gastric mucosa. These results are in
parallel with those of Fatimah, (2008) who mentioned
that Brassica oleracea contained high levels of
glutamine, S-methionine, flavonoids and many
antioxidant micronutrients; Cu, Mn, Zn, vitamin C, E.
Flavonoids can scavenge superoxide, dihydroxyl,
peroxide radicals which have membrane stabilizing
and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effects. Moreover,
the anti-ulcerogenic action of cabbage could be
owing to activation of gastric mucosa protection
factors, as well as the reduction of the acid secretion
and of pepsinogen. Cabbage was also proved to
increase the gastric blood flow, mucus and bicarbonate
secretions (Chatterjee and Bandyopadhyay, 2014).
Furthermore, raw fresh cabbage juice has been shown
to attenuate ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions
via activation of prostaglandins (PGs), nitric oxide and
sensory nerve pathways, thus improving the
microcirculation (Pojer et al., 2013). Prostaglandins
play essential role in the maintenance of gastric
mucosal integrity (Balogun et al., 2015).
Prostaglandins were reported to enhance production
and activation of molecules for defensive mechanisms
as Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and
suppress inflammatory mediators as (histamine, TNF-
αand PAF) causing gastrointestinal damage (Aliberti.,
2010).
5. Conclusion:
Raw fresh cabbage juice provides an obvious
curative effect on ethanol induced gastric mucosal
injury; therefore it could be used as a natural
alternative for anti-ulcer drugs.
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