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Evaluation of surface and groundwater quality related with the discharges composition and water-sediment interactions, with agriwater software


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The quality of the water for irrigation is the result of the composition of the discharges and it interaction with the sediments. It must be evaluated in each body of water used to irrigation of agricultural land, to avoid salinization and sodification of the sediments and soils, as well as toxicity in the crops; and also when it is used in industrial processes. Agriwater is a multiplatform software with which it can work in any operating system. With Agriwater it is possible to: a) organize, store and process water quality data from hundreds of wells in seconds; b) conversion of units to improve data management and calculation of water quality indices; c) evaluate the salinity and sodicity of the water so as not to contaminate the soil; d) evaluate the toxicity of soluble ions in crops; e) identify water families; and f) evaluate changes in the quality of irrigation water over time and thus avoid the degradation of agricultural soils. In addition, the physicochemical parameters that Agriwater uses are those that are commonly measured to characterize water. With Agriwater the evaluation of irrigation water quality is simple, fast and reliable. Agriwater can be used in agroindustrial companies in extensive and intensive agriculture, as well as by all types of industry responsible for the environment that wants to regulate its effluents.
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The Yucatán Peninsula has the largest reserve of water in Mexico. It is generally believed that groundwater is of good quality although its agricultural quality has been scarcely studied. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize zones with distinctive groundwater qualities for agricultural use in Yucatán. Water samples were collected at 113 supply wells. The concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO42-, NO3-, Cl- and the electric conductivity (EC) were determined. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), potential salinity (PS) and effective salinity (ES) were also calculated. A geostatistical analysis by kriging interpolation was performed. ES, PS and SAR as well as Na+, EC, Cl-, SO42-, and Ca2+ were selected to make maps, in accordance with the values of semivariogram and values of cross-validation. The map of the ES was taken as the base to make the map of zones of agricultural quality groundwater. The quality of karstic groundwater in the state of Yucatán cannot be recommended for agriculture in Zones I (EC and ES), II (EC, Chlorides, PS and ES) and III (EC, sulfates and ES); in Zones IV and V the water is of medium quality and in the Zone VI, water is considered good for agricultural use. This information will be relevant in decision-making for government's agricultural and environmental planning.