Herbal medicines are now commonly used all over the world and this has increased global demand. Quality, safety, and efficacy of these drugs have become a serious concern. This review presents the medicinal plants cited in folklore that are used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers. Electronic databases, that is, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched to identify the gastroprotective effects of each plant. Ethnopharmacological studies have reported various botanical products with antiulcer activities, but there has been limited scientific research, presenting clinical data to validate the efficacy and safety of medicinal herbs as gastroprotective agents. Most studies centered on pharmacological properties of medicinal herbs as used animals models. This information has prompted us to compile a list of the medicinal herbs cited in folklore with gastroprotective activity.
... Extensive research has been carried out to identify the protective potentials of diverse herbs, vegetables, and plants against gastric ulcers . Numerous plants, or their phytoconstituents, Nutrients 2018Nutrients , 10, 1680 have been found to be effective in relieving the morphological and histological features of gastric ulcerative lesions by increasing the biosynthesis of gastric prostaglandin and downregulating the expression of proinflammatory enzymes. ...
Gastric ulcer is a major digestive disorder and provoked by multifactorial etiologies, including excessive alcohol consumption. In this study, we examined the gastroprotective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Dioscorea batatas Decne (DBD; commonly called Chinese yam) flesh or peel against acidified ethanol-induced acute gastric damage in mice. Our findings demonstrated that oral supplementation of aqueous or ethanolic extracts of DBD flesh or peel before ulcer induction was significantly effective in macroscopically and histologically alleviating ethanol-induced pathological lesions in gastric mucosa, decreasing the plasma levels of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide and interleukin-6, attenuating the gastric expression of cyclooxygenase-2, and increasing the gastric content of prostaglandin E2. In particular, pretreatment with the flesh extract prepared in 60% ethanol prominently decreased the expression of biomarkers of oxidative stress, including the plasma levels of 8-hydroxy-2-guanosine and malondialdehyde, and restored heme oxygenase-1 expression and superoxide dismutase activity in the stomach. Overall, these findings suggest that the oral supplementation with DBD extract, especially flesh ethanol extract, prior to excessive alcohol consumption, may exert a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in vivo, presumably through the activation of the antioxidant system and suppression of the inflammatory response.
Introduction: Medicinal plants with phenolic compounds have been shown to have antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-ulcer effects of ethanolic extracts of Plumbaginales namely P. auriculata, P. indica and P. zeylanica and plumbagin in aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulcer models. Methods: In vivo studies including DPPH scavenging assay, lipid peroxidase inhibition assay, acid neutralizing capacity test, aspirin- and ethanol-induced ulcer models were performed to assess the antioxidant and antiulcer effects of plants. By using the models of Aspirin (200 mg/kg, 1 hour after the administration of last dose of the extract/ranitidine) and ethanol (1 mL/200 g, 90%) induced ulcer, animals were randomly divided into three groups of six animals each. Group I served as positive control, group II acted as standard and received ranitidine (20 mg/kg). The group III was treated with ethanolic extract by oral route in a dose of 300 mg/kg for a period of 5 days. The animals were sacrificed and the stomach was then excised and cut along the greater curvature, washed carefully with 5.0 mL of 0.9% NaCl and ulcers were scored. Results: Both the aspirin- and ethanol-induced models of ulcer with various extracts of Plumbaginales showed significant acid neutralizing and antioxidant properties. Conclusion: This study suggests that root extracts of P. auriculata may have good quality potentials for use in peptic ulcer diseases and that P. auriculata possesses an antiulcer effect.
Objective: This study investigates the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Curcumaamada Methods: GC-MS analysis of these extracts was performed using a Perkin-Elmer GC Clarus 500 system. The antioxidant activity was done by using 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, total antioxidant assay, Ferric reducing power assay, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, and nitric oxide scavenging assay. Evaluation of in vitro antibacterial activity was carried out by the disc diffusion method. Thirteen bacterial strains were used in this study. Results: The GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extracts has shown a profile of 15 compounds. The antioxidant study proves that the leaf extracts could serve as an important bio-resource of antioxidants for the pharmaceutical industry. The extracts of leaf remarkably inhibited the growth of 13 bacterial strains Conclusion: This study revealed that phytochemicals compound present in ethanolic extract, antioxidant properties of ethanol and acetone extract and antimicrobial activity.
Withania somnifera (Ashawagandha) is very revered herb of the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as a Rasayana (tonic). It is used for various kinds of disease processes and specially as a nervine tonic. Considering these facts many scientific studies were carried out and its adaptogenic / anti-stress activities were studied in detail. In experimental models it increases the stamina of rats during swimming endurance test and prevented adrenal gland changes of ascorbic acid and cortisol content produce by swimming stress. Pretreatment with Withania somnifera (WS) showed significance protection against stress induced gastric ulcers. WS have anti-tumor effect on Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell carcinoma. It was also found effective against urethane induced lung-adenoma in mice. In some cases of uterine fibroids, dermatosarcoma, long term treatment with WS controlled the condition. It has a Cognition Promoting Effect and was useful in children with memory deficit and in old age people loss of memory. It was also found useful in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s and Alzeimer’s diseases. It has GABA mimetic effect and was shown to promote formation of dendrites. It has anxiolytic effect and improves energy levels and mitochondrial health. It is an anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic agent and was found useful in clinical cases of Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis. Large scale studies are needed to
prove its clinical efficacy in stress related disorders, neuronal disorders and cancers.
Key words: Withania somnifera, rejuvenator, adaptogen / anti-stress, anti-tumor, neuroregenerative, anti-arthritic.
Introduction: The present study investigated protective effect of Zataria multiflora essential oil on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats along with its possible mechanism(s).
Methods: Eighty male adult rats were randomly allocated into 8 groups as follows: 1: negative control (NC); 2, 3 and 4: positive control (PC, distilled water), vehicle control (VC, corn oil) and comparative control (CC, omeprazole 20 mg/kg in distilled water), respectively; 5, 6, 7 and 8: treated with 100, 200, 400 and 800 μL/kg Z. multiflora essential oil. After 1 hour, gastric ulcer was induced by 4 mL/kg 75% ethanol orally to rats of groups 2-8. One hour later, blood samples were collected and then all rats were sacrificed and their stomachs were immediately removed.
Results: In PC and VC groups severe lesions were observed in stomachs where mucosal lesions in CC group as well as groups treated with Z. multiflora essential oil (especially higher doses) were very mild with regard to ulcer area and number. No significant difference was observed in mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level among groups, gastric mucosal nitric oxide (NO) content was significantly higher in rats treated with Z. multiflora essential oil at 200, 400 and 800 μL/kg as compared to PC group. Rats in CC, Z. multiflora 400 and Z. multiflora 800 groups showed higher mucosal total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as compared to PC group.
Conclusion: Z. multiflora essential oil has a gastro-protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats which is probably due to its antioxidant and NO production enhancing effect.
Ashwgandha has long been considered as an excellent rejuvenator, a general health tonic and a cure for a number of health complaints. It is a sedative, diuretic, anti-inflammatory and generally respected for increasing energy, endurance, and acts as an-adaptogen that exerts a strong immunostimulatory and an-anti-stress agent. Ashwagandha is taken for treating cold and coughs,
Introduction: Butea frondosa has been suggested to be very useful in treating inflammatory diseases but no scientific investigation has been done in such direction. In this study the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities of leaves aqueous extract of B. frondosa were determined in infected and non-infected human whole blood against specific vaccine antigen, HBsAg. Methods: In order to explore the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities of B. frondosa (0.5-0 mg/mL; 50 μl), infected (virally) and non infected (control) human whole blood samples were stimulated with hepatitis B vaccine containing surface antigen (HBsAg, 20 μg/mL;10 μl) in order to determined its blood counts and proliferation assay. Results: Aqueous leaves extract of B. frondosa (10 mg/mL; 50 μl) containing HBsAg inhibited the percentage count of monocytes as well as granulocytes population in both cases. In addition, this aqueous extract also reduced its proliferation rate at higher doses. Conclusion: Aqueous leaves extract of B. frondosa possesses both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities and might be used for these purposes.
The integrity of the gastroduodenal mucosa is often said to depend on the balance between aggressive and defensive factors. Gastric acid and pepsin are generally regarded as essential factors in ulcer disease but recently Helicobacter pylori has been identified as an important factor as well. Many studies have appeared since H. pylori proved to be the cause of active chronic gastritis. Duodenal ulcer has been known to be associated with antral gastritis, and in all patients with duodenal ulcer there is concomitant antral gastritis. As H. pylori is the most common cause of antral gastritis, it is not surprising that H. pylori infection is found in almost all patients with duodenal ulcer disease. However, the strong association between gastritis and duodenal ulceration does not prove a causal role for H. pylori.