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Abstract

Betalains are unique nitrogen-containing pigments found exclusively in families of the Caryophyllales order and some higher order fungi, where they replace anthocyanin pigments. Betalains, consisting of betacyanins and betaxanthins are generally used as color additives in food. This review discusses on the favorable effects of acute and chronic consumption of betalains, whose edible sources consist primarily of red beetroots (Beta vulgaris) and prickly pears (fruit of the Opuntia genus of cacti). Moreover, it encompasses in vivo and in vitro studies about the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of betanin and indicaxanthin. It seems that treatment with betalains and betalain-rich diets is not only non-toxic but could also prove to be a promising alternative to supplement therapies in oxidative stress-, inflammation-, and dyslipidemia-related diseases such as stenosis of the arteries, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and cancer, among others. Due to its toxicological safety, accessibility, low price, biodegradability, and potentially advantageous biological effects on health, the incorporation of betalains in food manufacturing and related industries could pave the way to overcome current concerns over the health risks of artificial colors. Nevertheless, further studies using pure betalains are required to gain a deeper understanding of their precise biological functions.

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... A betalain is a special kind of water-soluble pigment that only exists in Caryophyllaceae, such as Pitaya (Figure 1). Betalain pigments replace anthocyanins with unrelated red or yellow in Caryophyllaceae [77]. Although the colors of betalains and anthocyanins are similar, the synthetic pathways are different. ...
... Although the colors of betalains and anthocyanins are similar, the synthetic pathways are different. Anthocyanins are phenylalanine-derived, while the synthesis of betalains starts with lysine, and betalains contain the chromophore betalamic acid [77]. In addition, betalains are classified into red betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins, both of which are synthesized in the cytosol and then transported to vacuoles (Figure 1) [78]. ...
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Anthocyanins, carotenoids, and betalains are known as the three major pigments in the plant kingdom. Anthocyanins are flavonoids derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. They undergo acylation and glycosylation in the cytoplasm to produce anthocyanin derivatives and deposits in the cytoplasm. Anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by the MBW (comprised by R2R3-MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and WD40) complex. Carotenoids are fat-soluble terpenoids whose synthetic genes also are regulated by the MBW complex. As precursors for the synthesis of hormones and nutrients, carotenoids are not only synthesized in plants, but also synthesized in some fungi and bacteria, and play an important role in photosynthesis. Betalains are special water-soluble pigments that exist only in Caryophyllaceae plants. Compared to anthocyanins and carotenoids, the synthesis and regulation mechanism of betalains is simpler, starting from tyrosine, and is only regulated by MYB (myeloblastosis). Recently, a considerable amount of novel information has been gathered on the regulation of plant pigment biosynthesis, specifically with respect to aspects. In this review, we summarize the knowledge and current gaps in our understanding with a view of highlighting opportunities for the development of pigment-rich plants.
... LDLs transport not only fat molecules to cells, e.g., they are the major carriers of cholesterol in the human bloodstream for delivery to peripheral tissues, but also other molecules, such as beta-carotene and vitamin E. 37 Dietary betalains can also be incorporated into plasma LDL and protect these lipoproteins from oxidation, counteracting the negative effects of LDL oxidative modifications on cardiovascular health. 31,38,39 Indeed, supplementation with juice and betalains from cactus pears was found to improve vascular and endothelial function, pointing out the therapeutic potential of cactaceous phytochemicals to treat cardiometabolic disorders. 40 Similarly, high concentrations (between 50 and 100 µM) of the prickly pear betalain indicaxanthin induced the synthesis of anti-inflammatory prostaglandins in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages in vitro. ...
... The absorption rate, distribution, and excretion of betalains after fresh cactus pear fruit pulp consumption have been approached by the Tesoriere group. 31,38,39 Both, betacyanins and betaxanthins were detected in human plasma at concen-trations in the micromolar order, reaching their maximum levels three hours after ingestion, with a calculated half-life of 2.4 and 0.9 h for indicaxanthin and betanin, respectively. Although the ingested indicaxanthin concentration was only 1.8-fold higher than that of betanin, the former presented a better absorption with a 63-fold higher plasma area under the Fig. 1 Steps towards understanding the feasibility of cactaceous plants as sources of bioactive compounds with physiological relevance for human health and their potential for phytomedicine. ...
Article
Arid-land plants from the Cactaceae family are endemic to the Americas and cultivated worldwide. Cactaceous plants and their fruits contain phenolic compounds, betalains, vitamins, carotenoids, minerals, and soluble fiber. Edible cactaceous matrices can be considered functional foods since their consumption may confer health benefits. These plants could be a source of novel bioactive compounds relevant to the area of phytomedicine. However, consumption of high concentrations of active molecules is not necessarily correlated to beneficial physiological effects because phytochemicals must be released from the food matrices under physiological conditions, resist digestion-associated chemical transformations, and remain in their active state in systemic circulation until the target tissues are reached. Notably, although digestion may either increase or decrease the bioactive phytochemicals' activity and stability, non-absorbed compounds may also be relevant for human health. Additionally, food matrices' type and composition and their technological processing operations may influence the compounds' release, stability, and accessibility. Thus, this review provides insights on the feasibility of using Cactaceae plants as sources of functional compounds. It is focused on compounds' bioactivity, bioaccessibility, and overall bioavailability after their metabolic transformation. Also, it addresses the influence of food processing on bioactive compounds. Many Cactaceae species are unexplored, and our understanding of how they confer health benefits is limited. To better understand the physiological relevance, nutraceutical potential, and therapeutic feasibility of cactaceous bioactive phytochemicals, future research should focus on the metabolic stability and safety of these compounds, as well as their assimilation mechanisms (absorption, distribution, and metabolic fate).
... Betalains primarily occur in Caryophyllales order plants, followed by certain fungi of higher order such as Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) (Rahimi et al., 2019), and now Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus-the first betalainproducing bacterium (Contreras-Llano et al., 2019). All plant families in the Caryophyllales order contain betalains, except for those that produce anthocyanins as both these pigments do not coexist in any living organism (Rahimi et al., 2019). ...
... Betalains primarily occur in Caryophyllales order plants, followed by certain fungi of higher order such as Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) (Rahimi et al., 2019), and now Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus-the first betalainproducing bacterium (Contreras-Llano et al., 2019). All plant families in the Caryophyllales order contain betalains, except for those that produce anthocyanins as both these pigments do not coexist in any living organism (Rahimi et al., 2019). Betalains are mainly found in edible portions of plants though they can also exist in the flowers, stems, leaves, and roots . ...
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Betalains are nitrogen‐containing plant pigments that can be red‐violet (betacyanins) or yellow‐orange (betaxanthins), currently employed as natural colorants in the food and cosmetic sectors. Betalains exhibit antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of microbes including multi‐drug resistant bacteria, as well as single‐species and dual‐species biofilm‐producing bacteria, which is highly significant given the current antimicrobial resistance issue reported by The World Health Organization. Research demonstrating antiviral activity against dengue virus, in silico studies including SARS‐CoV‐2, and anti‐fungal effects of betalains highlight the diversity of their antimicrobial properties. Though limited in vivo studies have been conducted, antimalarial and anti‐infective activities of betacyanin have been observed in living infection models. Cellular mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of betalains are yet unknown; however existing research has laid the framework for a potentially novel antimicrobial agent. This review covers an overview of betalains as antimicrobial agents and discussions to fully exploit their potential as therapeutic agents to treat infectious diseases.
... Both have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity (Gandía-Herrero and García-Carmona, 2013). Betalains are the least known pigments, although the vitamins associated with these pigments are vitamin B and C (Rahimi et al., 2019;W.S., 2018). ...
... However, betalains are quite sensitive to heat, pH, light and oxygen (Gengatharan et al., 2015). There are reports that betalains are precursors of vitamins B and C (Rahimi et al., 2019;W.S., 2018). The B vitamins comprise a group of eight water-soluble vitamins that play essential and closely related roles in cellular functioning, acting as coenzymes in a wide range of catabolic and anabolic enzymatic reactions. ...
Article
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Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the fifth most cultivated plant in the world. One way to classify mango is according to the color of the skin; mangoes are classified as green, yellow and red. Color is a visual attribute that defines consumer preference in some countries. This pigmentation diversity is defined by families of genes that encode for protein production, which lead to biosynthetic pathways responsible for the production of vitamins and vitamin precursors. In Mexico there is a wide range of colors in the native mango germplasm, which could represent an important source of antioxidants, pigments and would bring benefits to the human health of Mexicans, through the consumption of the fresh fruits, or the commercial/industrial exploitationof these. According to the literature, this diversity of colors represents a genetic richness that could be exploited in the genetic breeding programs of the species in the country, to generate new varieties with desirable characteristics in the national and international market. In order to gather and discuss information that contributes to the understanding of the biochemical and genetic processes that determine such pigmentation and the production of vitamins in mango, this review describes the main genes involved and the biosynthetic pathways of the most common pigments, considering the impact on human health when they are consumed, and highlighting the challenges and opportunities that could be derived from the utilization of pigmentsfrom the Mexican germplasm.
... They are responsible for the color of egg yolk and some fish. Table 7 presents the main features related to carotenoids in a brief manner [96][97][98][99]. -Phloroglucinol ...
... They are responsible for the color of egg yolk and some fish. Table 7 presents the main features related to carotenoids in a brief manner [96][97][98][99]. Carotenoids are further classified into following categories according to Table 8. ...
Article
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Bioactive compounds are comprised of small quantities of extra nutritional constituents providing both health benefits and enhanced nutritional value, based on their ability to modulate one or more metabolic processes. Plant-based diets are being thoroughly researched for their cardiovascular properties and effectiveness against cancer. Flavonoids, phytoestrogens, phenolic compounds, and carotenoids are some of the bioactive compounds that aim to work in prevention and treating the cardiovascular disease in a systemic manner, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure. Their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are the most important characteristics that make them favorable candidates for CVDs treatment. However, their low water solubility and stability results in low bioavailability, limited accessibility, and poor absorption. The oral delivery of bioactive compounds is constrained due to physiological barriers such as the pH, mucus layer, gastrointestinal enzymes, epithelium, etc. The present review aims to revise the main bioactive compounds with a significant role in CVDs in terms of preventive, diagnostic, and treatment measures. The advantages of nanoformulations and novel multifunctional nanomaterials development are described in order to overcome multiple obstacles, including the physiological ones, by summarizing the most recent preclinical data and clinical trials reported in the literature. Nanotechnologies will open a new window in the area of CVDs with the opportunity to achieve effective treatment, better prognosis, and less adverse effects on non-target tissues.
... Entre los bioactivos se encuentran los polifenoles que infl uyen de manera benefi ciosa contra la diabetes, angina de pecho, náuseas, propiedades antinfl amatorias, antioxidantes, hipoglucemiante (Din et al., 2019), hipolipemia, pigmentos naturales para la industria alimentaria (Rahimi et al., 2019;Soto et al., 2019). ...
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El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar, la creación de bioindustrias universitarias para la competencia cooperativa desde un modelo de desarrollo social. El estudio se realizó en octubre de 2021 donde se seleccionó, la Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional ¨San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Perú. Con base a la hermenéutica de un estudio poblacional piloto que se realizó en el Mercado Mayorista "Arenales" (14°04’04.0”S 75°43’43.0”W) sobre el consumo nutricional de frutas y vegetales en la ciudad de Ica, se consideró la determinación de polifenoles desde una práctica de laboratorio docente y luego, que se valore hacia un modelo de desarrollo y que inicia con la selección de accesiones, tratamientos físicos y químicos hasta obtenerse el bioactivo para su comercialización. Conjuntamente, a la determinación en las frutas y verduras de metabolitos primarios como los lípidos, carbohidratos, proteínas y las vitaminas, también existe la determinación de metabolitos secundarios como los polifenoles que pueden encapsularse y por esta razón, permite un ciclo cerrado del producto para la creación de bioindustrias en la universidad.
... Betalains are water-soluble nitrogen pigments produced, in particular, by plants of the order Centrospermae (Caryophyllales), such as pitaya (Hylocereus undatus), beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.), amaranth (Amaranthus), and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). Betalains act in photoprotection, drought tolerance, free radical scavenging, and pollinator attraction (Rahimi et al., 2019;Bhargava et al., 2020b;Birchfield & McIntosh, 2020). Betalains have properties and histological locations similar to anthocyanins and are less abundant in nature. ...
... In beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.), the main pigments are betalains [33,47]. These pigments are divided into two main groups: betacyanins, with a brilliant red-purplish color, and betaxanthins, responsible for yellow to orange colors [48]. As a product obtained from beetroot peel, the BPF presented betalains according to the chemical profile. ...
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In this study, a beetroot peel flour was made, and its in vitro antioxidant activity was determined in aqueous (BPFw) and ethanolic (BPFe) extracts. The influence of BPFw on breast cancer cell viability was also determined. A targeted betalain profile was obtained using high-resolution Q-Extractive Plus Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Obrtitrap-HRMS) alongside untargeted chemical profiling of BPFw using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). BPFw and BPFe presented satisfactory antioxidant activities, with emphasis on the total phenolic compounds and ORAC results for BPFw (301.64 ± 0.20 mg GAE/100 g and 3032.78 ± 55.00 µmol T/100 g, respectively). The MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells presented reductions in viability when treated with BPFw, showing dose-dependent behavior, with MDA-MB-231 also showing time-dependent behavior. The chemical profiling of BPFw led to the identification of 9 betalains and 59 other compounds distributed amongst 28 chemical classes, with flavonoids and their derivates and coumarins being the most abundant. Three forms of betalain generated via thermal degradation were identified. However, regardless of thermal processing, the BPF still presented satisfactory antioxidant and anticancer activities, possibly due to synergism with other identified molecules with reported anticancer activities via different metabolic pathways.
... Due to the underlying biological and pharmacological properties, betalain-rich foodstuffs exhibit great potential for food industry as natural colorants (Rahimi et al., 2019a) functional plant-based foods and dietary supplements (Rahimi et al., 2019b). N-heterocyclic betalains, comprising of red-violet betacyanins and yellow-orange betaxanthins, exhibit a remarkable structural diversity based on glycosylated and acylated varieties (Slimen et al., 2017). ...
Article
Atriplex hortensis var. rubra L. extracts prepared from leaves, seeds with sheaths, and stems were characterized for betalainic profiles by spectrophotometry, LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and LC-Orbitrap-MS techniques. The presence of 12 betacyanins in the extracts was strongly correlated with high antioxidant activity measured by ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC assays. Comparative assessment between samples indicated the highest potential for celosianin and amaranthin (IC50 21.5 and 32.2 μg/ml, respectively). The chemical structure of celosianin was elucidated for the first time by complete 1D and 2D NMR analysis. Our findings also demonstrate that betalain-rich A. hortensis extracts and purified pigments (amaranthin and celosianin) do not induce cytotoxicity in a wide concentration range in rat cardiomyocytes model (up to 100 μg/ml for extracts and 1 mg/ml for pigments). Furthermore, tested samples effectively protect H9c2 cells from H2O2-induced cell death and prevent from apoptosis induced by Paclitaxel. The effects were observed at sample concentrations between 0.1 and 10 μg/ml.
... Betalains are heterocyclic, nitrogenous, and water-soluble compounds that exhibit bioactive potential owing to their high free radical scavenging activity (Slimen et al., 2018). Betalains also have therapeutic properties for preventing diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, cancer, neurological disorders, and vascular stenosis (Rahimi et al., 2019). Studies have reported that betalains are responsible for the pigmentation of beets, and red beetroot powder is an important ingredient in instant beverages for athletes, acts as a natural color enhancer for food products (Ng & Sulaiman, 2018), and is used as an alternative to nitrite or other colorants in meat products (Sucu & Turp, 2018). ...
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Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the application of ultrasound in the extraction of betanin from beets (Beta vulgaris) using Deep eutectic solvents (DES). The extraction process was optimized using response surface methodology. The time variable was found to be correlated with the extraction performance. Three DES (choline chloride: urea (CC:U), choline chloride: glycerol (CC:G), and choline chloride: citric acid (CC:Ac)) were studied. The concentration of betanin extracted with CC:U, CC:G, and CC:Ac was 41.27-67.51, 82.46-104.45, and 50.06-111.93 mg/100 g. The maximum betanin extraction of 111.193 mg/100 g was achieved with CC:Ac in 38 min using 44% DES in water in an ultrasonic bath. These results demonstrate that DESs are excellent solvents for the extraction of betanin with superior efficiency to conventional extraction solvents. Ultrasound significantly improved the efficiency of betanin extraction from beets. However, a higher betanin content in the extracts did not translate into greater active antioxidant capacity, which may be related to the synergistic effects of other compounds present in the beet extracts. This study is the first attempt to optimize the parameters for ultrasound extraction of betanin from B. vulgaris using eutectic solvents.
... There was no significant correlation between the antioxidant activity and betacyanins or organic acids (p <0.05), which clearly shows that other compounds might be responsible for the antioxidant potential of the extracts tested. However, the antioxidant potential of individual, pure betacyanins and organic acids cannot be excluded, which has been confirmed previously in numerous times in the literature [10,11,32,33]. It should be noted that Zhang et al. [34] also investigated the correlation between organic acids and antioxidant activity measured by the three DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. ...
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Amaranth is used as a spinach replacement; therefore, it is sometimes called Chinese Spinach. So far, the activity of the plant has not been associated with the presence of specific compounds. Three cultivars of Amaranthus tricolor L. were investigated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The correlation between the bioactivity and metabolite profiles was investigated in order to indicate active compounds in A. tricolor. The phytochemical profile of a total of nine extracts was studied by HPLC-DAD-ESI/HRMS, revealing the presence of 52 compounds. The highest antioxidant activity was noticed in the Red cultivar (0.06 mmol TE/g DE (Trolox Equivalent/Dry Extract Weight) and was related to the presence of amino acids, flavonoids and phenolic acids, as well as individual compounds such as tuberonic acid hexoside. All studied extracts revealed antimicrobial activity. Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to N-(carboxyacetyl) phenylalanine, phenylalanine, tuberonic acid and succinic acid and Gram-negative bacteria to dopa, tryptophan, norleucine, tuberonic acid hexoside, quercetin-O-hexoside, luteolin-O-rhamnosylhexoside, luteolin-6-C-hexoside succinic acid, gallic acid-O-hexoside, dihydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid. Maleic acid showed promising antifungal activity. In summary, A. tricolor is a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.
... Betalains (Table 2) are another relevant class of natural compounds that can assist in the preservation of foods, especially as natural colorants (red and yellow pigments). These natural pigments are comprised of two classes: betacyanins and betaxanthins, which impart red-to-violet or yellow-to-orange colors, respectively [63]. These compounds can be found in red pitaya (Hylocereus sp.), a tropical fruit native to South America [64]. ...
Article
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The use of additives with preservative effects is a common practice in the food industry. Although their use is regulated, natural alternatives have gained more attention among researchers and professionals in the food industry in order to supply processed foods with a clean label. Fruits are essential components in a healthy diet and have also been associated with improved health status and a lower risk of developing diseases. This review aims to provide an overview of the main bioactive compounds (polyphenols, betalain, and terpenes) naturally found in fruits, their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in vitro, and their preservative effect in different foods. Many extracts obtained from the skin (apple, grape, jabuticaba, orange, and pomegranate, for instance), pulp (such as red pitaya), and seeds (guarana, grape, and jabuticaba) of fruits are of great value due to the presence of multiple compounds (punicalagin, catechin, gallic acid, limonene, β-pinene, or γ-terpinene, for instance). In terms of antioxidant activity, some fruits that stand out are date, jabuticaba, grape, and olive, which interact with different radicals and show different mechanisms of action in vitro. Antimicrobial activity is observed for natural extracts and essential oils (especially from citrus fruits) that limit the growth of many microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Penicillium digitatum, and Pseodomonas aeruginosa, for instance). Studies in foods have revealed that the use of extracts or essential oils as free or encapsulated forms or incorporated into films and coatings can inhibit microbial growth, slow oxidative reactions, reduce the accumulation of degradative products, and also preserve sensory attributes, especially with films and coatings. Future studies could focus on the advances of extracts and essential oils to align their use with the development of healthier foods (especially for meat products) and explore the inhibition of spoilage microorganisms in dairy products, for instance.
... The most important phenetylamine derivatives found in cactus species and their by-products are betalains, considered as the major pigments of these species (Rahimi et al., 2019). Depending on the substitution degree of the basic betalain structure, known as betalamic acid, Carpena et al. ...
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Cactaceae family is well-known for their adaptations to drought and arid environments. This family, formed by four subfamilies (Cactoideae, Opuntioideae, Pereskioideae, and Maihuenioideae) are known for being leafless stem succulent plants with numerous spines, and their commercial fruits, distinguished by their bright colors and their skin covered with bracts. Some of these species have been traditionally used in the food industry (e.g., pitaya, cactus, or prickly pear) or as pharmaceuticals to treat specific diseases due to their active properties. The processing of these fruits leads to different residues, namely pomace, skin, spines, and residues from cladodes; besides from others such as fruits, roots, flowers, mucilage, and seeds. In general, Cactaceae species produce large amounts of mucilage and fiber, although they can be also considered as a source of phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonols and their glycosides), alkaloids (phenethylamines derived betalains), and triterpenoids. Therefore, considering their high content in fiber and fermentable carbohydrates, together with other target bioactive compounds, fermentation is a potential valorization strategy for certain applications such as enzymes and bioactive compounds production or aroma enhancement. This review will comprise the latest information about Cactaceae family, its potential residues, and its potential as a substrate for fermentation to obtain active molecules with application in the food industry.
... In addition to playing important roles in color variation from violet to yellow and providing photoprotection in plants, betalains also have high nutritional value and positive effects on human health due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities (Polturak and Aharoni 2018;Rahimi et al. 2018). Thus, studying the way in which these substances accumulate in plants generates botanical interest (plant protection) and human health. ...
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Alternanthera sessilis is a plant popularly known for its medicinal properties. Although there are many studies regarding the pharmacological activity of this species, there is little knowledge at the molecular level of the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and regulation of its secondary metabolites, mainly betalains. These pigments have high potential for use in industry and are produced exclusively by plants of the order Caryophyllales, to which this species belongs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the differential expression of genes by RNA sequencing and the concentration of betalain in plants exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJa) elicitation for 48 h. A total of 51,390,246 and 43,194,240 clean reads were obtained for the control treatment and MeJA elicited plants, respectively. Alignment of 97,117 transcripts against the AA-NCBI-NR bank using the Diamond program resulted in a total of 25,601 alignments; thus, a gene ontology (GO) annotation was published for 22,520 transcripts. Analysis of differentially expressed genes resulted in a total of 398 downregulated and 692 upregulated genes. The variable databases MapMan and KEGG, which contain metabolites, were more affected by the potential upregulation of MeJa during betalain biosynthesis. In addition, the betalain concentration (amaranthin, betanidin, betaine, and miraxanthin) increased after being elicited. These data demonstrate molecular reprogramming in response to methyl jasmonate elicitation and provides molecular data that serve as a basis for future analyses, mainly regarding the potential of this plant to produce betalamic pigments.
... Amounts up to 1534 mg GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent)/100 g (fresh weight) can be found in the peels. The amount found depends on the cultivar, season and soil properties [49,53], fruit maturity and climate [53,56], as seen in Table 2. Purple peels have high concentrations of betalains, which are water-soluble, natural pigment derivatives, which yield a variety of colors, from red-violet (betacyanins) to yelloworange (betaxanthins) [58,59], whereas green peel varieties have the lowest concentrations of these pigments. ...
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Nowadays, there is a growing interest in the exploitation of by-products from fruits and vegetables, generated from industrial processing or human feeding. Residues of popularly consumed fruits such as orange, lemon, banana, pomegranate, among others, have been widely described and studied; however, cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) residues, as a locally consumed product, have been forgotten. The whole fruit can be divided into the edible portion (pulp) and the non-edible portion (seeds and peel). Several studies mainly focus on the characteristics of the edible portion or in the whole fruit, ignoring by-products such as peels, which are rich in compounds such as phenols, flavonoids and dietary fiber; they have also been proposed as an alternative source of lipids, carbohydrates and natural colorants. Some uses of the peel have been reported as a food additives, food supplements, as a source of pectins and for wastewater treatment; however, there have not been any deep investigations of the characteristics and potential uses of the cactus pear peel (CPP). The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of the current research on CPP. CPP has many bio-active compounds that may provide health benefits and may also be useful in pharmaceutical, food and manufacturing industries; however, greater research is needed in order to gain thorough knowledge of the possibilities of this by-product.
... Betalains are nitrogen-containing pigments with remarkable positive health effects. The toxicological safety of these molecules makes them valid supplements in the prevention of atherosclerosis, hypertension, inflammation, hepatitis, diabetes and cancer [31,32]. Betalains exert anti-inflammatory activity by modulating cyclooxygenase enzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, reducing inflammation mediators [33]. ...
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This review discusses the innovative recovery techniques, the stability and the potential applications of pigments attainable from food waste and agro-food industries. It also discusses the effects of the extraction method on the chemical characteristics of the extracted pigments. The main pigment classes, namely anthocyanins, betalains, carotenoids and chlorophylls, are described with a focus on their beneficial health effects, antioxidant properties and chemical stability. The potential applications as food additives are also discussed, taking into account the legislative aspects of their usage, the stability in food matrices and the improvements of food nutritional and organoleptic quality.
... Predominately well known to contain a large amount of bioactive and nutritional compounds, called betalain pigments, red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) was frequently applied for industrial production [8,9]. The European Union has authorized the use of betalains in foods and they are assigned as E−162; this additive consists of several betacyanins obtained after the purification of mechanically processed beet juice [10]. To avoid discoloration or improve color, betalains are used in many industrial application areas, such as juices, concentrates and powders, fruit fillings, confectionery, dairy products, sausage substitutes, meat, and meat derivatives [11,12]. ...
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The heartening applications of betalains in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic sectors impose their strengthening by a suitable extraction protocol. Likewise, the antibacterial activity of beetroot betalains represents an option to develop the next-generation of antibacterial agents treating the wide bacterial infection spectrum. This study aimed to model and optimize the ethanloic extract of beetroot peels in betacyanin (Bc) and betaxanthin (Bx) and their activity against two foodborne pathogen bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica) by using RSM (response surface methodology) and ANN (artificial neural network). The input variables considered were sample-to-solvent ratio, temperature, and extraction time. The higher Bc (5.87 g/L) and Bx (10.18 g/L) contents, and anti-Staphylococcus aureus (17.52 mm) and anti-Salmonella enterica (15.14 mm) activities were recorded at: sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:36, temperature of 44.54 °C, and extraction time equal to 93.03 min. Statistical analyses indicated that the models derived using RSM and ANN can be used to predict each response. Based on the coefficient of determination and mean square error, ANN model was found to be superior compared to RSM in the prediction of all responses. Molecular docking simulation stipulated that Bc and Bx could target multiple bacterial pathways including membrane permeability disruption by inhibiting MepR and AcrB efflux pump of S. aureus and S. enterica respectively. Both bioactive molecules showed a conceivable impairment of pathogenic bacteria replication and transcription vital processes by impeding DNA and RNA polymerase activities. These findings indicated that beet peel extracts can provide an excellent source of betalains for the color industry.
... Betalains are water-soluble nitrogenous pigments which can be categorised into two groups: red-violet (betacyanins, BC) and yellow-orange (betaxanthins, BX) pigments (Slimen et al., 2017). Betalains have attracted significant attention since their colour intensity is three times that of anthocyanins (Moreno et al., 2008), and they also have biological properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-lipidemic, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and cardioprotective properties (Gengatharan et al., 2015;Rahimi et al., 2019). Besides, the antioxidant activities of betalains were higher than that of well-known antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and certain phenolic compounds (Cai et al., 2003). ...
Article
The present work aimed to compare the betalain profiles and contents in the red inflorescence of Celosia argentea extract obtained using different ethanol-water ratios. The impact of betalain content on the health-promoting properties was also evaluated. Freeze-dried inflorescence powder was extracted three times with aqueous-ethanol (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% (v/v) ethanol). The highest total betacyanin content was found in the 40 and 60% aqueous-ethanolic extracts. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the extracts increased with increasing ethanol concentration. The antioxidant activities measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay of the 60 and 80% aqueous-ethanolic extracts were significantly higher than that of ascorbic acid. The IC50 of α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of all extracts were comparable to that of acarbose. Phenolics were the major responsible compounds for antioxidant (r = 0.975, p < 0.01 by ORAC assay), α-amylase (r = -0.725, p < 0.01), and lipase (r = 0.607, p < 0.05) inhibitory activities, whilst betacyanins corresponded to α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (r = 0.627, p < 0.05). The 60% aqueous-ethanolic extract was superior to the others in terms of colour, phytochemical contents, and health-promoting activities. These extracts can be utilised as natural food colorant, functional ingredients, and nutraceuticals.
... In a previous work, we underline the role of betanin in the industry as a functional food colorant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties 3 . Other authors have indicated the potential use of betalains as functional ingredients that promote health and prevent diseases 4,5,6 . In this work, we point out the effect of betalains in the signaling pathways related to obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia, elevated non-esterified fatty acids, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). ...
Article
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Obesity is one of the most important public health problems and involves a multifarious process including environmental and genetic factors. Studies have shown a close relationship between a high body mass index (BMI), low-grade chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in humans. Natural pigments known as betalains have significant antioxidant properties through the direct elimination of free radicals and a notable role in the restoration of the balance of redox processes in the body. This review reflects the effect of betalains in the signaling pathways of obesity and associated diseases as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and dyslipidemia. All studies on animal models and humans were critically analyzed. Results discussed here contributed to the fact that different betalain sources have become not only the raw material of food colorants but also therapeutic agents that may play an mportant role in a multimodal approach to treat the negative effects of obesity and associated comorbidities. A few-steps method to prepare a betalain supplement is also presented in this work.
... Betanin is largely metabolised in the gastrointestinal tract and orally administered betanin is poorly absorbed (Khan, 2016;Rahimi, Abedimanesh, Mesbah-Namin, & Ostadrahimi, 2019). Therefore, in vitro digestion experiment using different simulated fluids was undertaken to investigate the betanin delivery efficiency in NLs and CC-NPs. ...
Article
Betanin is a high-value health-promoting food ingredient. However, the bioavailability of betanin is constrained by its low stability. In this study, for the first time, betanin was stabilized and delivered using chitosan-coated nanoliposomes (CC-NLs). The CC-NLs were firstly synthesized and characterized. The results showed that increasing chitosan concentration from 0% to 1.0% increased particle size of CC-NLs from 156.4 nm to 217.2 nm. With the use of CC-NLs prepared with 0.6% chitosan, it was found that increasing pH from 1.5 to 9.0 reduced zeta potential of CC-NLs from 8.62 mv to-9.65 mv while the average size of CC-NLs of 221.40 nm peaked at pH 5.5. In aqueous solution, 29.0% of loaded betanin was released from NLs compared to 15.8% from CC-NLs. The in vitro digestion analysis indicated that uncoated NLs and CC-NLs had similar stabilities and relatively stable in oral and gastric fluids. However, in intestinal fluid, the average size of both NLs and CC-NLs were significantly reduced due to bile salt and trypsin. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity assay results showed that betanin delivered by CC-NLs had the highest ORAC and PSC values. This study demonstrated that betanin could be efficiently delivered by CC-NLs with improved stability and bioavailability. The information generated from this study is very useful for the applications of betanin in functional food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry.
... The Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae), popularly known as beet, is a vegetable that has attracted the interest of the population for the bene ts provided to health ( Betalains are heterocyclic, nitrogenous and water-soluble compounds, and demonstrate bioactive potentials because of their high free radical scavenging activity (Slimen et al. 2018). In addition, betalains have therapeutic properties in preventing diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemy, cancer, neurological disorders and vascular stenosis (Rahimi et al. 2019). Studies report that the betalains in beets are responsible for pigmentation, red beetroot powder could be an important ingredient in instant beverages for athletes, natural color enhancer for food products (Ng and Sulaiman 2018), nitrite or other colorant alternative in meat products (Sucu and Turp 2018). ...
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Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are emerging as green and sustainable solvents for the efficient extraction of bioactive compounds and with that have increasingly attracted attention as environmentally friendly alternatives of traditional organic solvents. In this study, aimed to investigate the application of ultrasound in the extraction of betanin from beets ( Beta vulgaris ) with DES. The optimization of extraction was performed using the response surface methodology. The time variable was relevant in the performance of the extractions. In this work, three DES Choline chloride: urea (CC:U), Choline chloride: glycerol (CC:G) and Choline chloride: Citric acid (CC: Ac) and were studied. The results demonstrated that DES were excellent solvents for extraction of betanin with superior efficiency to conventional extraction solvents. The concentration of betanin varied from 41.27 to 67.51 mg/100 g with CC-U 82.46 to 104.45 mg/100 g with CC-G and 50.06 to 111.93 mg/100 g with CC-Ac. The optimum point in the extraction of betanin using Choline chloride:Citric acid (CC:Ac) was 111.193 mg/100 g in 38 min and 44% DES in water in ultrasonic bath with temperature of 35 ºC, frequency of 37 kHz and amplitude of 100%W. The use of ultrasound is found to have significant improvement in the extraction efficiency of betanins obtained from beets. However, the higher content of betanins in the extracts did not translate into a greater active antioxidant capacity, as it may be related to the synergism of other compounds present in the beet extracts. This study is the first attempt to optimize the ultrasound parameters to extract Beta vulgaris betanin with eutectic solvents.
... This is potentially attributed in part to the high concentrations of bioactive phytochemicals, such as (poly)phenols and betalains, found in plants. Betalains are naturally occurring, nitrogen-containing plant color pigments found in red beetroot and cacti species (5) and acting as color signals for attracting pollinators (6), with betacyanins manifesting in a red-pink hue while betaxanthins are yellow-orange. Apart from being commercially exploited as one of the most widely used natural red food colorants (E162), the biological activity of betalains has recently gained strong scientific interest (7), particularly in betalain-rich cacti fruits such as dragon fruit and cactus pear (also known as pitaya and nopal, respectively). ...
Article
Background Betalains are natural red color pigments abundant in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus). Recent research has shown that dragon fruit consumption may help improve blood glucose and lipid profile. However, investigations of its cardioprotective properties in human trials, especially in nutritionally achievable amounts, remain non-existent. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and short-term consumption of dragon fruit on vascular function in a healthy population. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial was conducted in 19 young, healthy, non-smoking men and women assigned to consume 24 g whole dragon fruit powder (33 mg betalains) or nutrient matched placebo, daily for 14 days. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) were measured at 0 h, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h and finally on 14 days after daily consumption. Results A total of 18 participants completed the trial. Dragon fruit consumption significantly improved acute FMD at 2 h (+0.8 ± 0.3%, P = 0.01), 3 h (+1.0 ± 0.3%, P = 0.001) and at 4 h (+1.3 ± 0.4%, P < 0.001) post-consumption versus placebo. This effect was sustained up until 14 days (+1.3 ± 0.2%, P < 0.001). Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was significantly reduced acutely at 3 h (–0.5 ± 0.2 m/s, P = 0.003) whereas augmentation index (AIx) was also improved after 14 days (–7.0 ± 3.3%, P = 0.02) when compared to placebo. No differences were found in either peripheral or central BP across all time points. Conclusions Acute and short-term consumption of dragon fruit in dietary achievable amounts improved endothelial function and arterial stiffness in healthy individuals. This implies that regular dragon fruit consumption may have a meaningful impact on cardiovascular disease risk likely due to the high betalain content.
... Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) p > 0.05, *: p ≤ 0.05, **: p ≤ 0.01, ***: p ≤ 0.001, ****: p ≤ 0.0001. Rahimi et al., 2019). Betalains protective mechanism is thought to be related to its ability to protect mitochondrial function, prevent superoxide dismutase depletion and maintain calcium homeostasis (Luisa Tesoriere et al., 2013). ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate whether Opuntia spp-extracts protect against diclofenac (DF)-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were pretreated with Opuntia extracts, betanin (Bet) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) followed by a single challenge of diclofenac. Liver tissue was collected for biochemical and histological analysis. Primary rat hepatocytes were treated with diclofenac (400 µmol/L) with and without pretreatment with Opuntia extract. Apoptosis was measured by caspase-3 activity and necrosis by Sytox green staining. RNA was isolated, and real-time qPCR was performed to assess mRNA levels of stress and apoptosis-related genes MnSOD (SOD2), GADD45B and P53. ROS production was measured using the fluorescent MitoSOX assay. Results demonstrated that Opuntia spp-extracts protect against DF-induced liver toxicity via reducing oxidative stress and the inhibition of P53.
... Indeed, the ingestion of a single serving of the yellow cultivar of Opuntia ficus-indica fruit generates, in humans, an indicaxanthin plasma peak concentration of 7 µM after 2 h. Relevantly, thanks to its reducing and amphipathic properties, indicaxanthin was shown to interfere with cellular, redox-dependent signal transduction pathways in several experimental models of inflammatory-related, oxidative stress-dependent pathological conditions [21,23]. Along these lines, significant reducing, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-tumoral, spasmolytic and neuromodulatory and neuroprotective [24] effects of indicaxanthin have been reported both in vitro and in vivo [21]. ...
Article
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Obesity-related dysmetabolic conditions are amongst the most common causes of death globally. Indicaxanthin, a bioavailable betalain pigment from Opuntia ficus-indica fruit, has been demonstrated to modulate redox-dependent signalling pathways, exerting significant anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. In light of the strict interconnections between inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance (IR), a nutritionally relevant dose of indicaxanthin has been evaluated in a high-fat diet (HFD) model of obesity-related IR. To this end, biochemical and histological analysis, oxidative stress and inflammation evaluations in liver and adipose tissue were carried out. Our results showed that indicaxanthin treatment significantly reduced body weight, daily food intake and visceral fat mass. Moreover, indicaxanthin administration induced remarkable, beneficial effects on HFD-induced glucose dysmetabolism, reducing fasting glycaemia and insulinaemia, improving glucose and insulin tolerance and restoring the HOMA index to physiological values. These effects were associated with a reduction in hepatic and adipose tissue oxidative stress and inflammation. A decrease in RONS, malondialdehyde and NO levels, in TNF-α, CCL-2 and F4-80 gene expression, in p65, p-JNK, COX-2 and i-NOS protein levels, in crown-like structures and hepatic inflammatory foci was, indeed, observed. The current findings encourage further clinical studies to confirm the effectiveness of indicaxanthin to prevent and treat obesity-related dysmetabolic conditions.
... Entre los bioactivos se encuentran los polifenoles que infl uyen de manera benefi ciosa contra la diabetes, angina de pecho, náuseas, propiedades antinfl amatorias, antioxidantes, hipoglucemiante (Din et al., 2019), hipolipemia, pigmentos naturales para la industria alimentaria (Rahimi et al., 2019;Soto et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the creation of university bioindustries for cooperative competition from a social development model. The study was carried out in October 2021 where it was selected, the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the National University ¨San Luis Gonzaga, Ica-Peru. Based on a pilot population study carried out in the "Arenales" Wholesale Market (14°04’04.0”S 75°43’43.0”W) on the nutritional consumption of fruits and vegetables in the city of Ica, Peru, the determination of polyphenols was considered from a teaching laboratory practice and then, that is valued towards a development model and that begins with the selection of accessions, physical and chemical treatments until the bioactive is obtained for its commercialization. Together with the determination in fruits and vegetables of primary metabolites such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and vitamins, there is also the determination of secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that can be encapsulated which allows a closed cycle of the product for the creation of bioindustries in the university.
... Betalains are sensitive toward enzymes, light, pH, heat, and oxygen, which can affect their stability (Ravichandran et al. 2013). Betalain pigments are widely found in red beet and are thought to exert potent immune and intestinal regulatory effect, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant activities (Sanchez-Gonzalez et al. 2013;Tesoriere et al. 2013;Liñero et al. 2017;Bao et al. 2019;Rahimi et al. 2019a). Further, betalains can also protect cells from DNA damage and peroxidation (Winkler et al. 2005;Esatbeyoglu et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Substantial studies have suggested that natural compounds rich in antioxidants can enhance the immune system and decrease oxidative stress. These substances facilitate in scavenging the reactive species that initiate the peroxidation, inhibit the formation of peroxides, breaking the autoxidative chain reaction, and quenching •O2⁻. The molecules with antioxidants properties such as low molecular weight antioxidant, glutathione, polyphenol, carotenoids, minerals, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, ubiquinone, organosulfur compounds, ergothioneine, betalains, and carnosine/anserine have demonstrated their potential in the alleviation of age-related diseases. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of these molecules involved in the prevention of age-related diseases are worth discussing further. In this chapter, we discussed the biological mechanism of molecules with antioxidant activity against age-related diseases. Overall, a better understanding of the mode of action of antioxidants involved in the redox imbalance in age-related diseases would provide a useful approach in mediating diseases.
... Prickly pear fruit is rich in bioactive compounds such as pigments, flavonols, and polyphenols, which contribute to its antioxidant capacity and different health-promoting properties. It has many protective effects against cancer, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and antimicrobial activity, among others (Gengatharan et al., 2015;Lechner and Stoner, 2019;Miguel, 2018;Rahimi et al., 2019). The color of these fruits is provided by betalains which also have beneficial health properties (El-Mostafa et al., 2014). ...
Article
Prickly pear fruit is rich in natural pigments and bioactive compounds that contribute to its antioxidant capacity and health-promoting properties. These compounds can be extracted using pulsed electric fields (PEF), a non-thermal technology that is energy efficient and is being increasingly used for food processing. For that end, a novel electroporation chamber was designed and optimum pulse parameters were selected maximizing juice yield and bioactive compounds extraction. The chamber consists of 5 rows of 10 parallel needles, and the optimum pulse parameters were: Sixty 100 μs long pulses of 1200 V/cm at a frequency of 10 Hz. The average energy input was 11.44 kJ/kg (temperature rise below 10 °C). When comparing PEF-treated samples with untreated ones, juice yield increased 3.3 times, and betalain extraction 1.48 times. Also, the juice extracted had a significantly higher total polyphenol content (1.4 times), and antioxidant capacity (1.4–1.5 times increase, measured by three techniques). This chamber and procedure could be scaled for industrial applications since large samples can be treated without the need of adding conductive medium or peeling the fruits, simplifying the procedure and reducing costs. PEF treatment of prickly pear fruits can effectively provide juice rich in natural colorants and with higher nutritional properties.
... Betalains have antioxidant, anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and apoptotic effects. Furthermore, they are beneficial for reducing blood pressure, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as well as the health of the cardiovascular, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems (Delgado-Vargas et al., 2000;Rahimi et al., 2019). Indicaxanthin, vulgaxanthin I, vulgaxanthin IV and muscaaurin VII (betaxanthins), neobetanin, betanin, isobetanin, gomphrenin I, and betanidin (betacyanins) have been identified in Opuntia spp. ...
Chapter
Microencapsulation is considered a convenient preservation method for sensitive food components. Opuntia spp. cladodes contain substantial amounts of phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids, betalains, and carotenoids. Due to legal restrictions on the use of synthetic colorants, food technologists are seeking alternative natural sources to be served as a food colorant. The presence of pigments, namely betalains and carotenoids, which are also well-known antioxidants, make Opuntia spp. an excellent food colorant agent. However, various factors, including pH, moisture, light, oxygen, temperature, and enzymatic activities, promote betalain and carotenoids’ degradation. Therefore, studies have been focused on the application of different microencapsulation techniques to Opuntia spp. derived products such as fruit juice, pulp, or phytochemicals-rich extracts. Spray drying is the most common method for encapsulation of Opuntia spp. derived products. Moreover, freeze-drying and ionic gelation are the other encapsulation techniques used in Opuntia spp. products. The feasibility of maltodextrin (MD), modified starch, gum arabic, inulin, glucose syrup, gelatin, and cladode mucilage as wall material for encapsulation Opuntia spp. derived products have been evaluated up to now. Besides the preservation of bioactive compounds, microencapsulation provides the conversion of liquid state food into powdered form, facilitating its storage and extending its areas of use. The researchers agree that microencapsulation is a promising preservation method for Opuntia spp. bioactives, particularly betalains. Furthermore, microencapsulated Opuntia spp. derived products may be incorporated into various food product formulations such as extruded snacks, soft drinks, edible films, gummy candies, and yoghurt to obtain an attractive color and enhance the antioxidant capacity of food items. This review will discuss the microencapsulation studies related to Opuntia spp. derived products, including fruit juice, pulp, and extracts.
Article
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Beta vulgaris L. is an edible plant with health-beneficial activities. The profile of betaxanthins is more complex than previously described in beetroot cultivars. Twenty-four betaxanthins were detected in extracts of the peel and flesh of five cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, of which two new betaxanthins (arginine-Bx and ornithine-Bx) were detected for the first time in B. vulgaris cultivars. The content of betaxanthins in the studied cultivars decreased in the Tytus > Ceryl > Chrobry > Forono > Boldor sequence. The highest content of compounds (1231 mg/100 g DE) was observed in the Tytus cultivar (peel). The peel of B. vulgaris, which is often considered a waste, appeared to be a richer source of betaxanthins compared to its flesh. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined against twenty-three microorganisms. Tytus (peel) showed a moderate or good bactericidal effect, especially against the majority of Gram-positive bacteria as well as against most of the tested fungi (MIC = 0.125–0.5 mg/mL) and additionally characterized by low cytotoxicity towards non-cancerous cells (CC50 = 405 μg/mL, CC50—50% cytotoxic concentration). Tytus flesh also showed a high cytotoxicity value against human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), with CC50 of 282 μg/mL. Correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the betaxanthin profiles and antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Arginine-Bx, proline-Bx, and tryptophan-Bx were indicated as active against HeLa and the colon cancer cell line (RKO), while asparagine-Bx and phenylalanine-Bx was responsible for activity against all tested bacterial and yeast species. The significant effectiveness and safety of these beetroots make indicated compounds promising applicants as antimicrobial and anticancer agents.
Article
Betalains, which consist of the subgroups betaxanthins and betacyanins, are hydrophilic pigments that have classically been used for food colorants. Owing to their strong antioxidant property, their usefulness for application for therapeutic use is also expected. In addition, as betalains are mainly naturally available from plants of the order Caryophyllales, including beet (Beta vulgaris), metabolic engineering for betalain production in crops such as vegetables, fruits and cereals may provide new food resources useful for healthcare. Here we conducted metabolic engineering of betacyanins in tomato fruits and potato tubers. The transgenic tomato fruits and potato tubers with coexpression of betacyanin biosynthesis genes, CYP76AD1 from Beta vulgaris, DOD (DOPA 4,5‐dioxygenase) and 5GT (cyclo‐DOPA 5‐O‐glucosyltransferase) from Mirabilis jalapa, under control of suitable specific promoters, possessed dark red tissues with enriched accumulation of betacyanins (betanin and isobetanin). The anti‐inflammatory activity of transgenic tomato fruit extract was superior to that of wild‐type fruit extract on macrophage RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as a result of decreased LPS‐stimulated transcript levels of proinflammatory genes. These findings were in accord with the observation that administration of the transgenic tomato fruits ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)‐induced colitis as well as body weight loss and disease activity index in mice, via suppression of DSS‐stimulated transcript levels of proinflammatory genes, including Tnf‐α, Il6 and Cox‐2. Intriguingly, given the fact that the transgenic potato tuber extract failed to enrich the anti‐inflammatory activity of macrophage cells, it is likely that metabolic engineering of betacyanins will be a powerful way of increasing the anti‐inflammatory property of ordinary foods such as tomato. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Opuntia , a genus of the Cactaceae family, has been used for centuries as a medicinal plant, with different parts of the plant, including whole fruit, pulp, flowers, seeds, peels, and cladodes. Opuntia spp., cultivated or wild, can be found in various agro‐climatic conditions, although often associated with warm climate. A dozen species are cultivated for fruit production ( O. ficus‐indica, O. amyclae, O. xoconostle, O. megacantha , and O. streptacantha ), although O. ficus‐indica is the most known, as prickly pear fruit, and is available across the five continents from early summer until late autumn. The peculiar general Opuntia anatomy and physiology, and O. ficus‐indica specifically, make it a multipurpose dryland crop destined to become more important in view of an ever increasing world population and water and land scarcity. Opuntia fruits contain polyphenols and betalains, promising protective agents against inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic‐related diseases. Cladodes are not only rich in polyphenols but also contain polysaccharides and soluble fibers that are able to counteract hyperglycemia and related physiological disorders. This chapter reports the latest finding on the health properties of fruit, cladode, flower, and seed from Opuntia plants, related to the bioactive compounds, and the mechanisms of action so far identified or hypothesized. Moreover, the potential uses of Opuntia fruit and cladode are reported, not only for health and disease but also for food applications.
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Pigments have become a very important part of food research, not only adding sensory properties to food, but also providing functional properties to the food system. In this paper, we review the source, structure, modification, encapsulation and current status of the three main types of natural pigments that have been studied in recent years: polyphenolic flavonoids, tetraterpenoids and betaines. By examining the modification of pigment, the improvement of their stability and the impact of new food processing methods on the pigments, a deeper understanding of the properties and applications of the three pigments is gained, the paper reviews the research status of pigments in order to promote their further research and provide new innovations and ideas for future research in this field.
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The arid and semi-arid regions of Mexico represent 65 % of the national territory and 50 % of Mexican dryland floras are endemic and accompanied by ample local and traditional knowledge. There are types of cactus fruits that are being technologically produced. However, there are other components such as seeds and peels that are underutilized or being wasted, which are little studied and could be promoted for sustainable use as valuable materials with applications in coating food, as biopolymers in the cosmetic industry, food, and agriculture, in addition to health area. The genera of Opuntia ficus-indica, Hylocereus sp., Stenocereus spp. and Myrtillocactus geometrizans contain bioactive compounds in seeds and peels that are associated with antioxidant and nutritional benefits. The purpose of this review is to compile the nutritional and functional properties of the seeds and peels of selected cactus fruits, to establish knowledge gaps and the direction of future research.
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Colorants are widely employed in the food industry as an essential ingredient in many products since color is one of the most valued attributes by consumers. Furthermore, the utilization of colorants is currently being extended to the food packaging technologies. The objective of this review was to compile recent information about the main families of natural coloring compounds, and to describe their real implications in food coloring. In addition, their technological use in different food systems (namely, bakery products, beverages, meat and meat products, and dairy products) and their utilization in intelligent packaging to monitor the freshness of foodstuffs with the aim of extending food shelf life and improving food properties was discussed. The potential of using natural colorant in different food to improve their color has been demonstrated, although color stability is still a challenging task. More interestingly, the application of intelligent colorimetric indicators to exhibit color changes with variations in pH can enable real-time monitoring of food quality.
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Consumers all across the world are looking for the most delectable and appealing foods, while also demanding products that are safer, more nutritious, and healthier. Substitution of synthetic colorants with natural colorants has piqued consumer and market interest in recent years. Due to increasing demand, extensive research has been conducted to find natural and safe food additives, such as natural pigments, that may have health benefits. Natural colorants are made up of a variety of pigments, many of which have significant biological potential. Because of the promising health advantages, natural colorants are gaining immense interest in the dairy industry. This review goes over the use of various natural colorants in dairy products which can provide desirable color as well as positive health impacts. The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth look into the field of food (natural or synthetic) colorants applied in dairy products as well as their potential health benefits, safety, general trends, and future prospects in food science and technology. In this paper, we listed a plethora of applications of natural colorants in various milk-based products.
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible correlation between the bioactivity and the phytochemical profile of four betalain-rich extracts from Portulaca grandiflora Hook. The HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis indicated the presence of 19 betaxanthins and two betacyanins. The highest concentrations of betaxanthins (982 mg/100 g DE) and betacyanins (650 mg/100 g DE) were noticed in orange and purple flowers extracts, respectively. The HPLC-DAD-ESI-HRMS/MS analyses revealed the presence of a total of 71 compounds. Fifteen new betaxanthins and fifty other metabolites were identified for the first time. The antioxidant activity of the studied flower extracts increased in the sequence of yellow < orange < purple < red (0.066-0.176 mM TE/g DE). Betalains showed less effect on the antioxidant activity of extracts than other metabolites did. Extracts from yellow and orange flowers were more active against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 4-16 mg/L), whereas extracts from red and purple flowers were slightly more active against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC = 16-32 mg/L). All the extracts showed the same activity against yeasts (MIC = 32 mg/L). Betaxanthins were active against Gram-positive bacteria, whereas betacyanins were active against Gram-negative bacteria. Remaining metabolites also exhibited antimicrobial activities. The cytotoxicity assessment showed that the P. grandiflora extracts were non-toxic to normal VERO cells. No significant antiviral activity towards Human Herpesvirus type 1 was observed (62 µg/mL). Among the tested varieties, the purple one showed anticancer selectivity towards colon carcinoma cells (RKO).
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In the last years, the use of natural phytochemical compounds as protective agents in the prevention and treatment of obesity and the related-metabolic syndrome has gained much attention worldwide. Different studies have shown health benefits for many vegetables such Opuntia ficus-indica and Beta vulgaris and their pigments collectively referred as betalains. Betalains exert antioxidative, anti-inflammation, lipid lowering, antidiabetic and anti-obesity effects. This review summarizes findings in the literature and highlights the therapeutic potential of betalains and their natural source as valid alternative for supplementation in obesity-related disorders treatment. Further research is needed to establish the mechanisms through which these natural pigments exert their beneficial effects and to translate the promising findings from animal models to humans.
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Opuntia ficus‐indica (OFI), widely recognized as prickly pear, is native to Mexico and it is distributed in many areas of the world because of its socioeconomic, agronomic, and ecological benefits, besides its large amounts of functional, nutraceutical, and biological activities. Various parts of this plant including the fruit pulp and peel, cladode, and seeds are scientifically proven to have therapeutic potentials and are safe for human use. The contents of phytochemical compounds in each part of the OFI are different. Each pharmacological activity depends on the phytochemical compounds, the components used, and the extraction type. In this review, we summarize the active constituents from different parts of OFI and their pharmacological effects including the antioxidant, wound healing, skin protective, hepatoprotective, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolemic, and anti‐obesity activities. Besides its effects on the bone health, cardiovascular system, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract, its gastroprotective, anti‐ulcer, anti‐inflammatory, antiviral, neuroprotective, sedative, analgesic, anxiolytic and antimicrobial effects and effects on cognitive and memory function are also mentioned. Practical applications Over the past few decades, the health benefits of Opuntia ficus‐indica (OFI) have received much attention. All parts of the plant, including the fruit pulp and peel, cladode, and seeds have found use in the treatment of many diseases. The chemical composition of OFI provides both a high nutritional value and various health benefits. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present the up‐to‐date research carried out on OFI phytochemicals, showing the most important biological activities reported.
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Betalains are natural nitrogenous water-soluble pigments found in species belonging to the Caryophyllales order and in mushrooms. Betalains can be considered multifunctional molecules due to their diverse bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory. Furthermore, they can detect pH variations in foods and are considered promising colorimetric bioindicators. The bioactivities of betalains have improved their use as active and bioactive agents, and colorimetric indicators in the development of edible and biodegradable films for foods, which are trends in the food packaging market. Thus, this review presents the state-of-art information on the use of betalains as a multifunctional molecule in the development of smart, active, and bioactive edible and biodegradable packaging for foods. Studies have revealed that betalains can be successfully used to develop: smart films to indicate the freshness and spoilage of foods such as shrimp, fish, and chicken; active films with antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials to increase the shelf life of sausage and shrimp; and bioactive films with health benefits.
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Background Vanillic acid is a phenolic compound, found in various dietary sources and medicinal plants. Apart from its extraction from these biological sources, it is also synthesized chemically. It is used as flavouring agent in various food products. It possesses anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Despite possessing good therapeutic potential and safety profile, it has not been well explored as nutraceutical or, therapeutic moiety. Scope and approach Literature search was conducted to systematically review the various mechanistic pathways through which vanillic acid showed multiple therapeutic effects. Along with these pathways, other applications of vanillic acid and its derivatives are highlighted. Some of the patents that have been filed hitherto, for the production and uses of vanillic acid are also entailed in the manuscript. Key findings and conclusion Vanillic acid exerts diverse bioactivity against cancer, diabetes, obesity, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and hepatic diseases by inhibition of the associated molecular pathways. Its derivatives also possess therapeutic potential to treat autoimmune diseases as well as fungal and bacterial infections. Owing to these benefits, vanillic acid has great potential to be used as nutraceutical and provides a scope for therapeutic uses beyond its traditional use as a flavoring agent. However, its oral bioavailability is limited due to its rapid elimination (metabolism) from the plasma. This, in turn, impedes its successful delivery through conventional formulations. Hence, efforts are required to develop nanoformulations of vanillic acid to overcome the associated challenges.
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Purpose: To evaluate the plasma bioavailability of betanin and nitric oxide (NOx) after consuming beetroot juice (BTJ) and whole beetroot (BF). BTJ and BF were also analysed for antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content (TPC) and betalain content. Methods: Ten healthy males consumed either 250 ml of BTJ, 300 g of BF or a placebo drink, in a randomised, crossover design. Venous plasma samples were collected pre (baseline), 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 h post-ingestion. Betanin content in BTJ, BF and plasma was analysed with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry detection (LCMS). Antioxidant capacity was estimated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and polyphenol content using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric methods [gallic acid equivalents (GAE)] and betalain content spectrophotometrically. Results: TEAC was 11.4 ± 0.2 mmol/L for BTJ and 3.4 ± 0.4 μmol/g for BF. Both BTJ and BF contained a number of polyphenols (1606.9 ± 151 mg/GAE/L and 1.67 ± 0.1 mg/GAE/g, respectively), betacyanins (68.2 ± 0.4 mg/betanin equivalents/L and 19.6 ± 0.6 mg/betanin equivalents/100 g, respectively) and betaxanthins (41.7 ± 0.7 mg/indicaxanthin equivalents/L and 7.5 ± 0.2 mg/indicaxanthin equivalents/100 g, respectively). Despite high betanin contents in both BTJ (~194 mg) and BF (~66 mg), betanin could not be detected in the plasma at any time point post-ingestion. Plasma NOx was elevated above baseline for 8 h after consuming BTJ and 5 h after BF (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These data reveal that BTJ and BF are rich in phytonutrients and may provide a useful means of increasing plasma NOx bioavailability. However, betanin, the major betalain in beetroot, showed poor bioavailability in plasma.
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A study on the effect of methanol extract of red beetroot (MEBV) against CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats of Wistar strain (150 to 180g) was done. Five groups with six rats each were used as positive control, negative control and experimental with an oral dose of CCl 4 through intra-peritoneal (IP) route and MEBV at 100µgm/ml, 200µgm/ml & 300µgm/ml per os, respectively, for 14 days. After 14 days, animals were sacrificed; blood samples were obtained and analyzed. The results showed that CCl 4 administration was associated with triple fold increases in the activities of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Bilirubin (P<0.05) compared with the respective mean control values. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as, serum catalase, GSH, Vit. E, Vit.C, & SOD, were lower than the respective mean values of the normal control. The blood parameters have got reduced. The hapatochords and hepatocytes architecture was also observed to be disturbed. However, treatment with MEBV restored the enzyme activities of the liver ALT, AST, Bilirubin, WBC, RBC, PCV and hepatic lobule architecture, to a very near normal level. This work showed that methanol extract of Beta vulgaris was successful at 300µgm/ml, in counteracting CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity and amelioration of the same (hepatic remediation) to near normalcy level in rat liver functions and amelioration may be due to the total phenolics, flavonoids and other antioxidants composition in the plant extract.
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Background: Recently, we have shown anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of indicaxanthin associated with epigenetic modulation of the onco-suppressor p16INK4a in the human colon cancer cell line CACO2. In the present study, the epigenetic activity of indicaxanthin and the mechanisms involved were further investigated in other colorectal cancer cell lines. Methods: LOVO1, CACO2, HT29, HCT116, and DLD1 cells were used to evaluate the potential influence of consistent dietary concentrations of indicaxanthin on DNA methylation, and the epigenetic mechanisms involved were researched. Results: Indicaxanthin exhibited anti-proliferative activity in all cell lines but HT29, induced demethylation in the promoters of some methylation-silenced onco-suppressor genes involved in colorectal carcinogenesis (p16INK4a, GATA4, and ESR1), and left unchanged others which were basally hypermethylated (SFRP1 and HPP1). In apparent contrast, cell exposure to indicaxanthin increased DNMT gene expression, although indicaxanthin appeared to be an inhibitor of DNMT activity. Indicaxanthin also increased the expression of genes involved in DNA demethylation. Finally, an in silico molecular modelling approach suggested stable binding of indicaxanthin at the DNMT1 catalytic site. Conclusions: Our findings contribute to new knowledge in the field of phytochemicals and specifically suggest dietary indicaxanthin as a potential epigenetic agent to protect colon cells against tumoral alterations.
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The effect of betanin on a rat paraquat-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model was investigated. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally at a single dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, and betanin (25 and 100 mg/kg/d) was orally administered 3 days before and 2 days after paraquat administration. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last betanin dosage, and lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. In rats treated only with paraquat, extensive lung injury characteristic of ALI was observed, including histological changes, elevation of lung : body weight ratio, increased lung permeability, increased lung neutrophilia infiltration, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced claudin-4 and zonula occluden-1 protein levels, increased BALF interleukin (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, reduced BALF IL-10 levels, and increased lung nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) activity. In rats treated with betanin, paraquat-induced ALI was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that betanin attenuates paraquat-induced ALI possibly via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus, the potential for using betanin as an auxilliary therapy for ALI should be explored further.
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Thepresent investigation was designed to investigate the protective effect of (Beta vulgaris L.) beat root ethanolic extract (BVEE) on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Serum specific kidney function parameters (urea, uric acid, total protein, creatinine, and histopathology of kidney tissue)were evaluated to access gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Theoxidative/nitrosative stress (Lipid peroxidation,MDA,NP-SH,Catalase, and nitric oxide levels) was assessed.The inflammatory response (TNF-𝛼, IL-6, MPO, NF-𝜅B (p65), and NF-𝜅B (p65) DNA binding) and apoptotic marker (Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl- 2) were also evaluated. BVEE (250 and 500mg/kg) treatment along with gentamicin restored/increased the renal endogenous antioxidant status. Gentamicin-induced increased renal inflammatory cytokines (TNF-𝛼 and IL-6), nuclear protein expression of NF-𝜅B (p65), NF-𝜅B-DNA binding activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and nitric oxide level were significantly down regulated upon BVEE treatment. In addition, BVEE treatment significantly reduced the amount of cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, protein expression and increased the Bcl-2 protein expression. BVEE treatment also ameliorated the extent of histologic injury and reduced inflammatory infiltration in renal tubules.These findings suggest that BVEE treatment attenuates renal dysfunction and structural damage through the reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the kidney.
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Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus is a Brazilian native plant that presents high concentrations of flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds. Herein, we evaluated: (1) the chemical properties of P. pseudocaryophyllus ethanolic extract (PPE), (2) the in vitro antioxidant activity (AA) of PPE and of two different topical formulations (F1 and F2) containing PPE, (3) physico-chemical and functional stability, (4) in vitro release of PPE, and (5) in vivo capacity of formulations to prevent UV-B irradiation-induced skin damage. Results show that the polyphenol and flavonoid contents in PPE were 199.33 and 28.32 mg/g, respectively, and HPLC results show the presence of eugenol, tannic acid, and rutin. Evaluation of the in vitro AA of PPE demonstrated a dose-dependent effect and an IC50 of 4.75 μg/mL in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3.0 μg/mL in 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. The ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay) was 0.046 μmol/L trolox equivalent/μg/mL of extract. Among the AA, only the capacity to scavenge DPPH radical of PPE was maintained in F1 and F2. In addition, both formulations satisfactorily released the extract. The evaluation of the functional stability of F1 and F2 did not demonstrate loss of activity by storage at room temperature and at 4°C/6 months. In irradiated mice, treatment with F1 and F2 added with PPE significantly increased the capacity to scavenge ABTS radical and the FRAP of skin compared to vehicle-treated mice. In conclusion, the present results suggest that formulations containing PPE may be a topical source of antioxidant compounds to decrease oxidative damages of the skin.
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A comparative study was made of three important plant peroxide metabolism enzymes, namely peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) in Phaseolus vulgaris. The comparisons extended to the quantitative aspects of the different enzymes in plant parts of various ages and origins (root, stalk, leaf). Peroxidase and catalase were found to be present with fluctuating but high activities in each of the plant parts during development. Thus, both enzymes can take part in the earlier studied aromatic hydroxylation reactions as non-specific hydroxylases. Superoxide dismutase was present in large amounts in the leaf, where it participates in leaf respiration and photosynthetic activity, besides inactivating the O2− anion.
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The o-toluidine-boric acid (o-TB) method for blood glucose estimation, which is being used widely in clinical laboratory, gave an unstable blue color following heating with a glucose. According to the recent reports by Ceriotti & Frank, the authors proposed a modified o-TB reagent to produce a stable chromogen in the case of direct estimation of plasma glucose without deproteinization. This reagent which was prepared in the preliminary experiment consisted of 35% water, 50% glacial acetic acid, and 15% o-toluidine, while the contents of boric acid and thiourea were the same as the original reagent. Although this reagent enabled the authors to obtain a stable coloration at least for 24 hrs, when heated for 15 min., a slight turbidity was also produced, which was caused probably by protein in the plasma samples. The glucose values estimated were, therefore, slightly higher than those obtained with the other o-TB reagents or when compared with indicated values of commercial reference serums. In vitro addition of human γ-globulin or bovine serum albumin into a sample plasma did not cause any turbidity until 7 or 9 g/dl of their final concentrations. Addition of detergents such as Tween 20, 40, 60, 80, Tirton X-100, Brij 35, or glycerol, formamide, ethyleneglycol, xylene, toluene into the reagent did not eliminate the turbidity. The authors finally recommended a reagent containing water, glacial acetic acid, o-toluidine, thiourea and boric acid in 10, 75, 15, 2.5 and 2.4% concentrations, respectively. The color intensity reached to a maximum by heating for 4-5 min., then decreased to a plateau beyond 15 min. Heating for 15 min., followed by cooling in running water produced a typical but slightly weakened blue color of glucose with absorption maximum at 635 nm. And no turbidity was seen in case of direct estimation of glucose without deproteinization. Higher accuracy was observed by using commercial reference serums and pooled serum, although slightly higher than those to the o-TB reagent. Excellent reproducibility was obtained and the coefficient of variation was 1.3-1.7%. By a comparative estimation of 100 patients' serums, good correlation was found between the glucose values assayed with the present and other commercial o-TB reagents. Their mean values were 151.4 and 152.4 mg/dl, respectively. The present method was found to be suitable for a rapid and simple estimation of plasma gluco which does not require preceded deproteinization and give stable coloration by heating. © 1972, Japan Society of Clinical Chemistry. All rights reserved.
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Dye sensitized solar cell converts visible light into electricity using sensitization of the cell. Performances of dye sensitized solar cells are mainly based on dye used as a sensitizer. Now a days study of dyes extracted from natural resources is the main concern for researchers. Application of natural dyes is a promising development in the field of this technology. Natural dyes are cutting down high cost of metal complex sensitizers and also replacing expensive chemical synthesis process through simple extraction process. Natural dyes are abundant, easily extractable, safe material causes no environment threat. These can be extracted from flowers petals, leaves, roots and barks in the form of anthocyanin, carotenoid, flavonoid and chlorophyll pigments. This review discusses development of natural dyes and their effect on various performance parameters of dye sensitized solar cell.
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The present study aimed to investigate betanin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced AMI through iNOS, inflammation, oxidative stress-myeloperoxidase (MPO)/low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in rat. Cardiovascular diseases CVD is considered as the first killer of human beings. The major pathogenesis of malignant cardiovascular events is chronic heart failure caused by acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat was induced using 100 mg/kg of isoproterenol and used for proving the effect of betanin on AMI. Betanin improves cardiac function and inhibits infarct size in isoproterenol-induced AMI. Next, betanin inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa (NF-?B) protein expressions of isoproterenol-induced AMI. Betanin reduced oxidative damage (such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH)) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production in isoproterenol-induced AMI. Interesting, betanin weakens the MPO activity and LDL level in isoproterenol-induced AMI. We firstly demonstrated that betanin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced AMI through iNOS, inflammation, oxidative stress-MPO/LDL in rat.
Chapter
Aerobic life is characterized by a steady formation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals, which is almost entirely counteracted by endogenous primary and secondary antioxidant systems. Maintenance of these systems is then imperative to ensure a continuous defense to cells and to avoid conditions known as oxidative stress. Apart from antioxidant vitamins, many compounds from the plant kingdom are now considered very helpful to maintain a proper cell redox balance. Among them, betalain pigments have received recent attention. Betanin (betanidin-5-O-β glucoside) is the main betacyanin from red beet. Redox potential, ability to interact with lipid structures and bioavailability in humans make this molecule a potential natural antioxidant with protective effects in vivo. This review summarizes the peroxyl radical-scavenging activity of the molecule and of its aglycone betanidin, as observed in a few chemical or biological models.
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Betalains are accepted food additives derived from vacuoles of plants belonging to about 17 families in the order Caryophyllales. These pigments are composed of a nitrogenous core structure, betalamic acid [4-(2-oxoethylidene)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid]. Betalamic acid condenses with imino compounds (cyclo-DOPA and/or its glucosyl derivatives) or amines and/or their derivatives to form v