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Serious leisure and depression in older adults: a study of pickleball players

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Abstract

Depression rates among older adults have been increasing. Moreover, older adults experiencing depression also have to contend with increased healthcare costs. Depression is commonly regarded as an indicator of well-being, and a number of studies have examined the protective factors related to depression in older adults. While the literature has shown that engaging in serious leisure is associated with well-being of older adults, the relationship between depression and serious leisure has not been examined. This study explores the relationship between depression, serious leisure, optimism, and social integration. A total of 153 older adults competing in pickleball tournaments participated in this study. The results revealed that serious leisure and depression were inversely related, which implies that commitment to serious leisure is associated with lower levels of depression in older adults. Further analysis correlating the qualities of serious leisure with depression revealed that career progression and career contingencies were associated with depression. Given the importance of career development among most pickleball participants, we suggest that the unique contribution of career progress and career contingencies on depression is plausible. This study builds on previous research in this field and suggests that serious leisure is important for the well-being of older adults.

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... Many empirical studies have supported this association between serious leisure and well-being (e.g., Heo et al., 2013;Liu & Yu, 2015). Only a few studies have shown that involvement in serious leisure (i.e., hobbies) is also specifically related to lower levels of depression symptoms (Heo et al., 2018;Israel et al., 2020). One study that explored leisure activities as potential coping strategies during the COVID-19 restrictions found that, among a general Spanish population, pursuing hobbies, spending time outdoors, and looking outside were the best predictors of lower levels of depression symptoms (Fullana et al., 2020). ...
... Numerous prior studies have suggested how and why hobbies and pursuits are positively related to well-being and mental health (e.g., Heo et al., 2013Heo et al., , 2018Israel et al., 2020;Liu & Yu, 2015;Newman et al., 2014). Arguably, the COVID-19 SoE and associated restrictions widely limited these habitual systematic pursuits of core leisure activities (i.e., the so-called "serious leisure pursuits"). ...
... When individuals are seriously involved in their leisure pursuits, they will gain more chances to improve the level of their social interaction and belonging through participating in the daily activities of various social groups [14,17]. Scholars also confirmed significant durable social benefits among different leisure sport activities such as long-distance running [57], cycling [19], and pickle ball [58]. In addition, based on an investigation of elderly baseball players, a recent study revealed that positive social influences were positively related to specialization [18]. ...
... However, existing studies did not provide more robust strategies on the effectiveness of loneliness interventions [8,10]. Previous studies confirmed obvious social benefits from long-distance running, cycling, or pickle ball [57,58]. Hence, it is very important to improve the level of the elderly adults' social relationships, especially through active leisure sport activities. ...
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Recent studies have provided some evidence supporting that cycling specialization (CS) may be positively related to successful aging (SA) among elderly adults. However, there is a gap regarding the examination of the role of loneliness in the relationship between CS and SA. A hypothetical model was proposed to test the relationship between CS, SA, and loneliness. For this purpose, this study randomly conducted a questionnaire survey among 395 cycling participants over the age of 60 in China. The results showed that behavior, cognition, and affect had negative effects on loneliness. Behavior, cognition, and affect were positively associated with SA. Loneliness was negatively related to SA. Furthermore, behavior, cognition, and affect had positive and indirect effects on SA through loneliness. These results offered some new insights for understanding the relationship between CS and SA, especially considering the indirect effect of loneliness. The limitations and implications of the findings were discussed.
... Using a structural equation model, Kim et al. (2015) confirmed the relationship between serious leisure, personal growth, and happiness among Taekwondo enthusiasts, and viewed personal growth and happiness as additional indicators of serious leisure outcomes. In a recent study on pickleball, Heo et al. (2018) revealed that serious leisure was negatively related to levels of depression and confirmed that two indicators of serious leisure qualities (career progression and career contingencies) were negatively associated with depression. However, these studies used different scales to measure serious leisure, and the validity and reliability of the scale was still under development. ...
... Second, in line with previous research (e.g. Dilley and Scraton, 2010;Heo et al., 2018;Kim et al., 2015;Lewis et al., 2013;Shipway and Jones, 2007), this study found that marathon runners exhibited relatively high levels of serious leisure qualities, and financial return was confirmed as a weaker indicator of durable benefits. Third, significant differences among the serious leisure qualities of marathon runners exist on the basis of different demographic variables (e.g. ...
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In recent years, unprecedented developments in marathon events have occurred in China. Participating in marathons has become a serious leisure activity, and people show many leisure qualities in the process of continuous participation. This study explored the relationship between the serious leisure qualities of marathon runners and their participation behavior. Data were collected from 603 marathon runners during the 2017 Nanjing Marathon Event and the 2017 Hangzhou Marathon Event. The results showed that marathon runners differed significantly in serious leisure qualities based on different demographic variables. Serious leisure qualities and demographic variables can be positively associated with marathon runners’ number of years of running, running frequency per week, and longest marathon event. However, they did not predict marathon runners’ running distance per week or the number of marathon events participated in each year. These study findings broaden the research on serious leisure sport behavior in China and provide both theoretical and empirical support for leisure sports management. The limitations and implications of this study are also discussed.
... As a result of the systematic review and selection process, a total of 12 articles met the eligibility criteria and were selected for the metaanalysis (N = 12; total participants = 10,681). A list of the 12 articles used to conduct the meta-analysis in this study is presented in Table 1 (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24). ...
... In addition, students with moderate to severe depression had desired challenge/skill development less than non-depressed students. This point about skill development is consistent with Heo et al. (2018) study about the relationship between serious leisure and depression. As a form of committed leisure, serious leisure often requires skill development over time and becomes meaningful (Stebbins, 2015). ...
Article
Leisure experience has particularly positive impacts on people’s health and well-being when it is perceived as meaningful. Research also suggests that mental health conditions, such as depression, inhibit people from deriving meaningfulness from their leisure. However, it remains underexplored what in depression has this negative effect on leisure-based meaning-making. Anhedonia, one of the depression’s key symptoms that undermines one’s ability to experience enjoyment, may be an underlying mechanism. This is consistent with recent evidence that positive affect plays a significant role in experiencing meaning in life. The current study examined the relationship between depression, anhedonia, and leisure-based meaning-making. A total of 155 community-living individuals with depression participated in a cross-sectional online survey. Pearson’s correlation analysis suggested that leisure-based meaning-making was negatively associated with both depression and anhedonia. However, the following mediation analyses found that the relationship between depression and leisure-based meaning-making was fully mediated by anhedonia, making depression’s direct effect non-significant. Similar patterns were observed in sub-dimensions of leisure-based meaning-making: connection/belonging and identity. The findings suggest that the hedonic factor plays a role in leisure-based meaning making.
... There are few analyses or published papers addressing pickleball injuries. Most of the literature has focused on psychosocial, well-being and fitness aspects (Buzzelli and Draper 2020;Casper and Jeon 2017;Heo et al. 2018a;Heo et al. 2018b;Ryu et al. 2020). Other than a few case reports, (Vitale and Liu 2020;Atkinson et al. 2020) there have been only three papers addressing injury risk: Greiner (2019), Quail (2019) and Forrester (2020) (Forrester 2020;Greiner 2019;Quail 2019). ...
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Background Pickleball is growing rapidly with a passionate senior following. Understanding and comparing players’ injury experience through analysis of a nationally representative hospital emergency department sample helps inform senior injury prevention and fitness goals. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using 2010 to 2019 data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission’s (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Tennis was selected for comparison purposes because of the similarity of play, occasional competition for the same court space, and because many seniors play both sports. Non-fatal pickleball and tennis-related cases were identified, examined, recoded, and separated by injury versus non-injury conditions. Since over 85% of the pickleball injury-related cases were to players ≥60 years of age, we mostly focused on this older age group. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, injury frequency, type and trends over time, and comparative measures of risk. Results Among players ≥60 years of age, non-injuries (i.e., cardiovascular events) accounted for 11.1 and 21.5% of the pickleball and tennis-related cases, respectively. With non-injuries removed for seniors (≥60 years), the NEISS contained a weighted total of 28,984 pickleball injuries (95% confidence interval [CI] = 19,463–43,163) and 58,836 tennis injuries (95% CI = 44,861-77,164). Pickleball-related injuries grew rapidly over the study period, and by 2018 the annual number of senior pickleball injuries reached parity with senior tennis-related injuries. Pickleball-related Slip/Trip/Fall/Dive injury mechanisms predominated (63.3, 95% CI = 57.7–69.5%). The leading pickleball-related diagnoses were strains/sprains (33.2, 95% CI = 27.8–39.5%), fractures (28.1, 95% CI = 24.3–32.4%) and contusions (10.6, 95% CI = 8.0–14.1%). Senior males were three-and-a-half times more likely than females to suffer a pickleball-related strain or sprain (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% CI = 2.2–5.6) whereas women were over three-and-a-half times more likely to suffer a fracture (OR 3.7, 95% CI = 2.3–5.7) compared to men and nine times more likely to suffer a wrist fracture (OR 9.3 95% CI = 3.6–23.9). Patterns of senior tennis and pickleball injuries were mostly similar. Conclusions NEISS is a valuable data source for describing the epidemiology of recreational injuries. However, careful case definitions are necessary when examining records involving older populations as non-injury conditions related to the activity/product codes of interest are frequent. As pickleball gains in popularity among active seniors, it is becoming an increasingly important cause of injury. Identifying and describing the most common types of injuries may can help inform prevention and safety measures.
... SWB is defined as an individual's overall state of subjective wellness and usually includes two primary components: cognitive and affective (Diener, 1984). Over the past three decades, SWB studies have significantly increased in various fields (McMahon, 2008), including leisure activity (Heo et al., 2018), health (Heintzman and Mannell, 2003), and economics (Odermatt and Stutzer, 2017). Existing studies investigating SWB significantly differ in measurement methods and focus on the cognitive component of life satisfaction (Lee and Hwang, 2018), the affective component reflecting individuals' experiences (Heo et al., 2010) and domain satisfaction (Liu and Yu, 2015), or both (Joshanloo, 2018). ...
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The topics of serious leisure and subjective well-being have been discussed extensively in previous research. It is generally acknowledged that people prefer to experience deeper satisfaction and happiness through serious participation in leisure-time physical activities. However, it is essential to examine the relationship between serious leisure and subjective well-being in an urban setting as well as the mediating effect of leisure satisfaction. Data were collected from 447 recreational runners at the 2018 Wuxi International Marathon event in China. The study results showed that serious leisure was positively associated with leisure satisfaction and subjective well-being, that leisure satisfaction was positively associated with subjective well-being, and that leisure satisfaction completely mediated the relationship between serious leisure and subjective well-being. Running group membership significantly affected the path from serious leisure to leisure satisfaction, while other demographic variables (e.g., gender and education) did not moderate any paths. These results help explain the intricate relationship between serious leisure and subjective well-being and offer theoretical and managerial implications for serious leisure.
... Seriousness as an overarching term that describes intensity of involvement and commitment individuals show towards leisure activities. From a serious leisure perspective, a number of scholars have investigated a relationship between involvement in leisure activities and successful ageing among a diverse group of older adults such as square dancers (Schneider & McCoy, 2018), older gardeners (Cheng et al., 2017), pickleball players (Heo et al., 2018), and older golfers (Siegenthaler & O'Dell, 2003). For example, Siegenthaler and O'Dell explored the lived experience of older golfers and identified four different types of golfers with varying degrees of seriousness (core devotees, moderate devotees, social, and therapeutic golfers). ...
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The purpose of this study is to explore the lived experiences of older adults who have been performing Korean traditional dance as volunteers. Thirteen volunteer dancers participated in in-depth interviews. The analysis of qualitative data showed that the participants of this study demonstrated six experiential characteristics of serious leisure including: (a) the practice of perseverance, (b) volunteer career development and career contingencies, (c) commitment to the team activities, (d) subculture, (e) a strong sense of leisure-related identity, and (f) enhancing a positive sense of self. Our findings provide empirical evidence that voluntary dance performance as serious leisure can offer durable benefits and play an important role in successful ageing.
... According to the extant literature, serious leisure has been an area of inquiry into various groups of older adults such as shag dancers (Brown, McGuire, & Voelkl, 2008), line dancers (Joseph & Southcott, 2019), lawn bowlers (Heuser, 2005), softball players (Liechty, West, Naar, & Son, 2017), volunteers in sport (Misener, Doherty, & Hamm-Kerwin, 2010), golfers (Siegenthaler & O'Dell, 2003), older gardeners (Cheng, Stebbins, & Packer, 2017), pickleball players (Heo, Ryu, Yang, & Kim, 2018), and silver surfers (Wheaton, 2017). For example, in a study of older adults engaged in line dancing, Joseph and Southcott (2018) found that serious leisure involvement contributes to successful aging. ...
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Studies have revealed the positive impact of serious leisure among older adults. Serious leisure is the systematic pursuit of an amateur, hobbyist, or volunteer core activity that is highly substantial, interesting, and fulfilling and where, in the typical case, participants find a career in acquiring and expressing a combination of special skills, knowledge, and experience. As serious leisure involves productive engagement and commitment, performing as a senior model reflects the serious leisure participation of older adults, which might offer a new insight into promoting healthy lifestyles. While many studies have been conducted in the context of leisure behavior of older adults, a study is yet to explore the behavior of senior fashion models. Given that serious leisure offers positive outcomes (e.g., personal growth, happiness) and demands substantial effort as and perseverance, the behavior of senior modeling can be understood using a serious leisure framework. The purpose of the study is to explore the behavior of older adults engaged in fashion modeling as a form of serious leisure. We conducted a series of face-to-face interviews with 31 participants. Interview questions focused on the participants’ perception as senior models and the meaning of being senior models. The ages of the participants ranged from 54 to 85 years (Mean age = 66.9). The constant comparison method was applied to continuously compare the views and experiences of the participants. Two central themes that shaped the participants’ senior fashion modeling experiences were identified: (1) the benefits of senior fashion modeling and (2) the costs of senior fashion modeling. Under each theme, several sub-categories were identified: confidence, stylish and ageless, friendships, painful training and investing effort, barriers associated with aging, and structural constraints. The findings obtained in this study highlight the important link between serious leisure and successful aging. Considering the benefits identified by the study participants, it is suggested that engaging in senior fashion modeling positively affects older adults’ quality of life.
... As professionals age, continuity theory suggests that the meaning derived from work and non-work experiences become an increasingly important part of life (Lee and Payne 2015). Support for this notion has been found in several studies of older adults' well-being and the significant role meaningful work and non-work experiences play in maintaining and promoting positive life outcomes (Heo et al. 2018;Schneider and McCoy 2018;Sener et al. 2007). ...
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The purpose of this study was to explore possible predictors of career and non-career bridge employment intentions among local government employees. The effects of eight professional characteristics, life satisfaction, family-work balance, work philosophy, and perceived role support at work were assessed on bridge employment intentions. Two hundred and twenty-six professionals completed a survey and results indicated career bridge employment intentions were influenced by professionals’ age, life satisfaction, work-family balance, serious work philosophy, and work role support while non-career bridge employment was influenced by age, work-family balance, and serious work.
... Personal enrichment, self-actualization, self-expression, enhancing self-image, self-gratification and forming identification are just a few examples from a long list of benefits (Ryu & Heo, 2017;Miller, 2018;Lee & Ewert, 2019;Bowness, 2020). Experiencing positive psychological wellbeing and transforming the lives of participants are other findings reported in the literature (Iwasaki, 2007;Lee & Payne, 2016;Heo et al., 2018). ...
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Background. Until recently, information behaviour scholars have mainly focused on the workplace or educational settings, and defined information as either a tool for problem solving or a means to satisfy needs. This, however, only represents a partial picture of a larger horizon. In some arenas of life, such as serious leisure, people do not seek information to necessarily solve a problem or satisfy an urgent need. They look for information to enjoy a hobby or participate in an entirely voluntary activity. Objectives. The paper introduces transcendental information as a subjective and contextual concept to provide insights on lesser explored corners of the information behaviour scholarship. This concept is compared with existing theories and concepts in the information behaviour area. Method. This conceptual paper is based on a critical literature review of human information behaviour, and reflects on some key concepts in the field, including the nature of information, information needs, information seeking and sharing. The paper also provides a selective literature review of the serious leisure perspective to contextualise the analysis. Results. It is found that transcendental information usually has an aesthetic and intellectual essence. It may be expressed in various imaginative forms and can appear in different non-textual and embedded formats. Moreover, it can generate joyful and inspiring impacts. The paper refers to serious leisure as an exemplary setting to contextualise transcendental information within a relevant and well-established theoretical framework.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of leisure involvement and leisure satisfaction on the well-being of pickleball players. This study enrolled 260 participants from the 2019 International Pickleball Tournament by purposive sampling. A total of 250 questionnaires were returned, for a return rate of 96%; 215 questionnaires were valid, for an effective recovery rate of 86%. The data were archived using SPSS 24.0, and the correlation between variables was analyzed using AMOS 24.0. By analyzing the empirical data in this paper, the following main findings were obtained: (1) leisure involvement has a significant effect on leisure satisfaction; (2) leisure involvement does not have a significant effect on well-being; (3) leisure satisfaction has a significant effect on well-being; and (4) leisure satisfaction has a mediating effect on the relationship between leisure involvement and well-being.
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Background: Pickleball is growing rapidly with a passionate senior following. Understanding and comparing players’ injury experience through analysis of a nationally representative hospital emergency department sample helps inform senior injury prevention and fitness goals. Methods: A retrospective population-based cohort study was performed using 2010 to 2019 data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission’s (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Non-fatal pickleball and tennis-related cases were identified, examined, recoded, and separated by injury versus non-injury conditions. Since over 85% of the pickleball injury-related cases were to players ≥60 years of age we mostly focused on this older age group. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, injury frequency, type and trends over time, and comparative measures of risk. Results: Among players ≥60 years of age, non-injuries (i.e., cardiovascular events) accounted for 11% and 21.5% of the pickleball and tennis-related cases, respectively. With non-injuries removed for seniors (≥60 years), the NEISS contained a weighted total of 28,984 pickleball injuries (95% CI=19,463–43,163) and 58,836 tennis injuries (95% CI=44,861-77,164). Pickleball -related injuries grew rapidly over the study period and by 2018, the annual number of senior pickleball injuries reached parity with senior tennis-related injuries. Slip/Trip/Fall/Dive injury mechanisms predominated (63.3%, 95% CI=57.7%-69.5%). The leading diagnoses were strains/sprains (33.2%, 95% CI=27.8%-39.5%), fractures (28.1%, 95% CI=24.3%-32.4%) and contusions (10.6%, 95% CI=8.0%-14.1%). Senior males were three-and-a-half times more likely than females to suffer a pickleball-related strain or sprain (OR 3.5, 95% CI 2.2-5.6) whereas women were over three-and-a-half times more likely to suffer a fracture (OR 3.7 95% CI = 2.3-5.7) compared to men and nine times more likely to suffer a wrist fracture (OR 9.3 95% CI 3.6 - 23.9). Patterns of senior tennis and pickleball injuries were mostly similar. Conclusions: NEISS is a valuable data source for describing the epidemiology of recreational injuries. However, careful case definitions are necessary when examining records involving older populations as non-injury conditions related to the activity/product codes of interest are frequent. As pickleball gains in popularity among active seniors, it is becoming an increasingly important cause of injury. Identifying and describing the most common types of injuries may can help inform prevention and safety measures.
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Serious, casual, and project-based leisure constitute the foundation of the serious leisure perspective (SLP). So far as we know in the interdisciplinary field of leisure studies, these three forms together embrace all leisure activities. The SLP is the theoretic framework that synthesizes three main forms of leisure showing, at once, their distinctive features, similarities, and interrelationships. More precisely the SLP offers a classification and explanation of all leisure activities and experiences, as these two are framed in the social psychological, social, cultural, geographical, and historical conditions in which each activity and accompanying experience take place.
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In this investigation, the serious leisure inventory and measure (SLIM) was developed from convenience and target samples. The multidimensional framework of serious leisure contains six qualities from which 18 operations were employed. With the use of a q-sort, an expert panel, and confirmatory factor analysis, the 72 item SLIM demonstrated acceptable fit, reliability and equivalence across samples. Mean differences and correlation patterns found between samples demonstrated preliminary evidence for the predictive ability of the new measure. The SLIM short form (54 items) demonstrated good model fit and construct validity. Future replications are needed to adequately address the psychometric complexities of the SLIM within the network of interrelated leisure constructs.
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We examined whether changes in different forms of social participation were associated with changes in depressive symptoms in older Europeans. We used lagged individual fixed-effects models based on data from 9,068 persons aged ≥50 years in wave 1 (2004/2005), wave 2 (2006/2007), and wave 4 (2010/2011) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). After we controlled for a wide set of confounders, increased participation in religious organizations predicted a decline in depressive symptoms (EURO-D Scale; possible range, 0-12) 4 years later (β = -0.190 units, 95% confidence interval: -0.365, -0.016), while participation in political/community organizations was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms (β = 0.222 units, 95% confidence interval: 0.018, 0.428). There were no significant differences between European regions in these associations. Our findings suggest that social participation is associated with depressive symptoms, but the direction and strength of the association depend on the type of social activity. Participation in religious organizations may offer mental health benefits beyond those offered by other forms of social participation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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Psychosocial resources such as optimism and social resources are associated with adaptation, age-related changes and life satisfaction (LS) maintenance. The relationship between optimism, social resources and LS is unclear as this issue has not been addressed by many studies. The present study analyzes the direct and indirect effect of optimism on LS in older people among older people with and without restrictions due to illness. The indirect effect was tested using a multiple mediation model of network size, emotional, instrumental and affectionate support, subjective evaluation of social relations and satisfaction with family life for each group while controlling for variables that have been found to have an impact on LS (age, self-rated health and the number of illnesses). The sample comprised 406 community-dwelling older adults (M = 74.88, SD = 6.75) from urban areas in Granada, southern Spain. Health status was modestly related to LS while optimism and social relations variables were positively and strongly associated with LS. Among the proposed mediators network size, tangible support and satisfaction with family life mediated the relationship between optimism and LS in the group of people without restrictions due to illness, while for the participants who reported restrictions due to illness only network size and satisfaction with family life mediated the relation between optimism and LS. Optimism and social resources are important factors that are linked to well-being in old age. Network size, tangible support and satisfaction with family life partially explain the relationship between optimism and LS.
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Depression leads to negative mood and affect, difficulty experiencing enjoyment in chosen activities (anhedonia), and a reduced desire for social interaction. This study compared 974 college students with different levels of depression (minimal, mild, and moderate to severe) relative to their desired outcomes for leisure, and their enjoyment of, participation and sociability in, different types of chosen leisure activities. Findings indicated consistency in their desired outcomes students, yet there were differences in how social they chose to be, the extent to which they partook, and how much enjoyment they perceived during their leisure participation. In addition, in several activities only a mild state of depression was sufficient to produce differences in leisure involvement. The results question whether depressed individuals experience “leisure” in the same manner as nondepressed individuals and whether elements of “leisure” experiences stressing enjoyment and sociability are applicable for individuals with differing levels of nonclinical depression.
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Concerted singing is a common amateur activity in many parts of the world. Such singing is at minimum two-part vocal harmony with or without accompaniment, which may, however, be carried out in groups of 150 voices or larger. It ranges from informal gatherings of 2 to 4 people (male, female and both) who come together to sing their favourite songs or hymns with or without accompaniment to large community formations such as the barbershop and symphony choruses. Despite the widespread popular interest in this kind of activity, research on it as leisure outside that on barbershop singing is nonexistent. The concept of institutional chorus is developed and set in the serious leisure perspective. Interview data from a qualitative study of a Chinese university faculty chorus are then analysed and presented according to six concepts: career, social world, constraints and facilitators, costs, benefits, and rewards. Concerted singing in an institutional chorus, this exploratory study suggests, meets the six qualities of a serious pursuit. This kind of singing was found to be a deeply rewarding activity for its participants.
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This study explored the relationships among serious leisure, life satisfaction, and health. The study sample consisted of 454 older adults from two annual events: the 2008 Indiana Senior Olympic Games and 2008 Colorado Senior Olympic Games. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups based upon patterns of serious leisure involvement. In addition, relations among life satisfaction, health, and membership in serious leisure clusters were documented. This analysis resulted in three clusters, and they were named high/medium/low involvement groups. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was employed to determine cluster differences in life satisfaction, physical health, and mental health. MANOVA results revealed significant differences among the clusters on dependent variables. The findings document significant heterogeneity in the expression of serious leisure involvement among the Senior Games participants. The results also suggest that there are positive relationships between level of involvement in serious leisure and life satisfaction and health.
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This article explores how people with depression perceive and use leisure in coping with their illness. The study applied a netnography approach and was based on data from 25 online depression communities. The findings suggest that people with depression perceive leisure as a useful coping resource. Yet, they seem to be trapped in vicious circles. The more depressed they feel, the less they are able to participate in leisure activities and benefit from such involvement, and the less involved they are, the more depressed they become. Feeling more depressed puts them at risk of resorting to maladaptive forms of coping, which, in turn, exacerbate the depression. The strategies members discuss suggest a variety of alternatives for ameliorating these frustrating dynamics.
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A review of theory and research centering on serious leisure and related subjects
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We aimed to explore older people's subjective leisure experiences and to further examine associations of such experiences with their depressive symptoms in Taiwan. Known correlates of depression, such as demographics, physical health, and social support, were taken into account. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data using structured questionnaires from a national representative sample of community older people (N = 1308, aged 65 +). We found that (a) being female, older, single, less educated, and having lower family income were demographic risk factors of depression; (b) worse physical health, lack of independent functioning in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and disability were related to more depressive symptoms; (c) greater social support was related to fewer depressive symptoms; (d) having controlled for effects of demographics, physical health, and social support, positive leisure experiences were independently related to fewer depressive symptoms. The benefits of meaningful leisure pursuits for successful aging are discussed.
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This paper draws on post-structural feminist theories of emotion to explore the significance of leisure within women's narratives of recovery from depression. I engage with the stories of 48 women in rural and urban Australia to identify the gendered discourses governing depression and recovery. Leisure figured as a site of identity transformation where women enacted creative, embodied, and connected subjectivities. The performance of gender through leisure enabled women to practice a different ethic of care for self and, hence, different relations of care for others. These stories make visible the cost of women's emotion work by identifying how negotiations over leisure and the embodiment of emotion play can facilitate recovery in ways that biomedical treatments cannot.
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In this study we explored the experience of competing in the Senior Games and the resultant contributions to the successful aging of older adults. We used in-depth interviews with older adults who participated in the National Senior Games. Analysis of the data produced five central themes: (a) perseverance, (b) career development and significant effort, (c) personal and social benefits, (d) unique ethos, and (e) identification as a senior athlete. We found that participating in the Senior Games as a form of serious leisure enhanced the well-being of older adults and could be utilized as a means by which to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
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Few prospective cohort studies have assessed the association between social capital and mortality. The studies were conducted only in Western countries and did not use the same social capital indicators. The present prospective cohort study aimed to examine the relationships between various forms of individual social capital and all-cause mortality in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) Project in 2003. Mortality data from 2003 to 2008 were analyzed for 14,668 respondents. Both cognitive and structural components of individual social capital were collected: 8 for cognitive social capital (trust, 3; social support, 3; reciprocity, 2) and 9 for structural social capital (social network). Cox proportional hazard models stratified by sex with multiple imputation were used. Age, body mass index, self-rated health, current illness, smoking history, alcohol consumption, exercise, equivalent income and education were used as covariates. During 27,571 person-years of follow-up for men and 29,561 person-years of follow-up for women, 790 deaths in men and 424 in women were observed. In the univariate analyses for men, lower social capital was significantly related to higher mortality in one general trust variable, all generalised reciprocity variables and four social network variables. For women, lower social capital was significantly related to higher mortality in all generalised reciprocity and four social network variables. After adjusting for covariates, lower friendship network was significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality among men (meet friends rarely; HR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.10-1.53) and women (having no friends; HR = 1.81, 95%CI = 1.02-3.23). Among women, lower general trust was significantly related to lower mortality (most people cannot be trusted; HR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.45-0.96). Friendship network was a good predictor for all-cause mortality among older Japanese. In contrast, mistrust was associated with lower mortality among women. Studies with social capital indices considering different culture backgrounds are needed.
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Relatively little empirical attention has focused on the association between social participation and depressive symptoms amongst older adults in Asian nations, where persons over the age of 65 represent a rapidly growing segment of the population. This study explores the dynamic relationship between participation in social activities and trajectories of depressive symptomatology among older Taiwanese adults surveyed over 18 years. Data are from a nationally representative sample of 1,388 adults aged 60-64 first surveyed in 1989 and followed over an 18-year time period for a total of six waves. Individual involvement in social activities was categorized into continuous participation, ceased participation before age 70, initiating participation in older adulthood, never participated, and dropped out before age 70. Two domains of depressive symptoms--negative affect and lack of positive affect--were measured using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Analyses using growth curve modeling showed that continuously participating or initiating participation in social activities later life is significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms among older Taiwanese adults, even after controlling for the confounding effects of aging, individual demographic differences, and health status. These findings suggest that maintaining or initiating social participation in later life benefits the mental health of older adults. Facilitating social activities among older adults is a promising direction for programs intended to promote mental health and successful aging among older adults in Taiwan.
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To investigate how psychosocial resources may improve well-being for older adults, this study explored the relationship among questionnaire measures of optimism, social support and perceptions of control in predicting subjective well-being (measured with the positive affect subscale of the Affect Balance Scale) (Bradburn, 1969) and psychological well-being (measured with the purpose in life scale of the Ryff Psychological Well-being scales) (Ryff, Lee, Essex, & Schmutte, 1994) among older adults. The potential mediating roles of perceived social support and perception of control were also explored. Participants were 225 adults aged from 65 to 94 years. Optimism was found to be a predictor of both subjective and psychological well-being, and perceived social support was found to mediate the relationship between optimism and subjective well-being, but not psychological well-being. In contrast, perception of control was found to mediate the relationship between optimism and psychological well-being, but not subjective wellbeing. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm these pathways.
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A self-determination theoretical framework was applied to examine the relationship between leisure activity engagement and ill-being (depression and health) and the mediating role of relatedness, measured as social support, among older adults in long-term care (N = 110). Results from the latent variable structural equation models suggest that, when controlling for functional status, participating in leisure activities was related to lower ill-being. This relationship was mediated by social support, such that activity engagement facilitated relatedness and relatedness was associated with improved mental and physical health. Discussion of the importance of leisure activities and social support as well as intervention implications are included.
Chapter
The serious leisure perspective (SLP) can be described, in simplest terms, as the theoretical framework that synthesizes three main forms of leisure showing, at once, their distinctive features, similarities, and interrelationships. The forms consist of the (1) serious pursuits (i.e., serious leisure [amateurism, hobbyism, and serious volunteering] and devotee work), (2) casual leisure, and (3) project-based leisure. The serious pursuits are distinguished by six qualities, are motivated by several special rewards, sometimes including flow, and offer a leisure career. Eight types of casual leisure are presented along with their benefits. Project-based leisure fits into leisure lifestyle in its own peculiar way as interstitial activity, like some casual leisure but not like most serious leisure. It can therefore help shape a persons optimal leisure lifestyle.
Article
An intergenerational pickleball tournament was designed to create a setting wherein older adults interact with undergraduate students, generating an intergenerational learning experience. Teams of older adults were recruited through the local Area Agency on Aging and paired with undergraduate students to provide an opportunity for older adults to share their love and knowledge of pickleball with a younger generation. The students interacted with active, older adults in an activity that connected the generations. An informal evaluation, completed by students, and process-evaluative measures revealed the successes of the tournament. Interdisciplinary approaches to this intergenerational experience brought both academic and community partners together for the creation and implementation of the event. This practice-based paper includes a rationale for tournament implementation, describes program goals and implementation details, and includes a theoretical framework for application. Additionally, the authors utilize student feedback and process-evaluation measures to discuss implications for practice and relevance to other locales.
Article
Drawing on unstructured interviews with 70 American women quilters, I examine both the leisure constraints they experience and the acts of resistance they engage in while practicing serious leisure quilting. Even though quilting is a feminized and gendered activity, there are still time and space constraints in the traditional heterosexual family which impact quilting. Women resist such constraints and stereotypical notions of gender relations as they pursue serious leisure quilting. They quilt first for themselves, and second to administer to family and kin needs in gendered ways (e.g., gifts that cement emotional ties to family and friends). As a serious leisure activity, quilting highlights how women accept, reproduce, and negotiate traditional notions of gender in families.
Article
Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to investigate whether depression is associated with reduced participation in social activities among older adults. Additionally, this study assesses whether high-quality familial ties diminish the negative association between depression and social activities. Methods: Using cross-sectional telephone interview data from a sample of individuals 60 years of age and older in Arizona and Florida (N = 2000), this study estimates a series of linear regression models to assess the relationship between depression and social activities, and test whether this association is conditioned by high-quality familial ties using multiplicative interaction terms. Results: As expected, an inverse relationship between depression and social activities is observed. Delving deeper, the regression models reveal that the depression-inactivity association is weaker among older individuals with strong, positive ties to spouses and children. Additional tests demonstrate the mere of existence of familial bonds provides no meaningful benefit - the quality of such ties matters. Conclusion: Findings support the theoretical argument that high-quality familial ties provide supportive coping resources that buffer individuals from the undesirable consequences associated with depression. Moving forward, longitudinal research on the causal links between depression and infrequent participation in social and leisure activities among older adults is warranted.
Article
AimPrevention of depressive symptoms is a very essential issue with regard to the promotion of healthy lifestyles in older people. To date, few studies have examined the relationship between fluctuations in physical activity and depression among older individuals. We thus conducted a longitudinal survey of older adults to examine the effect of long-term fluctuating physical activity on the incidence of depressive symptoms.MethodsA 3-year prospective cohort study was performed in a community-based environment. A total of 680 (291 men and 389 women) individuals aged 65 years and over at the baseline assessment participated. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to assess depressive symptoms, with scores of ≥6 indicative of depression. Participants were categorized into the following four groups based on change in physical activity status between 2002 and 2003: sedentary, cessation, initiation, and maintenance.ResultsThe incidence of depressive symptoms was 16.9% (16.8% in men and 17.0% in women) at 3-year follow up (in 2006). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that physical activity maintenance [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):0.30–0.83] only reduced the incidence of depressive symptoms at 3-year follow up after adjusting for confounding variables.Conclusions Continuous physical activity may be a valuable and simple way to prevent depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older people. Therefore, it is necessary to implement interventions that teach older adults how to integrate physical activity into their daily lives.
Article
Important associations have been found between social relationships and various mental health outcomes. However, limited data exists for these associations among older adults especially in terms of relationship quality in partnerships. This study aimed to examine the associations of positive and negative partner interactions and social networks with depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation. Nationally-representative, cross-sectional data of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) was analyzed. The analytical sample consisted of 4988 community dwelling adults aged >50 years in spouse/partner relationships. Information on sociodemographics and social relationships were assessed using standard questions. Validated scales for depression and anxiety, and a single-item question for suicidal ideation were used to assess mental health outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between social relationships and depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. After adjusting for confounders, negative partner interactions were significantly associated with increased likelihood of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation, while positive partner interactions were significantly and inversely related to anxiety and suicidal ideation. Higher levels of social integration were significantly associated with lower odds for depression. Given the cross-sectional nature of the research, no firm conclusions can be made in terms of directions of causality. By assessing the available social network of older adults, as well as the areas in their social relationships that need to be addressed, it may be possible for practitioners and policy makers to maximize the benefits of network integration and minimize the potentially harmful aspects of social relationships, thereby improving overall mental health and emotional well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
Umpire (or referee) recruitment and retention is an issue for many sports, yet little is known about the positive experiences that influence an individual's decision to continue umpiring. This research examined umpiring as serious leisure. Nineteen volunteer umpires in Australian Rules football were interviewed. There are four key findings from this research: individuals actively choose to umpire rather than to engage in other leisure activities; individuals derive meaning from engaging in umpiring, and understand themselves as athletes; umpires experience isolation ; and, socialisation within the umpire group is important group cohesion and assists in reinforcing identity and meaning. Umpiring is a serious leisure pursuit that can be complementary to other leisure activities. This research outlines strategies for recruitment and retention.
Article
Previous studies assessing protective effects of physical activity on depression have had conflicting results; one recent study argued that excluding disabled subjects attenuated any observed effects. The authors' objective was to compare the effects of higher levels of physical activity on prevalent and incident depression with and without exclusion of disabled subjects. Participants were 1,947 community-dwelling adults from the Alameda County Study aged 50-94 years at baseline in 1994 with 5 years of follow-up. Depression was measured using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Physical activity was measured with an eight-point scale; odds ratios are based upon a one-point increase on the scale. Even with adjustments for age, sex, ethnicity, financial strain, chronic conditions, disability, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, and social relations, greater physical activity was protective for both prevalent depression (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.79, 1.01) and incident depression (adjusted OR = 0.83, 95% Cl: 0.73, 0.96) over 5 years. Exclusion of disabled subjects did not attenuate the incidence results (adjusted OR = 0.79, 95% Cl: 0.67, 0.92). Findings support the protective effects of physical activity on depression for older adults and argue against excluding disabled subjects from similar studies.
Article
In this paper, we examined the relationships between motivation to volunteer, serious leisure, and the subjective well-being of volunteers at the 2010 Taipei International Flora Exposition. This study used convenience sampling to recruit a total of 1,094 volunteers. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. The results of this study revealed that serious leisure positively associated with both motivation to volunteer and volunteers' subjective well-being, while the association between motivation to volunteer and subjective well-being, at a level of 0.5, was not significant. These results suggest that greater attention in future research should be paid to the relationship between motivation to volunteer and volunteers' subjective well-being, with a focus placed on implications for volunteers' subjective well-being.
Chapter
The serious leisure perspective (SLP) can be described, in simplest terms, as the theoretic framework that synthesizes three main forms of leisure and shows, at once, their distinctive features, similarities, and interrelationships (the SLP is discussed in detail in Stebbins, 1992, 2001a, 2007/2015). Additionally, the Perspective (to avoid confusion, Perspective is capitalized wherever it appears as shorthand for serious leisure perspective) considers how the three forms — serious pursuits (serious leisure/devotee work), casual leisure, and project-based leisure — are shaped by various psychological, social, cultural, and historical conditions. Each form serves as a conceptual umbrella for a range of types of related activities. That the Perspective takes its name from the first of these should in no way suggest that it be regarded as the most important or superior of the three in some abstract sense. Rather, the Perspective is so titled simply because it got its start in the study of serious leisure; such leisure is, strictly from the standpoint of intellectual invention, the godfather of the other two. Furthermore, serious leisure has become the bench mark from which analyses of casual and project-based leisure have often been undertaken. So, naming the Perspective after the first facilitates intellectual recognition; it keeps the idea in familiar territory for all concerned.
Article
Serious leisure careers have a beginning, middle and end, yet few studies examine the beginning stage of leisure careers dominated by women. Drawing from interviews with male and female belly dancers in the USA, this study examines how people join serious leisure activities. Results show that both men and women were interested in dance, arts and history, had personal ties to belly dance, and wanted an enjoyable form of exercise to match their capabilities when they entered the world of belly dance. Unlike men, the women in this study also experienced major life transitions, such as diminishing familial responsibilities, job and school issues, moving and shifting relationships. These findings have implications for the gendered nature of serious leisure.
Article
A sample of older adult volunteers (JV = 20, 65 years and older) in community sport organizations was interviewed in order to understand their experiences with volunteering. An interdiscipiinary framework of serious ieisure, oider aduit voiun-teering, and older adult leisure was used to interpret the findings. Volunteering in this context was found to be consistent with serious leisure based on characteris-tics such as substantiai involvement, strong identification with the activity, and the need to persevere. Oider adults viewed their experience as extremeiy positive, enabiing them to make a meaningfui contribution and to receive several benefits of participation. The most frequentiy noted negative experience was interpersonai relations, yet overall, this was not enough to drive participants away from this activity. Implications for enhancing older adult voiunteering are discussed and avenues for future research are provided.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between serious leisure characteristics and subjective well-being as well as clarify the moderating effect of spousal support in their relationships. A total of 264 valid questionnaires were collected from a sample of older adult volunteers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate a model linking serious leisure, spousal support to subjective wellbeing. As expected, the results show that older adult volunteers having greater serious leisure characteristics lead to a high level of subjective well-being. The findings further revealed that spousal support moderated the effect of serious leisure characteristics on subjective well-being. This indicates that the higher the level of spousal support, the larger is the likelihood that serious leisure will lead to greater subjective well-being. The results are suggested to be useful references for the older adult volunteers while improving spousal support, in order to increase the level of well-being.
Article
Purpose of study: Although leisure activities benefit the mental health of the elderly, the effect of changes in leisure activities on dimensions of depressive symptoms remains unclear. This investigation examined the influences of changes in intellectual, social, and physical activities between waves on four dimensions of depressive symptoms at follow-up. Design and methods: Random effects modeling was utilized with data from a nationwide longitudinal study conducted in Taiwan. The study data comprised 6,942 observations from 2,660 elders over a 12-year period. Results: The results suggested that changes in physical activities contributed to depressive symptoms which reflected positive affect in the later wave. Increased social activities between waves predicted higher positive affect and lower interpersonal difficulties scores at follow-up. Increased intellectual activities between waves did not substantially affect any domain of depressive symptoms. In contrast, declines in intellectual activities between waves predicted higher scores in three depressive symptoms domains, including depressed mood, somatic symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties. Implications: Engagement in a varied range of activities benefits mental health among elders more than participation in any single type of activity among elders. Reducing physical activities can lower positive affect, while the adverse effect may be balanced by increasing social activities. Also, the impact of decreasing intellectual activities on the interpersonal difficulties domain of depressive symptoms may be offset by increasing social activities.
Article
Objective Depression has been associated with increased risk of heart failure (HF). Because anxiety is highly comorbid with depression, we sought to establish if anxiety, depression, or their co-occurrence is associated with incident HF.MethodsA retrospective cohort (N = 236,079) including Veteran's Administration patients (age, 50-80 years) free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline was followed up between 2001 and 2007. Cox proportional hazards models were computed to estimate the association between anxiety disorders alone, major depressive disorder (MDD) alone, and the combination of anxiety and MDD, with incident HF before and after adjusting for sociodemographics, CVD risk factors (Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity), nicotine dependence/personal history of tobacco use, substance use disorders (alcohol and illicit drug abuse/dependence), and psychotropic medication.ResultsCompared with unaffected patients, those with anxiety only, MDD only, and both disorders were at increased risk for incident HF in age-adjusted models (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19 [ 95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.10-1.28], HR = 1.21 [95% CI = 1.13-1.28], and HR = 1.24 [95% CI = 1.17-1.32], respectively). After controlling for psychotropics in a full model, the association between anxiety only, MDD only, and both disorders and incident HF increased (HRs = 1.46, 1.56, and 1.74, respectively).Conclusions Anxiety disorders, MDD, and co-occurring anxiety and MDD are associated with incident HF in this large cohort of Veteran's Administration patients free of CVD at baseline. This risk of HF is greater after accounting for protective effects of psychotropic medications. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of depression and anxiety and their pharmacological treatment in the etiology of HF.
Book
This book explores the relationship between amateurs and professionals within the framework of serious leisure.
Article
This qualitative study investigates the premise that serious leisure supports successful aging (Rowe & Kahn, 1997). Older golfers were studied because golf is popular with older adults, and its characteristics suggest it has potential to contribute to successful aging and that it is well suited for serious leisure. In-depth interviews were used to assess subjects' (n = 19) seriousness about golf and its contribution to successful aging. Golfers (8 males, 11 females) ranged in age from 67 to 87 (x=77). Analysis revealed four types of golfers with varying degrees of seriousness (Stebbins, 1992) about golf. Core devotees viewed golf as a central focus of their lives. Moderate devotees emphasized their enjoyment of golf and all it involved. Social golfers viewed golf's primary role as providing a framework for meeting people and interacting with friends. Golf as therapy players felt golf helped them cope with physical and emotional challenges. Core devotees were more able to identify specific contributions of golf to successful aging. As the degree of seriousness about golf decreased, golf's contribution to successful aging also seemed to decrease. This suggests that serious leisure activities, particularly those with physical and cognitive requirements, contribute to successful aging.
Article
The complex experience of kayakers on an adventure tour is explored through the attributes and qualities of Stebbins' concept of serious leisure. Serious leisure is related to Bourdieu's term ‘field’ or, more descriptively, a ‘way of thinking’, which provides a theoretical framework appropriate to understanding adventure tourism experiences. The paper is based on observations of participation, conversations and in‐depth interviews with nine tourists on a 14‐day white‐water kayaking package tour of the South Island of New Zealand, in February 2002. Analysis of the resulting field notes and transcripts of interviews and conversations revealed an interpretation of the participants' experience and their understanding of this experience which, although embedded in the images and language of adventure, is focused on serious leisure attributes of personal challenge, status and safe success. The conclusion of this paper is that the package adventure tour experience can be a significant marker in serious leisure careers.
Article
‘Extreme’ or adventure sports continue to enjoy a great deal of media attention, which is matched by growth in terms of overall participation in these activities. As part of a larger research project examining high-risk leisure, this author has been conducting a study of the adventure sport of Whitewater kayaking in the Canadian Rockies since June 2000. This research project is exploratory in nature and makes use of Glaser and Strauss's (1967) grounded theory method to identify emerging themes. However, the project is framed by Stebbins' (1992) theory of serious leisure. Several themes have been identified with data collection and analysis ongoing in other phases of the project. This report of research findings concentrates on the career trajectory of Whitewater kayakers. In seeking to make sense of the different career trajectories, it is necessary to problematize the concept of serious leisure (Bartram, 2001a). This draws attention to the role of broader power relations and the effect of these on career trajectories. By using feminist analysis as a theoretical lens, it is apparent that Whitewater career trajectories vary according to important stratifiers such as age, class, parental status, athletic ability, and gender.
Article
To identify trajectories of depressive symptoms in older community residents. Depressive symptomatology, based on a modified Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, was obtained at years 0, 3, 6, and 10, in the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (n = 4162). Generalized growth mixture models identified the latent class trajectories present. Baseline demographic, health, and social characteristics distinguishing the classes were identified using multinomial logistic regression. Four latent class trajectories were identified. Class 1 - stable low depressive symptomatology (76.6% of the sample); class 2 - initially low depressive symptomatology, increasing to the subsyndromal level (10.0%); class 3 - stable high depressive symptomatology (5.4%); class 4 - high depressive symptomatology improving over 6 years before reverting somewhat (8.0%). Class 1 was younger, male gender, with better education, health, and social resources, in contrast to class 3. Class 2 had poorer cognitive functioning and higher death rate. Class 4 had better health and social resources. Reduction in high depressive symptomatology is associated with more education, better health, fewer stressful events, and a larger social network. Increasing depressive symptomatology is accompanied by poorer physical and cognitive health, more stressful life events, and greater risk of death.
Article
To examine in men and women the independent associations between anxiety and depression and 1-year incident cognitive impairment and to examine the association of cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND) and incident cognitive impairment with 1-year incident anxiety or depression. Prospective cohort study. General community. Population-based sample of 1,942 individuals aged 65 to 96. Two structured interviews 12 months apart evaluated anxiety and mood symptoms and disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. Incident cognitive impairment was defined as no CIND at baseline and a follow-up Mini-Mental State Examination score at least 2 points below baseline and below the 15th percentile according to normative data. The associations between cognitive impairment and anxiety or depression were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. Incident cognitive impairment was, independently of depression, associated with baseline anxiety disorders in men (odds ratio (OR)=6.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.39-28.29) and anxiety symptoms in women (OR=2.14, 95%=1.06-4.34). Moreover, the results indicated that depression disorders in men (OR=8.87, 95%=2.13-36.96) and anxiety symptoms in women (OR=4.31, 95%=1.74-10.67) were particularly linked to incident amnestic cognitive impairment, whereas anxiety disorders in men (OR=12.01, 95%=1.73-83.26) were especially associated with incident nonamnestic cognitive impairment. CIND at baseline and incident cognitive impairment were not associated with incident anxiety or depression. Anxiety and depression appear to have different relationships with incident cognitive impairment according to sex and the nature of cognitive impairment. Clinicians should pay particular attention to anxiety in older adults because it may shortly be followed by incident cognitive treatment.
Article
Depression is associated with an increased mortality risk. It is not known to what extent depression characteristics such as severity and length of exposure to depression contribute to the association with excess mortality. To investigate the association between depression severity and duration with mortality in community-living elderly. Two-wave prospective cohort study with 10-year follow-up of vital status. Assessment of depression at baseline and at three year follow-up (GMS-AGECAT). Cox proportional hazards analyses of mortality with depression according to severity and length of exposure, adjusted for demographic variables, physical illnesses, cognitive decline and functional disabilities. Randomly selected cohort of 3 746 non-demented older community-living persons in the city of Amsterdam. Excess mortality of both the baseline cohort, and of non-demented subjects participating in both assessments (n = 1989). Both moderate (MHR 1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.61) and severe depression (MHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68) predicted 10-year mortality after multivariate adjustment. Chronic depression was associated with a 41% higher mortality risk in 6-year follow-up compared to subjects without depression. Severity and chronicity of depression are associated with a higher mortality risk. In combination with other findings this is suggestive of a causal relationship and may have implications for both preventive and treatment strategies of late-life depression.
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Dispositional optimism, defined as a generalized tendency to positive outcome expectancies, is associated with well-being and successful aging. However, it remains unclear whether optimism is also correlated to less feelings of loneliness over time. We aimed to determine whether dispositional optimism is prospectively associated with less feelings of loneliness, independently of potential confounders inherent to the aging process. We observed 416 older men aged between 70 and 89 years (mean 74.9 years, standard deviation [SD] 4.7 years) within the population-based Zutphen Elderly Study during 10 years of follow-up. Baseline dispositional optimism was assessed using a four-item questionnaire. The presence of feelings of loneliness, the main outcome of our study, was assessed using the 11-item loneliness scale of De Jong Gierveld in the years 1990, 1993, 1995, and 2000. The association between baseline dispositional optimism and loneliness over time was tested by using multilevel regression analysis and by adjusting for potential confounders (i.e. age, living arrangement, social contacts, widowhood, memberships, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms). Feelings of loneliness significantly increased during 10 years of follow-up but showed temporal stability (reliability coefficient 0.78). Low baseline dispositional optimism was strongly associated with loneliness over time, also in the adjusted analysis. A 1 SD increase in baseline dispositional optimism was associated with a 0.14 SD (95% confidence interval 0.04-0.23) lower level of loneliness (F(1,320)  = 7.8; p = 0.006). Dispositional optimism is correlated to lower feelings of loneliness over time in older men, independently of depression or changes in social network.
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Recent research demonstrates that involvement in productive activities, particularly volunteering, has important societal and individual benefits in the contemporary aging environment. However, less attention has been paid to the structaral dimension of volunteering or what encourages or discourages older people regarding volunteering. The authors present the findings from a two-phase Australian case study that explores the incentives and barriers to volunteering by those aged 50 and older, all members of a national seniors organization. Results suggest that governments and organizations need to consider many issues if more seniors are to be attracted to volunteering. Ensuring appropriate incentives to encourage volunteering was viewed as particularly important, with incentives including the need for more training, more flexible and diverse options, and more opportunities for intergenerational volunteering. Potential barriers included negative perceptions of volunteer activities, fear of encountering ageism, and concerns about the increasingly regulatory organizational environment.