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Educational Management, Educational Administration and Educational Leadership: Definitions and General concepts

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Educational Management, Educational Administration and Educational Leadership: Definitions and General concepts

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Available online at http://sassociety.com/sasjm/ 326
SAS Journal of Medicine (SASJM) ISSN 2454-5112
Abbreviated Key Title: SAS J. Med.
©Scholars Academic and Scientific Publishers (SAS Publishers)
A Unit of Scholars Academic and Scientific Society, India
Educational Management, Educational Administration and Educational
Leadership: Definitions and General concepts
Ibrahim A Ali1*, Mazin S. Abdalla2
1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, The National Ribat University, Khartoum, Sudan
2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Napata College, Khartoum, Sudan
Review Article
*Corresponding author
Ibrahim A Ali
Article History
Received: 06.12.2017
Accepted: 13.12.2017
Published: 30.12.2017
DOI:
10.21276/sasjm.2017.3.12.2
Abstract: For an educational system, or any system for that matter, the terms which
lift the weight are management and leadership. By the dawn of the past century, much
attention has been given to these two terms for their magnitude of importance and
implication. When it comes to the educational facility and the question of allocating
the available resources to achieve the maximum goals, it becomes crystal clear that a
figure with influence is needed in the educational playground, so to speak. This review
shed some light on these points and illustrates their use.
Keywords: Management, Administration, Leadership
INTRODUCTION
Educational Management: Definition and General Concepts
The concept of management overlaps with other similar terms, leadership and
administration. Management is famous and used for instance in Great Britain, Europe
as well as Africa, on the other hand, the term administration is preferred in the United
States, Canada, and Australia.
The concept of leadership is of tremendous interest in most countries in the
developed World at the present times. Management refers to the set of actions and
tasks in relevance to application of the highest order of organization and effectiveness
to use resources within to achieve the objectives of the organization [1].
Educational management may even be considered a (logy) by itself when it
comes to the management of educational organizations [2]. In essence, educational
management is all about factual application of management principles in education
fields. In the words of Mr. Gerald Ngugi Kimani [3] it is plain as observe that
educational administration and management are two applied fields of study.
Educational management is an applied field of
management. One can therefore deduce that educational
management refers to the application of theory and
practice of management to the field of education or
educational Institutions. Educational administration is a
process of acquiring and allocating resources for the
achievement of predetermined educational goals.
Functions of Educational Management
The process of educational management
consists of five basic functions; a manager uses these
functions to achieve educational organization goals and
objectives. Most of the authors agreed on the following
five functions of the educational management:
Planning
organization
directing
coordination
controlling
evaluation
Educational management has three major field
study area, they are
Human resource, through the student, the
educational personnel, and the stakeholder and
community as an education service user.
Learning resource, such as tools through the
planning which will be used as a media or
curriculum.
Facility and finance resource, as supporting factors
which make the education held well.
The scope of educational management is related to
Development related goals
Planning and implementing the programmes
Administration
Solving the problems
Professional development
Ibrahim A Ali et al., SAS J. Med., 2017; 3(12):326-329
Available online at http://sassociety.com/sasjm/ 327
Evaluation and its consequences.
Management and administration
Sergiovanni et al. [4] firstly defined
administration as the process of working with and
through others in order to accomplish organizational
goals efficiently. Furthermore, they viewed
administrators as those who are responsible for
accomplishing certain objectives efficiently.
Subsequently, Sergiovanni et al. [4] viewed
administration as the art and science of getting things
done efficiently.
Secondly, in terms of educational
administration, in the United States, according to
Sergiovanni et al. [4], “The governance and
administration of education is a good example of the
nature and importance of administrative activity in our
society” (p. 4). In addition, the educational
establishment ranks among the largest of public and
private enterprises. Thus, educational administrators
from all levels, from superintendents to chairpersons,
take their roles seriously in order to build quality
education.
The job of educational administrators
1. Critical administrative responsibility areas
Goal attainment
Maintaining the school’s cultural
Pattern
2. Critical administrative processes
Planning
Organizing
3. Critical administrative skills
Technical
There are seven factors which can be
conceptualized in the synthesis of knowledge in
educational administration [9].
Functions
Skills
Ethics
Structure
operational areas
context
issues
Table-1: Comparison between Management & Administration
Basis For
Comparison
Management
Administration
Meaning
An organized way of managing people and things of a
business organization is called the Management.
The process of administering an organization by a group
of people is known as the Administration.
Authority
Middle and Lower Level
Top level
Role
Executive
Decisive
Area of
operation
It works under administration.
It has full control over the activities of the organization.
Applicable to
Profit making organizations, i.e. business
organizations.
Government offices, military, clubs, business enterprises,
hospitals, religious and educational organizations.
Applicable to
Profit making organizations, i.e. business
organizations.
Government offices, military, clubs, business enterprises,
hospitals, religious and educational organizations.
Decides
Who will do the work? And How will it be done?
What should be done? And When is should be done?
Work
Putting plans and policies into actions.
Formulation of plans, framing policies and setting
objectives
Focus on
Managing work
Making best possible allocation of limited resources.
Key person
Manager
Administrator
Represents
Employees, who work for remuneration
Owners, who get a return on the capital invested by
them.
Educational management and Educational
leadership
On [5] account, leadership is a process of
influence leading to the fulfillment the preset targets. It
involves motivating and supporting others towards a
whole vision for the school, the foundations of which
are built on clear personal and professional values.
Management is the realization of the policies of the
school and the efficient and effective maintenance of
the school’s current activities. Some say, “Managers
manage tasks, but leaders lead people,” and
“Management is doing things right, but leadership is
doing the right things.”
Educational Leadership
By definition, is the ability of an accomplished
person to influence others to achieve an objective.
Leadership in its core is about paving a path for
person/people to take part for something extraordinary
to be realized. The term "effective leadership refers to
the ability of successfully integrating and expanding the
available resources within the internal and external
environment to reach organizational or societal goals."
Leadership is a process of influence leading to
the achievement of desired purposes. Successful leaders
develop a vision for their schools based on personal and
professional values. They articulate this vision at every
Ibrahim A Ali et al., SAS J. Med., 2017; 3(12):326-329
Available online at http://sassociety.com/sasjm/ 328
opportunity and influence their staff and other
stakeholders to share the vision. The philosophy,
structures and activities of the school are geared
towards the achievement of this shared vision.
Leadership needs at least two central factors which
related inside. They are power and authority, plus the
interaction of people in groups. The leader must have a
vision and strong character to influence his followers.
Educational leadership is defined as occurring
when someone takes the initiative to facilitate the
following conditions for implementing change in
teaching and learning. They must be making
opportunities to allow participants to develop personal
understandings and to form social groups to allow for
mutual support during the change process. They also
must have encouragement to reflect on practice.
Brian J. Caldwell [6], Educational leadership
is a wide concept the notion of which is ‘building a
learning community’: bringing up the capacity of
teachers and others in the schools of the community to
supply that community with the needed teaching
programmes in with the uttermost quality.
Duignan PA, RJS. Macpherson [7]. stated that
the Educational leadership is all about providing by
example or otherwise, sound organizational decision
making, so on the pragmatic and holistic view of
knowledge growth through feedback enhanced
problem-solving, the leader’s central task is the
provision of educative leadership. That is, as someone
concerned with creating, promoting and applying
knowledge, a leader must also be an educator.
Davies [8] stated that the Leadership is about
direction-setting and inspiring others to make the
journey to a new and improved state for the school.
Management is concerned with efficiently operating in
the current set of circumstances and planning in the
shorter term for the school. Leadership is not the
provenance of one individual but a group of people,
who provide leadership in the school and, by doing so,
provide support and inspiration to others to achieve the
best for the children in their care. Leadership is not set
in isolation but is set in the context of organizations and
the wider society [8].
Table-2: Comparison between Leadership & Management
Leadership
Management
Leadership means "the ability of an individual to
influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute
toward the effectiveness and success of the
organizations of which they are members."
Management comprises directing and controlling a
group of one or more people or entities for the purpose
of coordinating and harmonizing that group towards
accomplishing a goal.
Are often called brilliant and mercurial, with great
charisma. Yet, they are also often seen as loners and
private people. They are comfortable taking risks,
sometimes seemingly wild and crazy risks. Almost all
leaders have high levels of imagination
Tend to be rational, under control problem solvers.
They often focus on goals, structures, personnel, and
availability of resources. Managers’ personalities lean
toward persistence, strong will, analysis, and
intelligence.
People-oriented
Task-oriented
Leading people
Managing work
Achievements
Results
Simply look at problems and devise new, creative
solutions. Using their charisma and commitment, they
excite, motivate, and focus others to solve problems
and excel.
Create strategies, policies, and methods to create teams
and ideas that combine to operate smoothly. They
empower people by soliciting their views, values, and
principles. They believe that this combination reduces
inherent risk and generates success
Risk-taking
Risk-averse
Facilitative
Involved
Transformational, Consultative & Participative
Dictatorial, Authoritative, Transactional, Autocratic,
Consultative and Democratic
Charisma & Influence
Formal authority & Position
Leaders have followers
Manager have subordinates
Goals of educational leadership
To train the prospective Teacher / Mentor/
Instructor to practice strategic leadership that
promotes a vision, mission, values, beliefs and
goals for 21st century Institutes/ schools
To provide the prospective Teacher / Mentor/
Instructor with the knowledge of best instructional
and Institute / school practices that result in an
environment of accountability and high
standards for all students
To provide a program of study that enhances the
prospective Teacher / Mentor/ Instructor ’s
understanding of the role that the Institute ’s
culture contributes to Institutes performance,
student learning, and the achievement of collective
goals
Ibrahim A Ali et al., SAS J. Med., 2017; 3(12):326-329
Available online at http://sassociety.com/sasjm/ 329
To develop the prospective Teacher / Mentor/
Instructor’s skills to create an Institute professional
learning community which empowers teachers with
distributive leadership.
To develop the prospective Teacher / Mentor/
Instructor’s managerial leadership skills in
budgeting, staffing, problem solving, and
communicating in order to meet the 21St
century needs of every classroom
To facilitate the development of the prospective
Teacher / Mentor/ Instructor’s external
development leadership skills that will enhance
parent/community/business engagement, support
and ownership in the Institute
To develop the prospective Teacher / Mentor/
Instructor’s micro political leadership skills to
facilitate social cohesion and shared decision-
making among staff.
SUMMARY
Management encompasses the collection of
processes of setting and achieving organizational goals
through its functions, such as, forecasting, organization,
coordination, training and monitoring-evaluation.
Leadership is defined as the capability to
influence, to lead and convince others to follow your
footsteps, the ability to guide, to display the human side
of business as becoming a "teacher". Interest in
leadership has shown a great deal of increment in the
early years of the twentieth century. Educational
administration utilizes the available resources and
allocates them appropriately to target the predetermined
educational goals.
REFERENCES
1. Sapre P. Realizing the Potential of Education
Management in India. Educational Management &
Administration. 2002 Jan;30(1):101-8.
2. Bush T. Theories of educational leadership and
management. Sage; 2003 Oct 8.
3. Kimani GN. Educational Management. Nairobi:
African Virtual University. 2011.
4. Sergiovanni TJ, Burlingame M, Coombs FD,
Thurston PW. Educational governance and
administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-
Hall.1980.
5. Bush T, Glover D. School leadership: Concepts and
evidence.2003.
6. Johnston C, Caldwell B. Leadership and
organisational learning in the quest for world class
schools. International Journal of Educational
Management. 2001 Apr 1;15(2):94-103.
7. Duignan PA, Macpherson RJS. Educative
Leadership: A;1992.
8. Davies B, editor. The essentials of school
leadership. Paul Chapman Educational Publishing;
2005 Feb 9.
9. Cunningham WG, Cordeiro PA. Educational
leadership: A problem based approach Columbus.
OH: Pearson. 2006.
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Rev. ed. of: "Theories of educational management", 2nd ed. 1995. Incl. bibl., index.
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