Article

Transgender exclusion from the world of dating: Patterns of acceptance and rejection of hypothetical trans dating partners as a function of sexual and gender identity

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Abstract

The current study sought to describe the demographic characteristics of individuals who are willing to consider a transgender individual as a potential dating partner. Participants (N ¼ 958) from a larger study on relationship decision-making processes were asked to select all potential genders that they would consider dating if ever seeking a future romantic partner. The options provided included cisgender men, cisgender women, trans men, trans women, and genderqueer individuals. Across a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and trans individuals, 87.5% indicated that they would not consider dating a trans person, with cisgender heterosexual men and women being most likely to exclude trans persons from their potential dating pool. Individuals identifying as bisexual, queer, trans, or non-binary were most likely to indicate a willingness to date a trans person. However, even among those willing to date trans persons, a pattern of masculine privileging and transfeminine exclusion appeared, such that participants were disproportionately willing to date trans men, but not trans women, even if doing so was counter to their self-identified sexual and gender identity (e.g., a lesbian dating a trans/home/spr J S P R man but not a trans woman). The results are discussed within the context of the implications for trans persons seeking romantic relationships and the pervasiveness of cisgenderism and transmisogyny. Abstract The current study sought to describe the demographic characteristics of individuals who

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... Transgender is an umbrella term, seen most often in the LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer) acronym, that includes a wide range of persons who do not identify with the gender assigned to them at birth (Ansara & Hegarty, 2012). They are systematically vulnerable to social exclusion and inequalities, such as lack of social and romantic partner support (Blair & Hoskin, 2019;Soares et al., 2011;Whitton et al., 2020), labor discrimination (Clements-Nolle et al., 2006), and unemployment (Divan et al., 2017), as well as difficulty accessing health care assistance . Even though psychological and medical interest in transgender populations has increased, the body of work on transgender parents is virtually nonexistent (Haines et al., 2014). ...
... Although transgender and cisgender parents share many challenges, there are some difficulties that are exclusive to transgender parents (Haines et al., 2014). For example, transgender parents may lack support from their family of origin or partner, and even social exclusion from the school system (Blair & Hoskin, 2019;Soares et al., 2011;Whitton et al., 2020). They must also navigate concerns about the impact of their transgender identity on their children's well-being, parenting conflicts, and how parenting might influence their gender-affirming processes (Haines et al., 2014). ...
... We did not find research focused on other forms of romantic relationships (e.g., polyamory) within the transgender community, addressing the need to explore other types of relationships that are meaningful for this population and important for a better understanding of the functioning of families headed by transgender parents (Edwards et al., 2018). In kind, there is a need to investigate how coparenting functions among transgender individuals with cisgender and noncisgender partners, as well as if there are any differences by sexual orientation and partner gender identity (Blair & Hoskin, 2019;Whitton et al., 2020). ...
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Objective: Describe general characteristics of transgender parents, highlight aspects of their relationship with their children and explore experiences with discrimination, while comparing to transgender adults who were not parents. Background: Few studies have investigated families headed by transgender individuals. Even less in contexts where there are no specific policies for family planning in this group, as is the case in Brazil. Methods: A hospital and web-based cross-sectional survey recruited transgender individuals from two Brazilian states, during July–October 2014 and January–March 2015. The survey was designed based on a cross-cultural adaptation of the TransPULSE project. Results: From 670 participants, 44 reported being parents, were older, stated more years of education and were more likely to be in a relationship, than the transgender adults who were not parents. Controlling for age, transgender parents reported suffering more discrimination than those who have no children. Among them, most became parents through biological means, 17.06% reported having lost or having the custody reduced for being transgender and 48.07% suspected or were told that their ability to see their children less was due to their gender identity. Implications: The findings of this study are relevant to guide the practice of individual, couple, and family therapists working with transgender clients.
... 3). Cisgenderism or cissexism is another likely contributor to the fortitude of both the mythology and binary; the ideology that cisgender identities are normal delegi- (Blair & Hoskin, 2019). ...
... Randy's story illuminates the challenges of safely claiming trans identified partners. Blair and Hoskin (2019) refer to the psychological distress associated with being a partner of a trans person and from being presumed gay as "stigma by association" (p. 2077). ...
... 800)." Heteronormative and cisnormative assumptions promote the expectation that all people and relationships are heterosexual, cissexual and cisgendered (Blair & Hoskin, 2019). These assumptions impact the presence, inclusion and acceptance of trans relationships. ...
... For transgender people, the risks of disclosure are real [44,59]. Nationwide surveys have found that fewer than 20% of adults in the U.S. would consider dating a transgender person [7,10], and only 15% of adults report they would consider engaging in a sexual act with a transgender person [7]. Beyond rejection, disclosing one's trans status also carries the risk of outright violence, since transgender people, especially women of color, are disproportionately at risk of discrimination, harassment, and assault [31,40]. ...
... Recent scholarship in HCI has called for an increase in attention to intersectional issues, particularly when studying identity [62]. Research in transgender studies has discussed at length the role of intersectionality in transgender experiences (e.g., [10,42]), In this framework, declaration is part of the process of revealing one's "true" self to others, whereas the choice of whether to disclose one's trans status after declaration has taken place is a matter of sharing aspects of one's personal history [74, p. 60-61]. Participants in this study generally described disclosure as defined by this framework, although several did share stories of declaration from their past during interviews. ...
Article
Dating platform research often focuses on people's decisions about when to reveal certain aspects of themselves to others, or self-disclosure. One example is deciding what to include in one's profile and what to reveal in chat conversations or in person. Transgender people face a particularly acute challenge in self-disclosure, but we know little about how they experience it on dating platforms. Revealing trans status can result in physical or emotional harm, but is also often considered necessary for a successful relationship and for self-fulfillment. To better understand disclosure of sensitive information, we interviewed 20 transgender dating platform users in the U.S. We find that direct, proactive disclosure of trans status was motivated by desires for safety and certainty, though this could involve tension. Physical separation and one-to-many communication surface as key affordances that facilitated disclosure. These results help us better understand motivations behind disclosure decisions.
... Most of the LGBTQ+-relevant research would be better described as LGBQ-relevant research: though many studies included transgender people (n = 15, 16.67%), few studies included nonbinary people (n = 4, 4.44%). While we can conclude more about the lives of transgender individuals than we can about bisexuals from the research published in JSPR and PR since 2002, we learned relatively little: cisgender heterosexuals are unlikely to hypothetically consider transgender individuals as dating partners (Blair & Hoskin, 2019), conceptualizations of gender diversity vary by culture (Vanderlaan & Vasey, 2012), partners of trans individuals experience and navigate their partner's transition process in unique ways (Platt & Bolland, 2018), and partners of trans women can experience stigma by association (Gamarel et al., 2019). Like the entire LGBTQ+ population, transgender, non-binary and gender-diverse individuals experience the same types of relationships and ranges of relationship experiences as cisgender, heterosexual individuals. ...
... Considering gender identity, the vast majority of one sample (87.5%) reported an unwillingness to date transgender partners. However, openness varied by identity, such that individuals with nonbinary sexual (bisexual, queer) or gender identities were more open to dating transgender partners (Blair & Hoskin, 2019) Scholars have also investigated friendship patterns among LGBTQ+ individuals. LGBTQ+ people often form friendships with those similar to them in terms of sex and race (Galupo, 2007) but are more likely to form cross-sex and cross-race friendships than heterosexual people (Galupo, 2009). ...
Article
The field of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) relationship science has grown significantly over the past two decades, coinciding with rapid changes in the social acceptance of LGBTQ+ people. However, it is unclear to what extent the top two journals in relationship science, the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships and Personal Relationships, have contributed to the field. In this critical review, we analyzed the 2181 manuscripts published in the journals between 2002 and 2021 for whether they included or excluded LGBTQ+ participants, the methodologies used to analyze their data, and their conclusions about LGBTQ+ lives and relationships. The overwhelming majority (85.8%) of manuscripts did not acknowledge LGBTQ+ relationships; however, there have been improvements compared to past research in retaining LGBTQ+ participants within a data set when they were present. We identified 92 manuscripts that contributed to knowledge about LGBTQ+ lives or relationships. We discuss the lack of intersectional analyses and methodological challenges of incorporating multiple forms of diversity within quantitative research. Overarching themes across manuscript content included minority stress, relationship formation, social support, and commitment. Overall, though the research in the two journals has contributed to the literature on LGBTQ+ relationships, our review suggests that scholars do not consider these two journals as a first choice for finding or publishing LGBTQ+ relationship science.
... Rejection from heterosexual and SM individuals is another source of stress for TGD adolescents and adults, as one survey found that only 15% of U.S. adults were willing to date or have sex with TGD individuals (Bame, 2017). Another study found that 87.5% of U.S. and Canadian adults would not date TGD individuals, with cisgender heterosexual adults most likely to reject dating TGD individuals (Blair & Hoskin, 2019). To evade potential rejection and violence, cisgender SM and TGD adolescents may use social media to appraise and filter partners met online through peers (Lykens et al., 2019), as well as proactively disclose their gender identity on dating applications (Fernandez & Birnholtz, 2019). ...
... Transgender girls may have different experiences with online dating than transgender boys, as they may be more likely to experience dating violence (Gamarel et al., 2020) and psychological, physical, and online victimization (Dank et al., 2014). As research suggests transmasculine individuals may be favored over transfeminine individuals (Blair & Hoskin, 2019), transgender girls may be at a disadvantage when seeking partners online. Thus, one might expect a sample with more transgender girls to report experiences like sexual objectification and exclusion from online dating venues. ...
... First, more careful attention to how casual sex is initiated, accepted, and perceived in LGBTQ communities can advance our understanding of community-based sexual scripts, as well as how stereotypes and prejudice operate within LGBTQ communities. This is a critical point of suggest given various subgroups of sexual minorities encounter prejudice and bias in dating within LGBTQ communities (e.g., Blair & Hoskin, 2019;Gleason, Vencill, & Sprankle, 2019). Moreover, Watson et al. (2019) suggest the potential for casual sex to serve as a coping strategy for alleviating minority stress. ...
... From a femmephobia perspective, it is possible people are less likely to accept offers of casual sex from more feminine proposers. On the other hand, as may be the case with bisexual proposers in this research, people may be sexually active with more feminine proposers but perhaps only in a casual and temporary context rather than in longterm ones (e.g., Blair & Hoskin, 2019). Overall, the issue of who is valued for which types of sexual relationships raises interesting new directions regarding prejudice, scripts, and biases within LGBTQ communities. ...
Article
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Popular wisdom and scientific evidence suggest women desire and engage in casual sex less frequently than men; however, theories of gender differences in sexuality are often formulated in light of heterosexual relations. Less is understood about sexual behavior among lesbian and gay people, or individuals in which there is arguably less motivation to pursue sex for reproductive purposes and fewer expectations for people to behave in gender-typical ways. Drawing from scripts theory and pleasure theory, in two studies (N1 = 465; N2 = 487) we examined lesbian and gay people’s acceptance of casual sex. We asked participants who had been propositioned for casual sex whether they accepted the offer and to rate their perceptions of the proposer’s sexual capabilities and sexual orientation. They also reported on their awareness of stigma surrounding casual sex. We found a gender difference in acceptance: Gay men were more likely than lesbian women to have accepted a casual sex offer from other gay/lesbian people, and this difference was mediated by participants’ stigma awareness. We also found the proposer’s sexual orientation played a role in people’s acceptance. Lesbian women and gay men were equally likely to accept offers from bisexual proposers but expressed different acceptance rates with “straight-but-curious” proposers, which was mediated by expected pleasure. We discuss dynamics within lesbian and gay communities and implications for studying theories of sexual behavior and gender differences beyond heterosexual contexts.
... With transnegativity, fetishization of trans people and violence against trans people still being very common, [47][48][49] it makes sense that participants explicitly said they were looking for a partner with whom they felt safe and accepted in their gender identity. While reducing transphobia and making the world a safe place for trans people is a political and educational task, participants described ways how partners helped them feeling accepted on an individual level. ...
Article
Background Prevalence of sexual dissatisfaction and dysfunction is high in trans people, as reflected in lower sexual pleasure scores compared to cis people. Aim The aim of this study is to explore components of good sex and sexual pleasure in young, urban trans people assigned female at birth (AFAB). Methods 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted with young urban AFAB trans people. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Outcomes Main outcomes were providing participants components of good sex and sexual pleasure. Results Regarding components of good sex, the participants of this study described various influences on their ability to relax as well as strategies to increase relaxation during sex. Next to general influences on relaxation, the ability to relax was influenced by the way their partners interacted with them and thus how accepted they felt in their identities and feeling safe. Further, transition and coming-out status, physical and sexual function changes due to hormone therapy and gender affirming surgeries, specific sexual techniques and aids, social constructs and the circumstances in which sex took place were important. Strategies to increase relaxation included using aids such as penis prostheses, preferring certain sexual practices, that is, being more dominant or on eye-level, reducing visual aspects, drinking alcohol, and deconstructing gender and sexual norms. Clinical Implications When working with trans clients, inhibitors of relaxation should be assessed and addressed, which could include working on clients believes about trans sexuality, gendered sexual scripts or various techniques to reduce body dysphoria, if present, during sexual practices. Strengths & Limitations Following a non-clinical community sampling with no treatment-related dependency between researchers and participants, the sample provides an open access to the participating trans people's sexuality. However, the sample is small, selective, and it includes only able-bodied trans people from Christian religious backgrounds. Conclusion Next to sexual problems and dysfunctions, future research on the relationship between medical transition and sexuality should additionally address positive aspects of sexuality, such as sexual pleasure and sexual satisfaction, and its possible function as a resource pre, during and post transition. Engelmann, AJ. Nicklisch, S. Nieder, TO. Components of Good Sex in Young Urban Trans People Assigned Female at Birth: A Qualitative Interview Study. J Sex Med 2022;XX:XXX–XXX.
... When people of color are seen as acceptable sexual and romantic partners, they are often objectified and reduced to stereotypical traits associated with their race and/or ethnicity [11]. With regard to transnegativity and masculine privileging, Blair et al. found that heterosexual cisgender men and women were most likely to exclude gender-diverse persons from their potential dating pool [12]. Further, participants who were willing to date gender-diverse persons disproportionately reported openness to dating transgender men but not transgender women. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review Intersectionality theory acknowledges that a significant part of the distress experienced by queer people of color (QPOC) is caused by systems of oppression in society. Given the dearth of literature linking intersectionality to sex therapy, combined with a lack of sex therapy research centering on the experiences of QPOC, sexual wellness advocates often utilize unidimensional approaches that focus exclusively on either LGBTQ people or people of color. This review presents the following: (1) an overview of the gaps eliciting unidimensional approaches to sex therapy practice and research, (2) an illustration of intersectionality’s theoretical underpinnings as a queer and oppression-responsive approach, and (3) applications for sex therapy practice with QPOC. Recent Findings The intersectionality framework provides an opportunity to explore overlapping forms of oppression (e.g., racism, heterosexism, cisnormativity) and to make social justice and resilience/resistance central topics in the promotion of sexual wellness. The framework can guide sexual wellness advocates in their mission to better understand the harm posed by oppressive systems, how these systems impact sexual problems, and how they can intervene to reduce conditions that undermine sexual wellness and freedom. Summary It is in the sexual health field’s best interest to comprehensively adopt intersectionality to advance the field toward a culture that critiques and dismantles social structures that limit the possibilities of pleasurable sex among oppressed communities. Individual sex therapists can contribute to the inclusion of the intersectionality framework in therapy by critiquing harmful social structures, attending to both sexual dysfunction and sexual pleasure, attending to both oppression and resilience/resistance, and actively collaborating with the communities they serve.
... Our social world is arranged in a way that makes exclusion from the sex/gender they claim-on the basis of a lack of "authentic" belonging (Serano, 2007)-central to trans subordination. As with other forms of social subordination, trans exclusion has not only material dimensions (Blair & Hoskin, 2018;Hargie et al., 2017;Moolchaem et al., 2015; Movement Advancement Project and GLSEN, 2017; Rondón Garcia & Martin Romero, 2016;Serano, 2013;Stonewall, n.d.;Yona, 2015), but also discursive ones that work in accordance with the logic of so-called performatives. Performatives are utterances that do things with words: specifically, they accomplish something in the act of saying it (Austin, 1975). ...
Article
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The Reform of the Gender Recognition Act: Government Consultation (2018) catalyzed a heated debate on transgender rights and trans inclusion in the United Kingdom. I start by explaining what the reforms to the U.K. system of gender recognition propose, why gender-critical feminists oppose them, and how other feminist academics have responded to their arguments. I then offer a more detailed philosophical critique of gender-critical trans-exclusionary feminist arguments. I argue that the gender-critical feminist case against trans women’s access to women-only (or sex-segregated, or single-sex) spaces suffers from a number of fallacies, and introduces modes of argument that are at odds with well-established and sound uses of practical reason. I try to make sense of these problems with gender-critical feminist thought by appealing to the idea of presupposed paranoid structuralism. I also argue that gender-critical feminists’ enthusiastic use of social media and allied online platforms may be implicated in generating some of these problems.
... Consequently, feminine queer women and men both face additional barriers in obtaining romantic or sexual partners. This barrier is also found among transgender women, who are disproportionately excluded as dating partners compared to transgender men (Blair & Hoskin, 2019). ...
Article
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The devaluing of femininity is a social problem with serious consequences. Violence against women, men, transgender people, and racial minorities is often exacerbated when elements of femmephobia are present. Femmephobia refers to the devaluation and regulation of femininity and suggests a separate, perhaps overlapping, phenomenon specific to gender (e.g., femininity), rather than gender/sex (e.g., woman) or sex (e.g., female). Yet, despite growing evidence warranting the consideration of femmephobia, little research has considered femininity as an intersectional axis. Femmephobia has been examined in a fractured manner, isolating its various manifestations in specific, rather than overarching ways. The current paper explored how these systems are interrelated and argues that sources of oppression underlying many forms of violence today (e.g., anti-LGBTQ+ hate crimes, Incel attacks, sexual violence, transgender murders) are all symptoms of the same underlying social prejudice: femmephobia. While sexism, transphobia, homophobia, and racism also play a role, previous research tends to overlook or conflate the role of femmephobia in fueling prejudice and violence. Using in-depth interviews and thematic analysis, the current paper explored the intersecting role of femmephobia in experiences of oppression among sexual and gender minorities (N = 38). Two thematic networks are presented. The first network pertains to masculine themes: masculine privilege, masculinity as protective, and masculinity as the norm. The second network pertains to femininity: feminine inferiority , femininity as target, and femininity as inauthentic. The connection between these two thematic networks illustrates the symbiotic relationship between femmephobia and the gender binary. Finally, patterns identified from the thematic analysis were used to generate a model of femmephobia. This paper suggests that the gender binary is not merely a division; it is also hierarchical and regulated by femmephobia.
... Transgender and genderqueer identities became increasingly common as well, especially among youth (Bosse & Chiodo, 2016). During this time, feminine sexual minority women (SMW) began to more commonly identify a desire to partner with people with a form of non-cisgender masculinity, including butch women, genderqueer women, and/or trans men (Blair & Hoskin, 2019;Bornstein, 2012). ...
Article
Quite a number of heated arguments have been put forth in the controversy about the meanings and appropriate uses of femme identities. In this article, the authors apply a functionalist theoretical framework, developed to explicate the links between gender and gender identities, to reframe the disputes about femme gender. They position two femme identities as responding to distinctive forms of oppression—one that centralizes the affirmation of gender diversity in the face of cisgenderism, and one that centralizes lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) femininity to counter femmephobia. They consider the subversive functions of the two identities in terms of unmet needs across four domains. These needs include the need for authenticity in identity (psychological domain); for the prizing of socially devalued characteristics (cultural domain); for security and affiliation (interpersonal domain); and for aesthetic desirability rather than shame (sexual domain). Instead of seeing the two femme identities as at odds, they see them as serving some shared functions, but also distinctive functions in resisting stigma of varied forms. The framework can be applied to other forms of femme-inity (and other genders) to distinguish the varied meanings inherent in gender identities and facilitate research that advances gender theory.
... This has an impact not only on how non-binary individuals enact their gendered sexuality, but also on their cisgender partners. Sexual attraction to non-normative gender presentation is often considered fetishistic or a less preferable 'alternative' to those who present in a normative gender role (Blair & Hoskin, 2019;Lenihan et al., 2015). Therapists must be aware of the privileges and/or disadvantages of the identities involved in the romantic or sexual relationships and how they may impact the individuals functioning within sexual spaces. ...
Article
Sexual imagery and fantasy are key aspects of human sexuality. They are associated with sexual arousal and response and are reflective of societal influences on sexuality. A limitation of the existing literature on sexual fantasies is the pervasive focus on cisgender heterosexual individuals, whose behavior is considered normative in a cis-heteronormative society. This research has established the strong influence of gendered sexual scripts on the functioning and content of (presumably) cisgender individuals’ sexual fantasies. How these gendered scripts might apply to individuals whose gender identity falls outside the binary is an under-researched area of study. The present work is aimed at providing a better understanding of non-binary individuals’ sexuality through a qualitative investigation of sexual fantasies in a matched sample of Italian non-binary and cisgender individuals. Participants included 44 adults, 22 of whom identified as non-binary, 13 as cisgender women, and 9 as cisgender men. Results indicated that the sexual fantasies of non-binary individuals were generally comparable to cisgender individuals but were significantly more likely to contain references to non-normative genitals, and less likely to refer to themselves as the object of desire. Discussion focuses on how the differences in non-binary individuals’ sexual fantasies affirmed, or were the result of, their gender identity.
... Despite these more positive findings for trans men, there is a recurring narrative that being open about transgender identity risks setting one up for a lonely life or at least one without romantic partnership. In their survey of nearly 1,000 (predominantly cisgender) respondents, Blair and Hoskin (2018) found that 87.5 percent of participants excluded trans men and trans women as potential dating partners, with exclusion highest among heterosexual men and women, followed by gay men. Because of cisgender people's fixation on transgender people's anatomy and essentialist thinking that reduces trans people to their genitalia (Serano, 2007), scholars like Blair and Hoskin argue cisgender people's imagination in regards to trans bodies is a driving factor in why they fail to consider transgender people as romantic partners. ...
Article
Despite societal shifts making the United States more inclusive, particularly among younger people, transgender people and people of color remain populations that have labels like “exotic” or “taboo” associated with them. This article explores the racialized dating experiences of an immigrant trans woman of color who uses online dating platforms to facilitate her dating life in Texas. Given that the existing literature on trans people tends to focus on identity development, health concerns, or questions of legality and policy in arenas such as the workplace and in education, there is still limited research on the romantic and sexual lives of trans people. In fact, much of the growing research on trans relationships focuses either on couples where one partner transitioned and the couple maintained a relationship or studies lumping trans experiences under an LGBT umbrella. Using an intersectional theoretical approach, this case study unpacks how race, racism, and transphobia, as well as internalized racial and gender logics, work in tandem to shape desirability and date ability.
... The problem occurs when a couple who will getting married having the same religion but one of the couples is trans-sexual, how is the legality of the marriage, Is the marriage can be carried out in Indonesia, or should it be carried out abroad and registered in Indonesia after? Trans-sexual marriages have been written by Day Wong [2], Karen L. Blair [3], Rhea Ashley Hoskinbut on the topic of Happiness In Marriage, but the focus of this paper is on its legality. ...
... Critics of gender affirmation have so far failed to explain why internalized homophobia would generally encourage transition if only a small minority of trans youth are straight. It's also important to remember that even straight trans people experience homophobic stigma insofar as their relationships are perceived as gay by others (Ashley, 2018a;Blair & Hoskin, 2019). The proposed causal relationship is dubious, even for straight trans youth. ...
Article
In recent years, opponents of the gender-affirmative approach to trans youth have argued that it bears homophobic roots and may be tantamount to conversion therapy. This argument is mistaken. In this article, I first argue that there is no evidence that social and/or medical transition is motivated by homophobia. Contrary to the critique’s tacit premise, many if not most trans people are LGBQ following transition. Furthermore, despite social progress in the last decade, transphobia remains more common than homophobia. Second, the gender-affirmative approach is fundamentally dissimilar to conversion therapy, unlike clinical approaches that oppose affirmation and seek to prevent transition. The comparison to conversion therapy relies on a superficial understanding of sexual orientation, such that a change of label (e.g. straight, bisexual, gay, lesbian) is equivalent to a change of sexual orientation even without changes to the targets of sexual attraction. By contextualizing conversion therapy in relation to trans youth care, I show that, on the contrary, conversion therapy has long focused on preventing transgender youth from growing up trans.
... LGBT+_communities more broadly (Blair & Hoskin, 2018). 6. ...
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Using femme theory, Foucault, and queer failure as analytical frameworks, the current paper demonstrates the role of feminine failure in resisting and subverting systems of oppression, subsequently providing the minute shifts in power necessary to expand the terms of patriarchal femininity. More specifically, the current paper draws on contemporary modes of art and aesthetics to examine the productive potential of failing to embody patriarchal femininity, positing this failure as a form of femme resistance. By hijacking cultural signifiers of adornment, femme and feminine failure celebrate that which is culturally shamed (queer, fat, disabled, variant, poor, and racially minoritised bodies), expose systems of erasure, challenge binary systems of meaning, and promote feminine growth. Examining each of these themes in turn, the current paper argues that feminine failure challenges the pillars of patriarchal femininity and discursive systems of normativity. To this end, femme as a theoretical framework demonstrates the freedom of failure by exposing the heterogeneous multiplicities of femininity, and offering possibilities that normativity never could. This critical discursive essay contributes to the emergent application of femme as a theoretical framework.
... Illustrating the dissimilarity in the ways that trans women and trans men experience prejudice (Bauerband et al., 2019;Winter et al., 2008), trans women report higher rates of everyday discrimination than trans men, non-binary individuals, cisgender women, and cisgender men, respectively (Bauerband et al., 2019). Similarly, compared to trans men, trans women are more discriminated in interpersonal relations such as romantic relations or dating (Blair & Hoskin, 2019;Gazzola & Morrison, 2014;Glotfelter & Anderson, 2017). Serano (2007) argues that this differential treatment is, in part, due to the tendency to see trans women as rejecting masculine superiority by adopting femininity and being women when assigned male at birth, both of which pose challenges to gender hegemony. ...
... These concepts are propped-up by over 30 years of psychological research documenting how feminine gender transgressions (i.e., deviating from patriarchal norms of femininity) are policed more severely (Grossman et al. 2006;Kilianski 2003;) and contribute to greater experiences of discrimination, violence, and mental health disparities (Aggarwal and Gerrets 2014;Fagot 1977;Harry 1983;Taywaditep 2001). Within LGBTQ+ communities, feminine devaluation can be evidenced within gay culture (Miller 2015;Taywaditep 2001), lesbian communities (Blair andHoskin 2015, 2016), and trans people's experiences (Blair and Hoskin 2018). Despite the accumulating evidence to warrant the deliberate consideration of femininity, there has been a continued neglect of femininity as an important intersectional axis. ...
Article
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Since the 1970s social science researchers have documented the cultural devaluation of femininity and its impact on experiences of discrimination among sexual and gender minorities. Yet, despite the continued and accumulating evidence demonstrating the role of anti-femininity (or femmephobia) in these experiences, little research has specifically examined femininity as an intersecting component of discrimination. Using in-depth interviews with sexual and gender minorities (N = 38), the current study explores the intersecting role of femmephobia in experiences of discrimination. Under the global theme of “femininity as target,” 5 key subthemes were identified: femininity and passing, regulating sexualities, masculine right of access, biological determinism, and the feminine joke. Participants illuminated femmephobia as a regulatory power within LGBTQ+ communities and society at large, as well as how femininity itself operates as a target in their experiences of gender policing and discrimination. By turning attention toward femininity, the current paper provides a clearer understanding of what may possibly lay at the heart of many social issues surrounding discrimination and violence. These findings have implications for the study of social inequalities, as well as strategies for remedying the pervasive devaluation of femininity. Copy of article available here: https://link.springer.com/epdf/10.1007/s11199-019-01021-3?author_access_token=lOa79LUKtujn2gOdH3V6_ve4RwlQNchNByi7wbcMAY6nlSvEiebnaHnJivzBy2MLjoAawGmY2Xd_7rjLPz5vMQSXFTlpe6-lGK-PsdjXsb4uOGbw-Jn_pNZAXnDa9me5czE1IRqA9eZ8k2c4Vm3rkQ%3D%3D
... Illustrating the dissimilarity in the ways that trans women and trans men experience prejudice (Bauerband et al., 2019;Winter et al., 2008), trans women report higher rates of everyday discrimination than trans men, non-binary individuals, cisgender women, and cisgender men, respectively (Bauerband et al., 2019). Similarly, compared to trans men, trans women are more discriminated in interpersonal relations such as romantic relations or dating (Blair & Hoskin, 2019;Gazzola & Morrison, 2014;Glotfelter & Anderson, 2017). Serano (2007) argues that this differential treatment is, in part, due to the tendency to see trans women as rejecting masculine superiority by adopting femininity and being women when assigned male at birth, both of which pose challenges to gender hegemony. ...
Article
Prejudice towards trans women is an under-examined but a critical social problem in Turkey. Patriarchal femininity sanctions women who do not comply with the idealised female bodies and feminine norms. On the other hand, ideals of hegemonic masculinity necessitate that men avoid femininity. In that sense, prejudice against trans women ostensibly stands at the intersection of hegemonic masculinity ideology and femininities that diverge from patriarchal feminine norms. Therefore, this study examines the mediatory effect of femmephobia in the link between masculinity ideology and prejudice towards trans women as measured by negative affect and social distancing motivations. Results indicate that femmephobia significantly mediates the relationship between the endorsement of masculinity ideology and prejudice towards trans women. Among three mandates of masculinity ideology, the endorsement of the antifemininity mandate was the most solid indirect predictor of negative affect and social distance through femmephobia, followed by mandates of toughness and status, respectively. Although participant gender does not have an indirect effect on the outcome variables, it has a direct effect on men’s social distancing intentions but not on negative emotions. The results are discussed in the light of existing literature which intersects with the devaluation of femininity.
... However, it must be noted how not all groups are equally represented: 69.2% of the sample identifies as a cisgender woman, and 66.4% is in a relationship with a transmasculine individual, the two most represented subgroups in studies on trans-including relationships (Platt & Bolland, 2018). The reason of the overrepresentation of these groups in these studies, even when no exclusion criteria are introduced, is yet to be fully addressed; however, a recent study seems to partially shed light on the matter: trans men are disproportionately more likely to be accepted as potential partners than trans women (Blair & Hoskin, 2019). In addition, 59.8% of the sample reported a sexual identity label within the multiple-attraction spectrum: although some insights on the possible explanation of this observation emerged from the present study, there is no available data to confirm the representativeness of the sample. ...
Article
This qualitative study explores the effects of being in a relationship with a transgender or non-binary (TGNB) person on an individual's sexual and/or gender identity. To this aim, the responses of 107 partners of TGNB individuals to the following open-ended question were collected: "What effect, if any, has having a relationship with a transgender person had on your gender and/or sexual identity?." Through thematic analysis, 4 overarching themes emerged from the participants' responses: 1) No reason to change; 2) Exploration and changes; 3) New perspective; and 4) Negative effects and confusion. Overall, this study suggests that being in a relationship with a TGNB person may prompt a reflection on the concept of sexual and gender identity, and an exploration of one's own identity, which is usually experienced as positive, but may also be a source of distress for the individual and/or the couple. Also, in many other cases, the relationship has been observed to have no effect on the partner's identity, due to a number of reasons. These findings constitute a relevant addition to the understanding of couple's dynamics in trans-including couples.
... Holmberg et al. reported that it can be difficult for transgender individuals to find partners that respect them (15). Moreover, Blair et al. reported that the willingness to date transgender individuals was very low (16). Therefore, it can be difficult to initiate and maintain sexual activity for transgender individuals. ...
Article
Objective: It is important to evaluate sexual function during the follow-up of transgender individuals in the gender pre-transition period. However, there exists inadequate literature evaluating the sexual functions of transgender individuals who have not received hormone therapy and/or undergone gender-affirming surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual function in transgender individuals in the gender pre-transition period. Material and Methods: Transgender individuals who were admitted consecutively to the tertiary care hospital between February and December 2019 were evaluated. Those who agreed to fill the questionnaires were included. Sexual functions of participants were evaluated using the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction developed for cisgender and heterosexual individuals. In addition, the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale was used for a psychometric test. Results: Sixty-five participants who did not receive hormone therapy and/or undergone gender-affirming surgery were included. Of these, 45 individuals were trans men (TM), and 20 were trans women (TW). The mean ages of TW and TM were 25.05±6.73 and 24.23±5.58 years, respectively. The percentages of sexual dysfunction were found to be 87.8% in TM and 92.3% in TW, according to the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale. According to the common subscales of the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction, the most common problem in both groups was low sexual frequency. Conclusion: Owing to the importance of evaluating the sexual function in transgender individuals during the gender pre-transition period or in those who do not intend to undergo gender-affirming treatment, a scale should be developed for this period. Amaç: Transseksüel bireylerin takibinde seksüel foksiyonların değerlendirilmesi önemli bir yere sahiptir. Buna karşılık, litera-türde herhangi bir cinsiyet değişim tedavisi almayan bireylerin seksüel fonksiyonlarını değerlendiren yeterli çalışma bulunma-maktadır. Bu nedenle çalışmamızda, geçiş öncesi dönemde sek-süel fonksiyonu değerlendirmeyi amaçladık. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışmamızda Şubat-Aralık 2019 tarihleri arasında merkezimize ardışık olarak başvuran transseksüel bireyler de-ğerlendirildi. Çalışmaya, anket doldurmayı kabul eden ve her-hangi bir cinsiyet değişim tedavisi almayan katılımcılar alındı. Çalışmaya katılanların seksüel fonksiyonları, cisgender ve hete-roseksüel bireyler için geliştirilen Golombok-Rust Cinsel Doyum Ölçeği ile değerlendirildi. Ayrıca psikometrik test olarak da Ari-zona Cinsel Yaşantılar Ölçeği kullanıldı. Bulgular: Çalışmaya cin-siyet değişim tedavisi almayan (cerrahi ve/veya hormon tedavisi) 65 transseksüel birey dâhil edildi. Katılımcıların 45'i trans erkek, 20'si ise trans kadındı. Trans kadınların ortalama yaşı 25,05±6,73 saptanırken, trans erkeklerin ise ortalama yaşı 24,23±5,58 saptandı. Arizona Cinsel Yaşantılar Ölçeği'ne trans erkeklerin 36'sında (%87,8) seksüel disfonksiyon saptanırken, trans kadınların 12'sinde (%92,3) seksüel disfonksiyon saptandı. Golombok-Rust Cinsel Doyum Ölçeği'nin ortak alt ölçeklerine göre ise her 2 grupta en sık görülen sorun cinsel ilişki sıklığında düşüklüktür. Sonuç: Cinsiyet geçiş döneminden önce veya cin-siyet onaylayıcı tedavi niyetinde olmayan transseksüel bireylerde cinsel işlevin değerlendirilmesi önemli olduğu için bu döneme yönelik bir ölçeğin geliştirlmesi gerekir. Anahtar kelimeler: Vücut memnuniyetsizliği; seksüel disfonksiyon; transseksüalizm
... One group that faces particularly strong barriers to finding romantic partners is transgender individuals. In one study of 958 participants, 87.5% indicated that they would not consider dating a trans person, including 97% of the cisgender heterosexual participants sampled (Blair & Hoskin, 2019). Some groups also have access to smaller dating pools due to structural inequalities. ...
Article
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Dating is widely thought of as a test phase for romantic relationships, during which new romantic partners carefully evaluate each other for long-term fit. However, this cultural narrative assumes that people are well equipped to reject poorly suited partners. In this article, we argue that humans are biased toward pro-relationship decisions—decisions that favor the initiation, advancement, and maintenance of romantic relationships. We first review evidence for a progression bias in the context of relationship initiation, investment, and breakup decisions. We next consider possible theoretical underpinnings—both evolutionary and cultural—that may explain why getting into a relationship is often easier than getting out of one, and why being in a less desirable relationship is often preferred over being in no relationship at all. We discuss potential boundary conditions that the phenomenon may have, as well as its implications for existing theoretical models of mate selection and relationship development.
... Andere mogelijke factoren die seksualiteit beïnvloeden zijn geïnternaliseerde transfobie en moeilijkheden om een partner te vinden die de genderidentiteit ondersteunt (Holmberg et al., 2018). De bereidheid bij heteroseksuele cisgender personen om te daten met transgender personen blijkt ook zeer laag (Blair & Hoskin, 2018). Bovendien eindigt de transgenderzorg vaak na de medische stappen, terwijl sommige personen pas starten met het exploreren van hun seksualiteit na het afronden van een medisch parcours. ...
Article
Samenvatting Hoewel transgender personen steeds zichtbaarder worden in onze maatschappij en in de zorgverlening, blijkt er bitter weinig onderzoek uitgevoerd naar hun seksualiteitsbeleving. Oudere, vaak kleinschalige studies hebben het seksueel functioneren na een medische transitie vaak verengd tot het al dan niet kunnen beleven van een orgasme. Het doel van de huidige studie is om de prevalentie van een breed spectrum aan seksuele functiestoornissen en disfuncties (met last) in kaart te brengen bij een multicenter cohorte van transgender personen tijdens/na hun transitie. De pre-valentie wordt eveneens gerapporteerd naargelang de verschillende mogelijke medische trajecten die deelnemers (hebben) doorlopen. 518 transgender personen (307 die zich vooral vrouwelijk, 211 die zich vooral mannelijk identificeren) hebben een online follow-up vragenlijst ingevuld in het kader van het European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incon-gruence Initiative (ENIGI). Alle participanten hadden hun eerste afspraak vier à zes jaar voor het onderzoek in een genderteam in Gent, Amsterdam of Hamburg. Zowel trans vrouwen als trans mannen ervaren het vaakst 'last van problemen bij het initiëren van seks' (26% en 32%) en 'last van problemen met het bereiken van een orgasme' (29% en 15%). Trans vrouwen ervaren na vaginoplas-tiek minder vaak opwindingsproblemen, seksuele aversie en een laag seksueel verlangen, in vergelijking met trans vrouwen die enkel hormonale therapie innemen. Vergeleken met trans mannen die geen medische stappen zetten, ervaren trans mannen na een falloplastiek minder vaak problemen met seksuele aversie maar vaker pijn na het vrijen. Seksuele disfuncties bij transgender personen vier tot zes jaar na hun eerste contact met transgenderzorg zijn frequent. Medische stappen kunnen helpen en zelfs essentieel zijn voor de ontwikkeling van een gezonde seksualiteit. Toch blijkt een significante groep van transgender personen (nog) last te hebben van seksuele disfuncties na genitale chirurgie. Seksuologische nazorg in deze groep verdient dus zeker aandacht.
... These challenges start with TGD people often not even being considered viable dating partners. Blair and Hoskin (2019) found that in a sample of 958 straight and LGBTQ people, 87.5% reported that they would not consider dating a trans person. Results indicated that heterosexual cisgender men and women were the most likely to exclude trans people, but over three-quarters of gay and lesbian participants also indicated they would not consider dating a trans person. ...
Chapter
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People of color, women, and trans and gender diverse (TGD) people have often been overlooked in the literature on queer relationships. Eurocentric and heteronormative biases of sexuality have rendered various forms of intimacy among marginalized communities invisible. Research on TGD people of color is generally lacking, and like the bulk of research on men who have sex with men, often focuses on pathology. This chapter will begin with an overview of research on LGBTQ+ people of color’s sexual romantic relationships, and then shift to focus on TGD individual’s sexual and romantic relationships as a way of exploring issues in relationships for populations that have been underrepresented in the literature on queer relationships. We consider challenges faced by those who have been historically marginalized even within LGBTQ+ communities in navigating sexual and romantic relationships, and we also highlight the creative ways individuals negotiate their identities and cultivate sources of strength within the contexts of these relationships.
... One of the main possible explanations for the association between CPS and CNSE is the expectation of romantic/sexual rejection and loneliness beliefs, which are commonly experienced by transgender individuals due to being transgender [47]. This could lead to low assertiveness in negotiating condom use in sexual intercourse, as these individuals commonly have loneliness beliefs and expect intimate rejection [48,49]. From this logic, if a hypothetic sexual partner of a transgender person insisted on having unprotected sex, for example, the fear of rejection and loneliness could be activated in that person, causing them to give in to pressure to maintain the relationship or avoid rejection, reducing their CNSE [34]. ...
Article
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This cross-sectional exploratory study aims to verify associations between condom-protected sex, condom negotiation self-efficacy, self-esteem, and four minority stressors (experiences with misgendering, “passing” concerns, anticipated prejudice, and perceived prejudice) among transgender men (TM) and transgender women (TW). The study participants were 260 individ-uals (192 TW and 68 TM) residing in two Brazilian states. Data was collected online and in two hospital programs for transgender people and included sociodemographic data, con-dom-protected sex, the Trans-Specific Condom/Barrier Negotiation Self-Efficacy (T-Barrier) Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and four minority stressors. Measures that were significantly associated with condom-protected sex were tested as independent variables in a linear regression model. The main results suggest that condom negotiation self-efficacy, “passing” concerns, and experiences with misgendering were predictors of condom-protected sex. These negative out-comes were found among both TM and TW, which justifies their inclusion in public health poli-cies. Structural strategies and clinical interventions are suggested to address condom negotiation self-efficacy and “passing” concerns in transgender populations.
... When men are involved in relationships with feminine trans individuals, experiences of interpersonal stigma are positively associated with poorer mental health for both partners-feminine trans individuals experience interpersonal stigma related to their gender identity, whereas their partners experience interpersonal stigma related to their relationship . Negative attitudes toward relationships between cisgender men and feminine trans individuals also reinforce feelings of marginalization and social isolation (for discussion, see Blair & Hoskin, 2019). A greater understanding of men's sexual interest in feminine trans individuals may help destigmatize these relationships and, thus, contribute to better mental health outcomes. ...
Article
Feminine trans individuals (i.e., individuals who were assigned male at birth but who have a feminine gender presentation and identity) are present in many cultures. In some cultures, these individuals identify as (trans) women. Many of these individuals undergo medical treatments to feminize their bodies (e.g., breast augmentation), but most do not undergo vaginoplasties and therefore have penises. In many non-Western cultures, feminine trans individuals identify as a non-binary gender (i.e., neither man, nor woman). Many of these individuals do not surgically augment their bodies. Across cultures, some men express sexual interest in feminine trans individuals. Are manifestations of sexual interest in feminine trans individuals consistent across Western and non-Western cultural settings? Our review suggests that, across cultures, most of these men are also sexually attracted to cisgender individuals. Many are sexually attracted to cisgender women or to cisgender members of both sexes. A small subset is sexually attracted to cisgender men. Men who are sexually interested in feminine trans individuals commonly report being primarily insertive during anal sex. Additionally, they tend to report that their sexual interest in these individuals is motivated by attraction to femininity or to the combination female- and male-typical characteristics.
Article
Zusammenfassung Einleitung Studien deuten darauf hin, dass LSBTI-Menschen im Gesundheitssystem häufig mit Herausforderungen und Benachteiligungen konfrontiert sind, die eng mit ihren Sexual- und Geschlechtsbiografien verbunden sind. Für eine deutsche Großstadt liegt hierzu noch keine zielgruppenübergreifende Untersuchung vor. Forschungsziele Ziel der Studie ist die Beantwortung der Frage, was behandelnde und beratende Fachkräfte über die Sexual- und Geschlechtsbiografien von LSBTI-Menschen wissen sollten und wie sie in ihrer jeweiligen Praxis mit LSBTI-Menschen umgehen sollten, um im Stadtstaat Hamburg eine bessere Gesundheitsversorgung gewährleisten zu können. Methoden Es wurden fünf Expert_inneninterviews mit LSBTI-Menschen und drei Fokusgruppen durchgeführt und mithilfe der qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse ausgewertet. Ergebnisse Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass es von zentraler Bedeutung ist, dass Fachkräfte im Gesundheitswesen eigene Annahmen und Vorurteile gegenüber LSBTI-Menschen ehrlich hinterfragen. Außerdem sollten sie insbesondere mit Herausforderungen des Coming-outs vertraut sein, diverse Lebens- und Beziehungsmodelle mitdenken, unterschiedliche Phasen der sexuellen und geschlechtlichen Entwicklung sowie Einflüsse darauf kennen, sexuelles Verhalten und sexuelle Identität unterscheiden – und all dies bei der Behandlung bzw. Beratung bedarfsgerecht berücksichtigen. Schlussfolgerung Für eine bessere Gesundheitsversorgung sollten Fachkräfte für die allgemeinen und individuellen Herausforderungen in den Sexual- und Geschlechtsbiografien von LSBTI-Menschen sensibilisiert sein und relevante Themen direkt ansprechen.
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Abstract (350 words) What is discrimination and what makes wrongful discrimination wrong? Even after an ever-rising tide of research over the course of the past twenty-five or so years these questions still remain hard to answer. Exercising candid and self-critical hindsight, Larry Alexander, who contributed his fair share to this tide, thus remarked: “All cases of discrimination, if wrongful, are wrongful either because of their quite contingent consequences or perhaps because they are breaches of promises or fiduciary duties.” If this is true it raises serious doubts as to how wrongful discrimination can be a moral wrong in itself. Also, the question comes up as to who it is who breaches a promise or a fiduciary duty. This paper defends the view that the substance of these remarks is better understood by couching them in a political approach towards discrimination. Against this background, they give rise to real and pressing concerns. Once we conceptualise the realm political along Hobbesian lines as the battleground comprising both the private sphere of the individual and the public sphere of the commonwealth it emerges that discrimination has different significance with regard to these respective spheres. In order to illustrate this, I adopt Kasper Lippert-Rasmussens descriptive account of discrimination as „differential treatment on the basis of membership of a socially salient group“ and the common view that wrongful discrimination is wrong because it is harmful, disrespectful, or both. In the private sphere the case can be made for morally permissible cases of discrimination. Sexual discrimination due to sexual self-determination with consequently freely choosing your sexual or romantic partner is the central case in point. Where somebody feels unfairly rejected and consequently hurt neither the charge of harm inflicted nor that of disrespect endured need be justified. No “breach of promises or fiduciary duties” is involved. The case is different, however, when it comes to the fiduciary of power. In discriminating, he who exercises the power of the commonwealth necessarily breaches a promise and a fiduciary duty. Discrimination thus appears to be more of a problem of political philosophy than one of applied ethics. Zusammenfassung (350 Wörter) Was ist Diskriminierung und warum ist Diskriminierung verwerflich, wenn sie es denn ist? Dies bleibt ungeachtet der seit fünfundzwanzig Jahren anschwellenden Forschungsliteratur unverändert eine harte Nuss. Larry Alexander, der selbst maßgeblich zu dieser Forschungsliteratur beigetragen hat, merkt daher selbstkritisch an: „All cases of discrimination, if wrongful, are wrongful either because of their quite contingent consequences or perhaps because they are breaches of promises or fiduciary duties.“ Wenn dies der Fall ist, stellt sich die Frage, wie moralisch verwerfliche Diskriminierung dann noch an sich verwerflich sein kann. Es stellt sich dann auch die Frage, wer hier ein Versprechen bricht und seine Treuepflichten verletzt. Die leitende Annahme dieses Aufsatzes ist es, dass man dem sachlichen Kern dieser Bedenken Rechnung tragen kann, indem man eine politische Perspektive auf das Phänomen der Diskriminierung einnimmt. Die Bedenken erweisen sich dann als substanziell und zutreffend. Konzeptualisieren wir den Bereich des Politischen mit Thomas Hobbes als das Spannungsfeld, das die privaten Sphäre des Individuums und die öffentlichen Sphäre des Gemeinwesens gegeneinander abgrenzt, wird sichtbar, dass Diskriminierung in diesen Sphären jeweils unterschiedlich zu bewerten ist. Um dies zu verdeutlichen, lege ich Kasper Lippert-Rasmussens deskriptives Verständnis von Diskriminierung als „differential treatment on the basis of membership of a socially salient group“ zugrunde und mache von der in der Diskussion verbreiteten Ansicht Gebrauch, dass das Zufügen von Schaden oder die Verweigerung von Respekt Diskriminierung verwerflich macht. In der privaten Sphäre kann es nun Fälle moralisch zulässiger Diskriminierung geben. Zentral ist die sexuelle Diskriminierung aufgrund der Ausübung einer freien Wahl des eigenen Sexual- oder Liebespartners. Auch wenn sich der Abgewiesene womöglich geschädigt sieht, wird unbilliger Schaden nicht zugefügt und geschuldeter Respekt nicht verweigert. Den Grund finden wir in Alexanders Formel: Ein „breach of promises“ oder eine Verletzung „fiduciary duties“ liegt nicht vor. Anders im Fall staatlicher Diskriminierung: Ein „breach of promises“ oder eine Verletzung „fiduciary duties“ liegt hier stets vor, da Fälle staatlicher Diskriminierung regelmässig Machtmissbrauch darstellen: Der Inhaber staatlicher Gewalt verletzt die Treuepflicht, das Mandat unparteilich auszuüben, das getreulich auszuführen er gelobt hat. Diskriminierung erscheint also weniger als ein Problem der angewandten Ethik denn als eines der politischen Philosophie. Keywords Discrimination · Sexual Discrimination · Private Sphere · Fiduciary Duties · Abuse of Power
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic introduced a myriad of novel stressors, and early research suggests the mental well-being of many has suffered as a result. Transgender and nonbinary (TN) people in particular may have experienced additional stressors related to their gender identity, and may not have had access to minority coping resources that could normally buffer against experiencing negative mental health outcomes. In May 2020, 1160 cisgender heterosexual, 369 cisgender lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ), and 195 TN people completed a survey on their mental well-being and experiences during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also asked TN participants about how their lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and/or queer (LGBTQ+) identity intersected with their experience of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that TN participants experienced more psychological distress and less social support than cisgender heterosexual participants during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also found that social support was associated with less psychological distress among TN participants during the pandemic; however, LGBQ+ and TN community connectedness were not related to distress. Using inductive thematic analysis, we summarize TN participants’ descriptions of the ways that their LGBTQ+ identities intersected with the pandemic to change their access to gender-affirming services and behaviours, their home and public life, and their experiences of affirming social support and/or LGBTQ+ community connectedness. Together, our findings provide valuable insights into the experiences of TN people during the pandemic and highlight the ways in which our “normal” society is difficult for TN people to inhabit.
Article
Many psychological studies focus on trans identity development in young individuals and on the stressors they often face, including the risk of chronic rejection or stigma internalization, but leave out the particularities of transitioning as an adult, particularly as a transwoman (TW). This study remedies this gap by conducting qualitative interviews on a sample of six transgender women above the age of 35, living in the United Kingdom, analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). While transgender research typically shows that young individuals under the age of thirty go through a period of dissonance, followed by exploration and finally transition, adults may find that they experience a rather different sequence of self-discovery (Fraser, 2009). The current research found that older transwomen generally grow up feeling different, but that their lack of exposure to other trans individuals prevented them from voicing their identity until later life. The anticipation of negative reactions delayed their decision to transition and may have led them to reluctantly marry, have children and engage in over compensatory behavior in an effort to conceal their identity. The participants began openly exploring their identity with the spread of trans information on the internet, during which they sought new relationships that could bolster their need for coherence, often leading them to neglect individuals and environments that may have be non-verifying for some time. After a short period of open exploration, the respondents came out to the majority of their ecosystem, forcing them to redefine their relationships and their place in society. Physically transitioning appeared to improve most of the participants’ mental wellbeing, helped them find a sense of authenticity and coherence, although this was generally mitigated by the consistency of support offered by family and friends.
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In her recent article published in Sexuality & Culture, “This is my TERF! Lesbian Feminists and the Stigmatization of Trans Women,” Worthen focuses on feminist lesbians and their alleged “anti-trans” and “trans-exclusionary” beliefs. Analyzing a subsample of ‘cis women’ from a larger online survey, Worthen examines whether feminist lesbians “express greater levels of negativity” toward transwomen than other women and whether there is “a relationship between feminist identity among lesbian cis women and the stigmatization of trans women”. Although Worthen reports finding a positive association between being a feminist lesbian and holding negative views towards transwomen, which she interprets as indicating that lesbian feminists hold more negative sentiments toward transwomen than other women, that is not what her results show. Notably, while this misinterpretation of findings is particularly egregious, mischaracterizations pervade Worthen’s article. Here, I correct these misrepresentations. I address Worthen’s use of ad hominem in lieu of logic and evidence. I also discuss differences between gender-critical feminism and what I call trans-activist feminism, drawing attention to the latter’s explicit prioritization of male inclusion in women’s provisions over female safety and psychological well-being. I show that, contrary to her interpretations, Worthen’s findings indicate that lesbians have significantly less ‘anti-trans [woman] sentiment’ than most other women and their non-lesbian feminist counterparts. I conclude by considering how we arrived at this socio-cultural situation, where feminists who believe that sex is biologically real and matters in some contexts are derided, their concerns are denounced as hateful, and flawed articles purporting to demonstrate feminist lesbians’ uniquely ‘anti-trans’ sentiment are published despite factual inaccuracies.
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Feminism provides a worldview with innovative possibilities for scholarship and activism on behalf of families and intimate relationships. As a flexible framework capable of engaging with contentious theoretical ideas and the urgency of social change, feminism offers a simultaneous way to express an epistemology (knowledge), a methodology (the production of knowledge), an ontology (one’s subjective way of being in the world), and a praxis (the translation of knowledge into actions that produce beneficial social change). Feminist family science, in particular, advances critical, intersectional, and queer approaches to examine the uses and abuses of power and the multiple axes upon which individuals and families are privileged, marginalized, and oppressed in diverse social contexts. In this paper, I embrace feminism as a personal, professional (academic), and political project and use stories from my own life to illuminate broader social-historical structures, processes, and contexts associated with gender, race, class, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, nationality, and other systems of social stratification. I provide a brief history and reflections on contemporary feminist theory and activism, particularly from the perspective of my disciplinary affiliation of feminist family science. I address feminism as an intersectional perspective through three themes: (a) theory: defining a critical feminist approach, (b) method: critical feminist autoethnographic research, and (c) praxis: transforming feminist theory into action. I conclude with takeaway messages for incorporating reflexivity and critical consciousness raising to provoke thought and action in the areas of personal, professional, and political change.
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El presente artículo propone dar a conocer la realidad de cuatro familias trans*, mediante sus experiencias de transparentalidad. Para ello , s e ha n r e ali z ad o cuatro entrevistas, a dos mujeres y dos hombres trans*, los y las cuales han experimentado una transición social antes o después de tener hijos/as y se definen en los roles de paternidad o de maternidad. A partir del análisis de las diversas experiencias de transparentalidad se recoge: en primer lugar, los prejuicios y el estigma que sufren por transgredir la matriz heterosexual; en segundo lugar, las estrategias que llevan a cabo para hacerles frente; en tercer lugar, se desarrollan dos efectos que conlleva la experiencia de transparentalidad: (1) la descentralización de su propia identidad trans* y (2) la transición secundaria de sus familiares. Por último, se aborda el reajuste de roles que se lleva a cabo en algunas familias como consecuencia de la transición. Mediante este artículo se incide e n e l trabajo de sensibilización social a través del acercamiento a la sociedad de experiencias de transparentalidad, para que cada persona y cada familia pueda vivir su realidad sin miedo al estigma o prejuicios
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We studied a North American sample of female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals sexually attracted to men, aiming to understand their identity and sexuality in the context of a culture of transgender empowerment. Sex-reassigned FtM transsexuals, 18 years or older and attracted to men, were recruited via an FtM community conference and listserv. Participants (N = 25) responded to open-ended questions about identity development, sexual behavior, and social support. Data were analyzed by content analysis. Scores for sexual identity, self esteem, sexual functioning, and psychological adjustment were compared to those of a comparison group (N = 76 nontransgender gay and bisexual men). Of the 25 FtMs, 15 (60%) identified as gay, 8 (32%) as bisexual, and 2 (8%) as queer. All were comfortable with their gender identity and sexual orientation. The FtM group was more bisexual than the nontransgender gay and bisexual controls. No significant group differences were found in self esteem, sexual satisfaction, or psychological adjustment. For some FtMs, sexual attractions and experiences with men affirmed their gender identity; for others, self-acceptance of a transgender identity facilitated actualization of their attractions toward men. Most were "out" as transgender among friends and family, but not on the job or within the gay community. Disclosure and acceptance of their homosexuality was limited. The sexual identity of gay and bisexual FtMs appears to mirror the developmental process for nontransgender homosexual men and women in several ways; however, participants also had experiences unique to being both transgender and gay/bisexual. This signals the emergence of a transgender sexuality.
Appearance, reality, and gender deception: Reflections on transphobic violence and the politics of pretence
  • T M Bettcher
Bettcher, T. M. (2006). Appearance, reality, and gender deception: Reflections on transphobic violence and the politics of pretence. In F. Ó. Murchadha (Ed.), Violence, victims, justifications: Philosophical approaches. Oxford: Peter Lang.