Article

Framing Climate Change: Exploring the Role of Emotion in Generating Advocacy Behavior

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Abstract

Substantial research examines the cognitive factors underlying proenviron-mental message effectiveness. In contrast, this study investigates the role of emotion, fear and hope specifically, in the gain/loss framing of environmental policy initiatives. The 2 (threat vs. no threat) × 2 (gain- vs. loss-framed efficacy) experiment revealed emotion, especially hope, as a key mediator between gain-framed messages and desired climate change policy attitudes and advocacy. Results further supported the value of sequencing emotional experiences to enhance persuasive effect. This research offers an inaugural test of emotional flow theorizing and highlights the need for additional research on emotional processes in environmental communication.

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... Building on previous work on fear appeals in risk communication (Witte and Allen, 2000), a few studies have examined the interaction between fear and efficacy in the context of climate change (van Zomeren et al., 2010;Chen, 2016;Scharks, 2016;Nabi et al., 2018). Some find support for the threat-with-efficacy structure (Nabi et al., 2018), while others suggest that efficacy information is more important than threatening information in predicting attitudes and intentions (van Zomeren et al., 2010;Chen, 2016). ...
... Building on previous work on fear appeals in risk communication (Witte and Allen, 2000), a few studies have examined the interaction between fear and efficacy in the context of climate change (van Zomeren et al., 2010;Chen, 2016;Scharks, 2016;Nabi et al., 2018). Some find support for the threat-with-efficacy structure (Nabi et al., 2018), while others suggest that efficacy information is more important than threatening information in predicting attitudes and intentions (van Zomeren et al., 2010;Chen, 2016). Given the potentially negative effect of fear-based messaging, and considering the importance of efficacy perceptions in predicting constructive responses to climate change (Jugert et al., 2016;Bostrom et al., 2018), scholars have more recently begun to investigate the effect of positive-only appeals in climate change communication, producing similarly mixed findings. ...
... One possible explanation for the mixed findings identified above is that the effect of positive and negative messaging may be mediated by specific message-induced emotions, which are not accounted for in many of the studies examining the effectiveness of persuasive appeals. While message-induced emotions-particularly hope, fear and worry-have been found to play a mediating role in framing effects (Nabi et al., 2018), many studies examining the effectiveness of fear appeals did not seek, find, nor report evidence that their messages were effective in actually evoking the intended emotional response (Reser and Bradley, 2017). Importantly, measures of message-induced emotional arousal were included in most experimental studies yielding positive effects of fear appeals, either alone (Meijnders et al., 2001;van Zomeren et al., 2010;Skurka et al., 2018) or in a threat-efficacy structure (Hartmann et al., 2014;Nabi et al., 2018), whereas such measures were lacking in many studies reporting negative effects (e.g., Feinberg and Willer, 2011;Hart and Nisbet, 2012;Chen, 2016). ...
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Article
Despite decades of warning from climate scientists, the international community has largely failed at reining in planet-warming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this context, scientific assessments of climate change—like those periodic reviews provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)—are repeatedly faced with the challenge of communicating the rapidly closing window for securing a livable future on Earth. Yet, it remains unclear whether sounding “code red for humanity” fosters climate action or climate paralysis. The ongoing debate among climate change communication scholars about the (in)effectiveness of fear-based messaging sheds light on three intertwined and often overlooked aspects of emotional appeals in communication: the content of the message frame, the emotional arousal it induces, and the values and dispositions of the audiences receiving the message. While previous work has addressed questions related to one or two of these aspects, this study examines the role of positive and negative messaging in (de)motivating climate action, with particular attention to how messages, emotions and audiences interact in the process of communication. Leveraging data drawn from a sample of environmental group supporters in Canada (N = 308), we first identify and describe four unique audiences within supporters of Canada's environmental movement that vary in their levels of engagement and radicalism. We then examine how negative and positive messaging influence emotional arousal and climate action across audience segments. We find that negative messages about climate change (e.g., sounding “code red for humanity”) can be less mobilizing than positive messaging, even when the message is directed toward relatively engaged audiences and followed by the opportunity to take a specific, actionable and effective action. These findings help shed light on the potential limits of fear-based messaging in the context of a global public health pandemic while further highlighting the importance of communicating in ways that inspire people through hopeful and optimistic messages.
... One possible factor is emotion. The CLT framework, by itself, has provided a cognitive account for many behavior and decision-making processes (Nabi et al. 2018). However, climate change is a polarized topic, and communication research on it has moved beyond the cognitive factors underlying message effectiveness to investigate the role of emotions, such as guilt, fear, hope (e.g., Bilandzic et al. 2017;Feldman and Hart 2016;Feldman and Hart 2018). ...
... The view of climate change as abstract and psychologically distant is a major challenge to effective communication of the issue, as it can imply little personal relevance and may lead to delayed actions (Brody et al. 2012;Leiserowitz 2006). However, recent research also found evidence that decreased psychological distance or abstraction levels of climate change did not always lead to increased willingness to act (Brügger et Nowadays, going beyond the cognitive "de cit model," scholars point out that on climate change, a polarized topic, emotions have become an important factor in shaping people's attitudes and behaviors (Nabi et al. 2018). Visuals, in particular, have the ability to arouse emotions to make the message effective. ...
... Visuals, in particular, have the ability to arouse emotions to make the message effective. Recent climate change communication studies have started to explore emotions, visuals, and CLT, such as climate visuals' effect on emotions , the interaction between emotion and information (Nabi et al. 2018), self-conscious emotions in relation to CLT (Ejelöv et al. 2018). However, the attention was devoted to discrete emotions, textual information. ...
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This study examines how the level of concreteness and abstraction of climate change imagery influences people’s responses via emotional valence, and how such effect is moderated by people’s visual literacy. Findings show that concrete images promote negative feelings, which subsequently reduce people’s perceived distance to climate change, encourage concern and behavioral intention. Less visually literate people are more influenced by the visuals’ effect and are more motivated by concrete images. Our study integrates theoretical perspectives from construal level, emotional valence and visual literacy, while also offering practical advice regarding how to effectively visualize climate change to engage a wide audience.
... In the conservation https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol27/iss3/art27/ field specifically, there have been mixed recommendations on using emotions, resulting from an incomplete understanding of the causal relationship between particular emotions, contexts, and environmental behaviors (e.g., Chapman et al. 2017, Nabi et al. 2018, Kidd et al. 2019, McAfee and Connell 2019. ...
... Fear's main function as an emotion is to help people avoid harm and risks in the near or immediate future, triggering an intense fight-or-flight response (Öhman 1993, Condon et al. 2014, Nabi et al. 2018. Various studies have found that eliciting fear leads to less risky decision making and more pessimistic views of situations, increasing the perception of risk (Hargie 2010, Xie et al. 2011. ...
... Researchers examining the use of fear on environmental challenges have observed that fear works best for short-term concerns when there are identifiable and immediate threats, such as imminent resource scarcity (Öhman 1993, O'Neill and Nicholson-Cole 2009, Murphy and Murphy 2012, Smith and Leiserowitz 2014. For fear to be most effective, people need to believe that the threat to them is severe, that they are vulnerable to this threat, and that they can take action to mitigate that threat (Witte and Allen 2000, O'Neill and Nicholson-Cole 2009, Hargie 2010, Nabi et al. 2018. A meta-analysis of 100 papers using fear appeals for public health interventions describes a reliable, positive effect for fear appeals on attitudes, intentions, and behavior, especially when paired with high-efficacy messages (Witte and Allen 2000). ...
Article
Many global environmental threats are driven by human behavior and require behavioral solutions. Researchers in the environmental field have recently explored the behavioral sciences as core to changing behavior for conservation, yet leveraging human emotions remains an underused tool for behavior change compared to others like social norms. Humans experience a range of emotions that each cause distinct patterns of behavior depending on unique contexts that evolved over time; this presents an opportunity to leverage emotions to support behavior-change goals. The existing literature and models of behavior change offer minimal guidance about which specific emotions to use in which contexts and how those emotions might lead to certain behaviors. In the environmental field specifically, there have been mixed recommendations on using emotions, resulting from an incomplete understanding of the causal relationship between emotions, contexts, and environmental behaviors. We propose that adopting a functionalist approach, which describes emotions as functional states designed to produce outcomes in specific contexts, will help to unlock emotions as a tool for conservation. To demonstrate this approach, we identified fear, hope, the prospect of shame, pride, anger, and interest as particularly relevant for environmental behavior change. Based on an understanding of each emotion’s function, we developed an emotion-behavior pathway that described the expected outcome of using an emotion in a particular context. Applying these emotional-behavior pathways can allow both researchers and practitioners to advance the science of shifting environmental behavior through emotion.
... With this as context, numerous studies have examined the news media's use of framing and how it contributes to one's perceptions and willingness to take action on politically charged issues like climate change (Benford & Snow, 2000;Matthews, 2020;Nisbet, 2009). The outcome of several framing studies has shown that the American news framing of the climate crisis has had considerable influence on the public's understanding of climate-related issues, but there is a lack of public engagement (Feldman & Hart, 2018a;Geiger et al., 2017;Nabi et al., 2018). As a result, in the United States, the news media have poorly communicated and misinformed the public about climate change. ...
... Visuals function similar to text in highlighting the importance of some topics over others and may influence people's thinking and opinions on issues related to climate change (Metag et al., 2016;Nabi et al., 2018;Rebich-Hespanha et al., 2015). A growing number of studies have thus started investigating how traditional news visually frames climate change and found visuals help convey the tone of a news story and serve as a shorthand for portraying climate impacts O'Neill, 2020;Rebich-Hespanha & Rice, 2016). ...
... The literature also points to the news media's overreliance on using affective imagery to depict climate threats or consequences (Lehman et al., 2019;O'Neill & Smith, 2014). Yet, while fear-evoking imagery may draw attention to the climate crisis, they have been unsuccessful in motivating behavioral change because people generally feel powerless (Metag et al., 2016;Nabi et al., 2018;O'Neill & Nicholson-Cole, 2009). In addition, other studies found that the news media's visuals misrepresent or contradict stories about climate change Lough & Ashe, 2021;Rebich-Hespanha et al., 2015). ...
Article
A content analysis of legacy news and digital media from March 2015 to December 2018 found modest progress in communicating solutions to combat climate change. However, the mitigation frame continues to overshadow the adaptation frame and less emphasis on preparing for and adjusting to changing climate conditions happening now. Overall, legacy news and digital media still frame climate solutions using familiar terms and visuals that de-emphasize concrete, individual actions to combat climate change.
... With this as context, numerous studies have examined the news media's use of framing and how it contributes to one's perceptions and willingness to take action on politically charged issues like climate change (Benford & Snow, 2000;Matthews, 2020;Nisbet, 2009). The outcome of several framing studies has shown that the American news framing of the climate crisis has had considerable influence on the public's understanding of climate-related issues, but there is a lack of public engagement (Feldman & Hart, 2018a;Geiger et al., 2017;Nabi et al., 2018). As a result, in the United States, the news media have poorly communicated and misinformed the public about climate change. ...
... Visuals function similar to text in highlighting the importance of some topics over others and may influence people's thinking and opinions on issues related to climate change (Metag et al., 2016;Nabi et al., 2018;Rebich-Hespanha et al., 2015). A growing number of studies have thus started investigating how traditional news visually frames climate change and found visuals help convey the tone of a news story and serve as a shorthand for portraying climate impacts O'Neill, 2020;Rebich-Hespanha & Rice, 2016). ...
... The literature also points to the news media's overreliance on using affective imagery to depict climate threats or consequences (Lehman et al., 2019;O'Neill & Smith, 2014). Yet, while fear-evoking imagery may draw attention to the climate crisis, they have been unsuccessful in motivating behavioral change because people generally feel powerless (Metag et al., 2016;Nabi et al., 2018;O'Neill & Nicholson-Cole, 2009). In addition, other studies found that the news media's visuals misrepresent or contradict stories about climate change Lough & Ashe, 2021;Rebich-Hespanha et al., 2015). ...
Article
A content analysis of legacy news and digital media from March 2015 to December 2018 found modest progress in communicating solutions to combat climate change. However, the mitigation frame continues to overshadow the adaptation frame and less emphasis on preparing for and adjusting to changing climate conditions happening now. Overall, legacy news and digital media still frame climate solutions using familiar terms and visuals that de-emphasize concrete, individual actions to combat climate change.
... For example, while gainframed carbon offsetting options for travelers are more effective than loss-framed messages (Chi et al., 2021), gain-framed and loss-framed messages result in similar levels of perceived CSR, food waste reduction intention and re-patronage intentions in a restaurant context (Huang & Liu, 2020). This suggests the existence of affective, as well as contextual, mediators and moderators that might influence the persuasion outcomes of these frames (Nabi et al., 2018;Roeser, 2012). In this paper, we examine emotions as a potential mediator. ...
... In CSR advertising, understanding emotions is important as emotions can influence consumers' attitudes toward the cause and the company (Lu, 2016). Emotions clearly influence people's environmental attitudes and behaviors (Nabi et al., 2018), and they help generate a sense of urgency regarding the consequences of climate change, which are often distant and, therefore, somewhat abstract to the individual (Bilandzic et al., 2017). ...
... In the context of CSR communications, Bilandzic et al. (2017) show that a positive, gain-framed message (i.e., one that outlines the desirable effects of engaging in climate protection) generates hope, while a loss-framed message (i.e., one that outlines the undesirable effects of not engaging in climate protection) decreases feelings of hope while strengthening feelings of guilt and fear. Similarly, for climate change, Nabi et al. (2018) show that gain-framed (vs. loss-framed) messages induce hope, while loss-framed (vs. ...
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Article
While recent research on sustainability communication demonstrates the relevance of message framing, research on the effects of message framing on consumers’ emotions is scant. Using the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) framework, this paper examines the impact of environmental advertisements (stimuli) on two discrete emotions – hope and guilt – (organism) and how these emotions influence consumers’ behavioral intentions (responses). Relying on the prospect theory, this study focuses on positive (gain) and negative (loss) frames. Study 1 shows that, in the context of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), a gain message elicits hope while a loss-message triggers guilt. Study 2 shows that both emotions positively influence consumers’ attitudes toward the cause; however, only hope affects attitude toward the company. Attitudes toward the cause and the company, in turn, influence consumers’ behavioral intentions. 虽然最近关于可持续性传播的研究证明了信息框架的相关性,但关于信息框架对消费者情绪的影响的研究却很少. 利用刺激-有机体反应 (S-O-R) 框架, 本文考察了环境广告 (刺激) 对两种离散情绪——希望和内疚 (有机体) 的影响, 以及这些情绪如何影响消费者的行为意图 (反应). 基于前景理论, 本研究主要关注正 (增益) 和负 (损耗) 帧. 研究1表明, 在企业社会责任 (CSR) 的背景下, 收益信息引发希望, 而损失信息引发内疚. 研究2表明, 两种情绪都会积极影响消费者对原因的态度; 然而, 只有希望会影响人们对公司的态度. 对事业和公司的态度反过来会影响消费者的行为意图.
... Thus, if the goal of any food waste campaign is for individuals to reduce their waste, goal framing becomes a viable message strategy. Prior research (Nabi, Gustafson, and Jensen, 2018) has shown that gain (loss) messages elicit positive (negative) emotions in relation to climate change, with hope mediating the effect of gainframed messages relating to climate change policy attitudes and advocacy. Likewise, previous research (Septianto, Northey and Dolan, 2019) has suggested both fear and hope are key mechanisms that drive consumer intentions to purchase counterfeit luxury goods. ...
... Trait hope is present across situations and times, while state-based hope occurs temporarily as a result of situational factors (Snyder et al., 1996). However, in both studies outlined above (Nabi et al., 2018;Septianto, Northey, & Dolan, 2019), the researchers failed to differentiate between state and trait hope. Nonetheless, it can be inferred their focus was on state hope and state fear, given that gain or loss framed messages in advertisements influence emotional states. ...
... Previous studies have tested the effectiveness of gain and loss messages in various contexts (Kim, Kim, & Marshall, 2014) such as promoting self-care behavior (Meyerowitz & Chaiken, 1987), exercise , healthy eating (Godinho, Alvarez, & Lima, 2016), responsible gambling (Orazi, Lei, & Bove, 2015), and reducing food waste (Chen & Jai, 2018;Khalil et al., 2021). In this regard, the primary focus has been testing the mediating and moderating impact of cognitive factors (Nabi et al., 2018; such as processing fluency (Lee & Aaker, 2004) and issue involvement (Maheswaran & Meyers-Levy, 1990), with less attention paid to the role of message framing in eliciting emotions (Nabi et al., 2018). ...
Article
Food waste is a major global issue. Annually, more than 40% of all food produced for human consumption is sent to landfill, resulting in significant environmental, financial, and social consequences. Importantly, most of this waste happens at the household level. Hence, effective ways to influence intentions and behaviors to reduce household food waste must be identified. This paper investigates the impact of hope elicited by message framing on intentions and behavior relating to food waste reduction, and conditions under which such emotion is more effective. Results show hope elicited by gain (vs. loss) messages mediates the relationship between messages and behavior and intentions, and participants feeling hope show greater intention not to waste food when reading how (vs. why) messages. This research builds on current theory involving hope theory and message framing, presents avenues for future research and discusses managerial implications of message framing relating to behavior change campaigns.
... Drawing heavily on cognitive and social psychology, research has explored a wide range of challenges, from seeking to understand attitudes to risk, mental barriers, and strategies for inducing behaviour change to examining the ways in which climate scientists interact with a range of audiences (e.g. policymakers, the media, and stakeholders) (Nerlich et al., 2010). ...
... Scientific institutions are faced with the continual challenge of explaining and justifying their work, not only to policymakers but also to society as a whole . To this end, efforts to communicate climate science have largely followed a "knowledge-deficit" perspective in which "deficient" knowledge among non-specialist individuals is assumed to be the cause of divergent opinions between scientists and publics (Nabi et al., 2018). Indeed, this approach has formed the basis for extensive programmes of climate outreach and engagement in the UK, the USA, and Australia (Corner and Groves, 2014). ...
Full-text available
Article
The climate science community faces a major challenge with respect to communicating the risks associated with climate change within a heavily politicised landscape that is characterised by varying degrees of denial, scepticism, distrust in scientific enterprise, and an increased prevalence of misinformation ("fake news"). This issue is particularly significant given the reliance on conventional "deficit"communication approaches, which are based on the assumption that scientific information provision will necessarily lead to desired behavioural changes. Indeed, the constrained orthodoxy of scientific practices in seeking to maintain strict objectivity and political separation imposes very tangible limits on the potential effectiveness of climate scientists for communicating risk in many contemporary settings. To address these challenges, this paper uses insights from a collaboration between UK climate scientists and artist researchers to argue for a more creative and emotionally attentive approach to climate science engagement and advocacy. In so doing, the paper highlights innovative ways in which climate change communication can be reimagined through different art forms to enable complex concepts to become knowable. We suggest that in learning to express their work through forms of art, including print-making, theatre and performance, song-writing, and creative writing, researchers experienced not only a sense of liberation from the rigid communicative framework operating in their familiar scientific environment but also a growing self-confidence in their ability and willingness to engage in new ways of expressing their work. As such, we argue that scientific institutions and funding bodies should recognise the potential value of climate scientists engaging in advocacy through art-science collaborations and that these personal investments and contributions to science engagement by individuals should be rewarded and valued alongside conventional scientific outputs.
... In a study of high school students and young adults in the United Kingdom, O'Neill and Nicholson-Cole found that individuals tended to conceive of climate change as a global and distant issue, which made individual actions or behavior changes to reduce carbon consumption feel meaningless in relation to the scale of the problem [4]. In another study examining young adults (age [18][19][20][21][22][23][24] in Australia, Jones and Davidson found that, in contrast to the perception of education as empowering, participants described how educational experiences around climate change left them feeling stripped of power, abandoned by older generations, and anxious about a future dominated by climate change [14]. Findings from these studies are not unique, as numerous studies have identified concerning emotional responses to climate change messaging and education, including fear [4,7], anxiety [14,15], sadness/despair/grief [7,14], powerlessness/lack of control [4,7,14], helplessness [4,15,16], hopelessness/fatalism [15,16], and denial [4,7,16]. ...
... Evidence suggests that the emotional components of self-efficacy construction may have a direct connection to feelings of hope, potentially making efficacy a useful framework for understanding experiences of hope and hopelessness toward climate change. Some scholars have identified that an increased sense of efficacy evokes feelings of hope, which in turn has a positive influence on desired attitudinal and behavioral outcomes for climate change [23][24][25]. Given the apparent importance and usefulness of selfefficacy as a construct for measuring and fostering hope, empowerment, and future action or engagement, it is crucial to understand what content and pedagogical approaches are effective at elevating students' sense of self-efficacy regarding climate change. ...
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Article
As institutions of knowledge and innovation, colleges and universities have a responsibility to prepare students to lead in a world impacted by climate change. While sustainability and climate change have been increasingly addressed on campuses, several aspects of typical climate change education, such as the use of fear appeals, and crisis narratives, have served to disempower and disengage students from the issue. Evidence suggests that incorporating justice-oriented concepts and pedagogies may help students build the skills and confidence to engage in complex social concerns. This qualitative study sought to understand the ways in which an undergraduate environmental justice course at the University of Michigan might contribute to students’ sense of self-efficacy for climate change action. Findings indicated that teaching from a justice perspective supported students’ understanding of root causes, the need for collective action, and their empathy for others. Self-efficacy for climate action was most apparent when students were (1) confident in a particular skill set and (2) when the scale of the problem matched their ability to address it. This supported prior evidence that environmental justice can serve as a critical pedagogical approach for encouraging engagement and empowerment in climate action.
... For example, in the context of health consequences of climate change, Kim and her colleagues (2020) found that liberals and people with poor health conditions, compared to conservatives and people with good health, rated climate change health risk messages as more useful and expressed negative affective responses toward it. Nabi et al. (2018) also tested the role of emotional responses on behavioral outcomes and found that fear and then hope-induced climate change messages were more effective than messages that did not have such emotional sequencing in facilitating climate advocacy actions. Inspired by these studies, we contribute to this line of inquiry by proposing the following hypotheses. ...
... Takeaways from findings related to both credibility perceptions and emotions can be helpful in constructing evidence-based corrective messages by health organizations, educators and fact-checkers. Engaging people in corrective messages is important, and messages evoking necessary emotional responses will be more effective (Nabi et al., 2018). Our findings confirm these relationships and can be helpful for developing future corrective messages and factchecking strategies. ...
Article
Purpose One of the most prolific areas of misinformation research is examining corrective strategies in messaging. The main purposes of the current study are to examine the effects of (1) partisan media (2) credibility perceptions and emotional reactions and (3) theory driven corrective messages on people's misperceptions about COVID-19 mask wearing behaviors. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a randomized experimental design to test the hypotheses. The data were collected via the survey firm Lucid. The number of participants was 485. The study was conducted using Qualtrics after the research project was exempt by the Institutional Research Board of a large University in the US. The authors conducted an online experiment with four conditions, narrative versus statistics and individual versus collective. The manipulation messages were constructed as screenshots from Facebook. Findings The findings of this study show that higher exposure to liberal media was associated with lower misperceptions, whereas higher credibility perceptions of and positive reactions toward the misinformation post and negative emotions toward the correction comment were associated with higher misperceptions. Moreover, the findings showed that participants in the narrative and collective-frame condition had the lowest misperceptions. Originality/value The authors tested theory driven misinformation corrective messages to understand the impact of these messages and multiple related variables on misperceptions about COVID-19 mask wearing. This study contributes to the existing misinformation correction literature by investigating the explanatory power of the two well-established media effects theories on misinformation correction messaging and by identifying essential individual characteristics that should be considered when evaluating how misperceptions about the COVID-19 crisis works and gets reduced. Peer review The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/OIR-11-2021-0600
... Drawing heavily on cognitive and social psychology, research has explored a wide range of challenges, from seeking to understand attitudes to risk, mental barriers, and strategies for inducing behaviour change to examining the ways in which climate scientists interact with a range of audiences (e.g. policymakers, the media, and stakeholders) (Nerlich et al., 2010). ...
... Scientific institutions are faced with the continual challenge of explaining and justifying their work, not only to policymakers but also to society as a whole . To this end, efforts to communicate climate science have largely followed a "knowledge-deficit" perspective in which "deficient" knowledge among non-specialist individuals is assumed to be the cause of divergent opinions between scientists and publics (Nabi et al., 2018). Indeed, this approach has formed the basis for extensive programmes of climate outreach and engagement in the UK, the USA, and Australia (Corner and Groves, 2014). ...
Full-text available
Article
The climate science community faces a major challenge with respect to communicating the risks associated with climate change within a heavily politicised landscape that is characterised by varying degrees of denial, scepticism, distrust in scientific enterprise, and an increased prevalence of misinformation (“fake news”). This issue is particularly significant given the reliance on conventional “deficit” communication approaches, which are based on the assumption that scientific information provision will necessarily lead to desired behavioural changes. Indeed, the constrained orthodoxy of scientific practices in seeking to maintain strict objectivity and political separation imposes very tangible limits on the potential effectiveness of climate scientists for communicating risk in many contemporary settings. To address these challenges, this paper uses insights from a collaboration between UK climate scientists and artist researchers to argue for a more creative and emotionally attentive approach to climate science engagement and advocacy. In so doing, the paper highlights innovative ways in which climate change communication can be reimagined through different art forms to enable complex concepts to become knowable. We suggest that in learning to express their work through forms of art, including print-making, theatre and performance, song-writing, and creative writing, researchers experienced not only a sense of liberation from the rigid communicative framework operating in their familiar scientific environment but also a growing self-confidence in their ability and willingness to engage in new ways of expressing their work. As such, we argue that scientific institutions and funding bodies should recognise the potential value of climate scientists engaging in advocacy through art–science collaborations and that these personal investments and contributions to science engagement by individuals should be rewarded and valued alongside conventional scientific outputs.
... Moreover, subsequent structural equation modeling supports these as causal connections: anxiety provoked cognitive engagement and this, in turn, resulted in stronger pro-environmental attitudes (Fernando et al., 2016;also, Meijnders et al., 2001a). Similar experimental work points to feelings of anxiety about (e.g.) pollution and climate change as drivers of things like interest in purchasing environmentally-friendly products and signing petitions supporting pro-environmental legislation (Meijnders et al., 2001b;Nabi et al., 2018). ...
... In light of this, the core issue seems less about whether fear appeals work, and more about how to design them to promote pro-environmental attitudes and actions. On this front, fear appeals that are sensitive to contexts and which leave individuals with a sense of hope or empowerment look particularly promising (Witte and Allen, 2000;Nabi et al., 2018;Moser, 2019). ...
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Article
Researchers are increasingly trying to understand both the emotions that we experience in response to ecological crises like climate change and the ways in which these emotions might be valuable for our (psychical, psychological, and moral) wellbeing. However, much of the existing work on these issues has been hampered by conceptual and methodological difficulties. As a first step toward addressing these challenges, this review focuses on eco-anxiety. Analyzing a broad range of studies through the use of methods from philosophy, emotion theory, and interdisciplinary environmental studies, the authors show how looking to work on anxiety in general can help researchers build better models of eco-anxiety in particular. The results of this work suggest that the label “eco-anxiety” may be best understood as referring to a family of distinct, but related, ecological emotions. The authors also find that a specific form of eco-anxiety, “practical eco-anxiety,” can be a deeply valuable emotional response to threats like climate change: when experienced at the right time and to the right extent, practical eco-anxiety not only reflects well on one’s moral character but can also help advance individual and planetary wellbeing.
... Meanwhile, Valenzuela et al. (2017) concluded that morality framings positively impact social media sharing, while Wolsko et al. (2016) found that morality frames encouraged politically conservative people to support environmental conservation. Furthermore, Nabi, Gustafson, and Jensen (2018) found that gain frames (ones emphasizing possible positive effects) and loss frames (ones emphasizing possible negative effects) inspire emotional responses of hope and fear, respectively. ...
... However, emphasizing political disagreement and the costs of climate change actions as default frames may reinforce the politicization of the issue and add to public doubt. Researchers have raised concerns that news media have failed to educate citizens and build consensus about the scientific truth of climate change (e.g., Boykoff, 2011;Nabi et al., 2018). ...
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Article
The framing of climate change in the news over time plays a crucial role in shaping public understanding of the issue. This study examines variation in the framing of climate change in global news media across 12 high-attention climate events from 2012 to 2015. We show that events and journalistic practice interact to generate a mix of frames that collectively construct climate change discourse. Using topic modeling and network analysis, we identified six frames used in the media coverage of climate during this period. We trace the usage of these frames and show that framings related to policy struggles and economic concerns have become the "default" framing of climate change across news media. Other framings of the climate issue appear only when particular public events happen. The findings suggest that frame evolution is a socially constructed process influenced by journalistic routines and triggering events.
... Initial evidence supports the effect of emotional shifts in a narrative on audiences' emotional reactions (Adams et al., 2021;Fitzgerald et al., 2020;Nabi et al., 2018). Using news stories on climate change as stimuli, Nabi et al. (2018) showed that respondents felt more hope in response to the efficacy message if it was preceded by a threat message as compared with a control message. ...
... Initial evidence supports the effect of emotional shifts in a narrative on audiences' emotional reactions (Adams et al., 2021;Fitzgerald et al., 2020;Nabi et al., 2018). Using news stories on climate change as stimuli, Nabi et al. (2018) showed that respondents felt more hope in response to the efficacy message if it was preceded by a threat message as compared with a control message. Fitzgerald et al. (2020) found that a negative-positive emotional shift elicited more positive emotions in the audience exposed to a message on a rare type of cancer. ...
Article
Amid emerging information and communication technologies with unique affordances for storytelling and story sharing, most studies in narrative communication still focus on narratives delivered through traditional mediums. There has been little research on how emotionally charged stories can be used to engage audiences on social media. This study examined the roles of emotions and emotional shifts on user engagement behaviors on Facebook. Analyzing Facebook narratives by multiple breast cancer organizations (N = 403), we found a primacy effect of emotions in social stories, as negative emotions in the initial segment of a story increased user engagement behaviors. Emotional shift patterns were associated with user engagement behaviors, with the shift from positive to positive being the least engaging. Our findings advance narrative communication science in the social media context and offer important implications on how organizations can use social media to tell emotionally engaging stories.
... In an effort to reduce the gap between public perception and scientific understanding, climate communication researchers have explored a variety of factors that drive climate beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours (Leiserowitz, 2006;McGrath, 2021;van der Linden et al., 2015). Research has examined how emotional appeals Nabi et al., 2018;Zomeren, 2013), storytelling (Gustafson et al., 2020;Lyons et al., 2019), norm-and values-based messaging (Dixon et al., 2017), and framing choices (e.g., Bernauer & McGrath, 2016;Myers et al., 2012;Wolsko et al., 2016) influence public concerns about global warming. This work has identified important approaches for increasing public understanding and concern about global warming and support for climate policy, but some of these tactics also pose risks. ...
... This work has identified important approaches for increasing public understanding and concern about global warming and support for climate policy, but some of these tactics also pose risks. For example, emotion-based appeals that emphasize the risks and consequences of global warming can promote engagement for some (Nabi et al., 2018;Zomeren, 2013), but increase anxiety, apathy, or denial in others (Feinberg & Willer, 2013). Even emotionally positive or hopeful messages may have drawbacks if they reinforce wishful thinking (Marlon et al., 2019). ...
Article
Scientists know that human activities, primarily fossil fuel combustion, are causing Earth’s temperature to increase. Yet in 2021, only 60% of the US population understood that human activities are the primary cause of global warming. We experimentally test whether information about the human causes of global warming influences Americans’ beliefs and concerns about global warming and support for climate policies. We find that communicating information about the human-causes of global warming increases public understanding that global warming is human-caused. This information, both alone and with additional information about climate impacts and policy solutions, also increases public concern about global warming and support for climate policies, although the effects on climate concern and policy support are smaller. Importantly, the treatment effects are consistent across political party, with no backlash effects among Republicans. This suggests that when informed about climate change causes, impacts and solutions, most Americans can update their own climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and policy support.
... Numerous studies on climate change use framing as a theoretical framework (Sch€ afer and O'Neill, 2017;Nabi et al., 2018). We use Wehmeier's and Raaz's (2012) transparency framing model to identify the frames in this article. ...
Article
Purpose The cement industry's environmental implications place climate change at the centre of sector organisations' corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies, such as the Secil Group. The organisation's CSR policies definition, narrative framing and communication are fundamental, as they can affect its reputation. This article aims to highlight the climate change framing in the Secil Group sustainability report (SR) narrative. Design/methodology/approach The framing theory is applied to analyse the international and sectoral climate change regulatory measures and the Secil Group SR. Document analysis is used to characterise Secil SR as a communication tool. Qualitative content analysis is used to highlight how Secil and the international and sectoral regulatory measures on climate change frame their narrative and compare each other. Findings The international and sectoral regulatory measures on climate change and the Secil's SR broadly frame climate change, using ethical, efficiency and effectiveness, communication and relations and law and regulation framings. The Secil's Group SR also highlights the financial frame, exposing the challenge of reconciling economic with collective interests. There is room for researchers to explore the concepts of CSR, sustainability and environment, social and governance (ESG) through the lens of complementarity. Originality/value This study shows that the Wehmeier and Raaz (2012) model, created to study transparency, can be applied to other communication studies. This paper explores a case study and, for this reason, is not generalisable. Although, the method and theoretical framework can be applied to any organisation.
... Evidence from the press releases of 350.org, a non-profit focused on climate change, suggests that combining both negative and positive frames may be the most effective, and that a balanced approach was more likely to gain media attention (Luxon, 2019). This sequencing of emotional experiences, e.g., from fear to hope, can increase the persuasive effect (Nabi et al., 2018). Furthermore, pairing imagery or visualizations of specific and localized impacts, such as sea level rise maps for particular cities, can help reduce the politicization of scientific information and counter-act the most common politicized counter-frame that there is not a scientific consensus around climate change (McCright et al., 2016;Bolsen et al., 2019). ...
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Climate change is an existential threat to biodiversity and people, but building political will for action on climate change remains elusive. Research on climate change communications to increase effectiveness at motivating action include these recommendations: pairing risk and opportunity in message framing, localizing information, and appealing to a sense of place. Here, we present a case study on mobilizing bird enthusiasts to take action on climate change. The science communicated found that over two-thirds of North American birds are moderately or highly vulnerable to climate change under a 3.0°C warming scenario. Of these climate-vulnerable species, 76% would have reduced vulnerability if warming were stabilized at 1.5°C. These findings were summarized and communicated with the public in an award-winning interactive website, the “Birds and Climate Visualizer,” that allowed individuals to look up any location by postal ZIP code and learn what birds would be impacted by climate. Also included was a Climate Action Handbook providing sample personal actions. The communications rollout earned 2.5 billion media impressions, the visualizer has been used at least 42,000 times, and handbook circulated to 250,000 households. More than 33,000 people read headlines from the report or explored the visualizer and then completed an online action in support of clean energy policies. The message frame combined with the visualizer and handbook as tools to deliver the frame have contributed to climate legislative wins in four states. These early successes suggest that message and visual online tools that localize and personalize a message are effective to motivate action.
... Without self-efficacy, negative emotions can generate hopelessness 29 . Undesirable emotions or information could prompt willful ignorance, avoidance, or even reactance among those who do not want to be scared into submission 30 . There is also a risk of compassion fatigue, in which emotional appeals lead to exhaustion or desensitization 31 , or skepticism, if emotional appeals or strong terminology reduce a message's credibility 32,33 . ...
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Negative imagery of destruction may induce or inhibit action to reduce risks from climate-exacerbated hazards, such as wildfires. This has generated conflicting assumptions among experts who communicate with homeowners: half of surveyed wildfire practitioners perceive a lack of expert agreement about the effect of negative imagery (a burning house) on homeowner behavior, yet most believe negative imagery is more engaging. We tested whether this expectation matched homeowner response in the United States. In an online experiment, homeowners who viewed negative imagery reported more negative emotions but the same behavioral intentions compared to those who viewed status-quo landscape photos. In a pre-registered field experiment, homeowners who received a postcard showing negative imagery were equally likely, overall, to visit a wildfire risk webpage as those whose postcard showed a status quo photo. However, the negative imagery decreased webpage visits as homeowners’ wildfire risk increased. These results illustrate the importance of testing assumptions to encourage behavioral adaptation to climate change. Imagery of wildfire destruction elicits more negative emotions and – among those most at risk from wildfire – reduces risk information seeking behavior, according to online and field experiments with homeowners in the western USA.
... Interestingly, Grewal et al. (2019) found that consumers purchasing intentions for unattractive versus attractive produce was higher when their self-esteem were boost in ways that increased a more positive self-perception. Moreover, existing research focusing on the emotional appeal and response to message framing has found that gain framed information evoked more hope and loss framed evoked more fear, which then influenced advocacy behaviors (Nabi, Gustafson and Jensen, 2018). In relation to consumer awareness of food waste, Septianto, Kemper and Northey (2020) found that adding gratitude for having (food on your table) as a goal framing when paired with loss framed environmental implications (increased environmental damage) where more effective that when paired with gain framed implications (less damage). ...
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Based on a survey of 3,504 consumers in the United States, this study investigates acceptance for food with varying types of aesthetic imperfections. A product-based discrete choice experiments (DCE) were utilized to provide preference estimates based on trade-offs between attributes of aesthetic imperfections and other relevant product attributes including price and type of production and origin. Respondents were randomly allocated to information treatments (control, gain-framed, loss-framed) tailored to nutritional and environmental impacts of food waste. Results showed that consumers accept aesthetic food imperfections related to color while not accepting those related to shape and physical aspects. The price discount was the second most important attribute for consumers’ acceptance. Hence, marketing initiatives to promote ‘ugly’ food needs to be set with a rather substantial price discount in relation to physical imperfections but not so much in relation to shape or color imperfections. Furthermore, both gain-framed and loss-framed information increased acceptance and this effect was influenced by consumers’ personal meta-value orientation. Individuals with an affinity for the meta-value orientations self-transcendence and openness to change were most accepting of aesthetically imperfect food, and individuals with an affinity for openness to change were particularly affected by gain-framed information. Tailoring the information to personal value-dimensions support the role of information to bridge the knowledge-deficit gap in terms of food waste reductions. We suggest to broaden this approach using a set of message contents to achieve increased message congruence through provision of information tailored by type of dominant personal meta-value.
... The majority of these studies were observational, with only 22% using experimental methods to identify the causal effects of message framing. Many of these studies used small samples, nonrepresentative subject pools, or explicit research environments, such as online surveys, rather than real-world communication contexts (e.g., Spence and Pidgeon 2010;Morton et al. 2011;Wiest et al. 2015;McCright et al. 2016;Nabi et al. 2018;Wenger et al. 2021). Moreover, most of the experimental evidence on framing to address climate change or other environmental issues comes from studies employing attitudinal or stated preference outcome measures, rather than observed behaviors (Byerly et al. 2018;Badullovich et al. 2020;Ropret Homar and Knežević Cvelbar 2021). ...
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Private actions to mitigate and adapt to climate change may have benefits to both the individual and society. In some cases, an individual may be motivated by appeals that highlight benefits to others, rather than to oneself. We test whether such prosocial framing influences information-seeking behavior to address wildfire risk among homeowners. In a field experiment across ten communities in western Colorado, property owners (n = 2977) received a postcard from their local fire department highlighting the impact of risk mitigation to either "your property" (private benefits) or "our community" (social benefits). The postcard directed recipients to visit a personalized webpage on wildfire risk. Overall, 10.5% of property owners visited their personalized risk webpage. There was little difference in webpage visitation between those who received the social (11.3%) rather than the private (9.7%) benefits message (χ 2 = 1.74, p = 0.19). However, response may depend on a property owner's relationship to the community. Those who reside within the community (as opposed to out-of-town owners) or who were in an evacuation zone during a recent wildfire were more likely to visit their webpages after receiving the social benefits message. How homeowners view their contributions to shared risk and whether simple changes in messaging influence prosocial behavior can inform efforts to address climate-exacerbated hazards. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10584-022-03400-4.
... For example, "Using only eco-friendly straws will save the planet." In contrast, the loss or negative appeal, represented chiefly by fear-arousing appeals (Nabi et al., 2018), emphasizes the potential damages of ignorance. One example of such a message is "Continuing to use plastic straws will only harm the planet." ...
Article
Parental communication is still relatively meaningful in Asian families with hierarchical, vertical, and authoritative relationships. Meanwhile, children's pro‐environmental behaviour in emerging Asian nations tends to be passive, leading to a need for intervention from the closest parties, often the parent, whose familial role in green communication has not been examined. This study uses social learning theory to examine the interplay of parent‐like spokespeople and message appeals in affecting young adults' cognitive and emotional responses, which is expected to influence the ad liking and believability of green advertisements and switching intention to green products, such as eco‐friendly straws. A laboratory experiment was conducted with 240 subjects. The results showed that the frame of a father‐like figure conveying a hope appeal generated the greatest enthusiasm and argument quality for young adults. Mother‐like figures speaking a fearful message frame were the best generator for young adults' anger and threat appraisal. Ad liking was significantly impacted only by a mother‐like spokesperson who spoke a fearful appeal mediated by anger and a father‐like spokesperson who delivered a hope appeal mediated by argument quality. Young adults' willingness to switch to eco‐friendly straws was indirectly influenced by the interaction effect of a mother‐like spokesperson and fear appeal type mediated by ad believability.
... The emotional responses were assessed after watching each video. Immediately after the students watched the videos that evoked emotions, they were asked to rate the strength of the 15 emotions they felt while watching the video on a scale of 1 (not at all) to 5 (extremely) (also see Nabi et al. 2018) (see Supplementary Table A2). Of these, three items each related to fear (anxious, afraid, and worried) (Cronbach's α = 0.90); hope (hopeful, encouraged, and optimistic) (Cronbach's α = 0.88); sadness (sad, upset, and disappointed) (Cronbach's α = 0.89), neutral emotions (careless, calm, and relaxed) (Cronbach's α = 0.75); and happiness (happy, excited, and energetic) (Cronbach's α = 0.91). ...
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Emotion has been recognized as a significant factor affecting climate engagement behavior. However, empirical experiments testing emotions influencing behavioral changes, climate change education (CCE) in particular, are rare. In this study, we conducted a 2-week CCE program with the support of video clips to induce emotions such as fear and/or hope through the manipulated treatments and were then compared between emotion plus lecture group and lecture-only group for adolescents to explore how emotions affect self-reported mitigation behavior toward climate change. The study involved 1730 students from nine middle schools in three coastal cities (Xiamen, Shenzhen, and Ningbo) in China. The results demonstrated that emotional video clips were the successful stimulus for target emotions. There was a significant improvement in both knowledge-gaining and self-reported mitigation behavior in the lecture-only group, and climate change concern and involvement mediated the effect on mitigation behavior. Compared to the lecture-only group, the hope treatment group showed decreased knowledge gain but no significant effect on self-reported mitigation behavior. In contrast, emotion significantly reduced students’ self-reported mitigation behavior in the fear treatment group, which was mostly pinpointed to the behavioral change of emission reduction activities. Thus, the study highlighted the importance of knowledge with appropriate emotions in adolescents to safeguard educational outcomes.
... These findings differ from past evidence that suggested an advantage of rewardoriented and "pull" measures (de Groot & Schuitema, 2012;, or a greater impact of gain-framed messages (Nabi et al., 2018). However, the public's perception of a climate urgency has greatly accelerated in very recent years and it is possible that opinions are changing. ...
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Environmental issues are often presented as becoming increasingly polarised with the deepening of a political gap between left-wing (or liberal) and right-wing (or conservative) citizens. Going beyond the most investigated single issue of climate change, we look at prioritisation of multiple environmental issues across the political spectrum. We additionally investigate which environmental modes of action individuals evaluate as most effective, depending on political orientation. We finally aim to identify psychological attributes that make environmental issues and actions more likely to be prioritised by both sides of the political spectrum. Amongst a representative UK sample (Study 1, N = 1,147) results highlight an important political divide on several issues, most notably climate change, but also agreement on other issues. Comparison of the issues most selected by the left and the right reveals differential prioritisation associated with perceived psychological distance (Study 2, N = 207). Crucially, however, results show a broad consensus regarding modes of action. Across the political spectrum, respondents evaluate strong actions (i.e., compulsory, loss-framed, and challenging economic growth principles) as more effective, which might speak to the public's newest and accelerating urgency of tackling environmental issues. There are important implications for policy makers: if the aim is to achieve cross-political commitment to policies and action on environmental issues, then persuasive discourse should focus on modes of action rather than the prioritisation of particular issues. Given that the public recognises the need for ambitious actions, policy makers could seize this opportunity to propose forward strong (and objectively effective) action.
... To assess affective responses, we employed six discrete emotions that are frequently used in emotion research (e.g., Nabi et al. 2018). We assessed three positive emotions (happy, hope, and pride) and three negative emotions (anxiety, upset, and frustration). ...
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Public participation in proper recycling is a crucial means to deal with the crisis in the U.S. recycling market. In this study, we combine the norm activation model (NAM; Schwartz 1977), the information-motivation-behavioral skills model (IMB; Fisher et al. 2003), and the theory of interpersonal behavior (TIB; Triandis 1977; 1979) to investigate recycling intention and behavior. Based on a longitudinal sample of New York state residents (N = 520), the results show that the integrated model fits the data well. Personal norm, habit, and recycling intention are three direct predictors of recycling behavior. Recycling intention is directly influenced by personal norm and behavioral skills, and indirectly influenced by personal motivation, social motivation, and ascription of responsibility. These findings suggest the importance of the normative approach in environmental campaigns to encourage recycling.
... Related work adds that eco-anxiety can foster pro-environmental behaviors (e.g., buying green products, becoming involved in environmental activism). Moreover, this research also suggests that these resulting pro-environmental behaviors are most pronounced when individuals experience (moderate) amounts of anxiety combined with hope (Ojala, 2012;Nabi et al., 2018;Kurth and Pihkala, forthcoming). But research on eco-anxiety is just in its infancy and much of the empirical work is under-theorized, offering an opportunity for philosophers to contribute to our understanding of thorny questions. ...
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The aim of this collection is to show how work in the analytic philosophical tradition can shed light on the nature, value, and experience of anxiety. Contrary to widespread assumptions, anxiety is not best understood as a mental disorder, or an intrinsically debilitating state, but rather as an often valuable affective state which heightens our sensitivity to potential threats and challenges. As the contributions in this volume demonstrate, learning about anxiety can be relevant for debates, not only in the philosophy of emotion, but also in epistemology, value theory, and the philosophy of psychopathology. In this introductory article, we also show that there is still much to discover about the relevance that anxiety may have for moral action, self-understanding, and mental health.
... The infographic below shows that caring is about cognition and emotion and behaviour. 11 The infographic draws from the following sources: Seethaler et al. 2019;Leiserowitz 2006 (for 'information deficit-model'); Gustafson et al. 2020 (for 'stories'); Gifford 2011, Lorenzoni & Pidgeon 2006 (for 'salience'); Badullovich et al. 2020, Nabi et al. 2018 (for 'framing'); , Leiserowitz 2006; Goodwin & Dahlstrom 2014 (for 'trust'); Hawkins et al. 2019; Gunasiri et al. 2022, Baudon & Jachens 2021; Kollmuss & Agyeman 2002, Bouman et al. 2021 (for 'action'); Brick et al. 2021 (in general) People make sense of climate change by stories that 'feel right'narratives that resonate with their values and identity, presented by people they trust, and made acceptable by the social norms around them. ...
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This report summarises up-to-date social science evidence on climate communication for effective public engagement. It presents ten key principles that may inform communication activities. At the heart of them is the following insight: People do not form their attitudes or take action as a result primarily of weighing up expert information and making rational cost-benefit calculations. Instead, climate communication has to connect with people at the level of values and emotions. Two aspects seem to be of special importance: First, climate communication needs to focus more on effectively speaking to people who have up to now not been properly addressed by climate communications, but who are vitally important to build broad public engagement. Second, climate communication has to support a shift from concern to agency, where high levels of climate risk perception turn into pro-climate individual and collective action.
... Beyond bolstering perceived efficacy, efficacy statements also protect against two other potential loss-frame pitfalls. First, efficacy information evokes feelings of hope [22]-an important predictor of pro-climate attitudes beyond perceived efficacy (e.g., [23]) that may be usefully added to the EPPM [24]. As Nabi [25] argues, fear appeals may be better conceptualized as "fear-hope" appeals. ...
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This study investigated how goal frames (gain, non-loss, loss) either with or without efficacy statements affect consumers’ support for climate-change policy. Addressing the goal-framing literature’s difficulty in establishing a guiding theory with consistent findings, we (1) propose fear appeal theory as an alternative framework to guide goal-framing research; (2) test five fear appeal variables (fear, perceived threat, hope, perceived efficacy, and message processing) as mediators of goal-framing effects on policy support; and (3) highlight four common goal-framing confounds that may partly underlie the literature’s inconsistent findings. Aligning with fear appeal theory, results from a carefully controlled experiment revealed that a more threatening loss frame paired with an efficacy statement produced the strongest pro-policy attitudes and the greatest willingness-to-pay by successfully balancing fear/threat with hope/efficacy and by producing deeper message processing.
... Furthermore, we need to improve its popular science education and publicity function. According to the types of local meteorological disasters and the impact of climate change, special exhibitions on disaster prevention and mitigation and climate change should be held, and publicity activities for disaster prevention and mitigation such as emergency drills should be carried out [50]. We need to widely mobilize science popularization volunteers, cultivate a meteorological science popularization publicity team combining professional scientific and technological workers and science popularization volunteers, spread the scientific knowledge of meteorological disaster prevention and mitigation and climate change to thousands of households and penetrate into the daily life of the public. ...
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The threat of climate change to the sustainability of farmers’ livelihoods is becoming more significant. Research on the impact of climate change on the sustainability of farmers’ livelihoods could provide a scientific basis for enhancing farmers’ adaptability to climate change, reducing farmers’ livelihood vulnerability, and promoting the formulation of governmental adaptation strategies. Although studies have assessed the impact of climate change on the sustainability of farmers’ livelihoods, their analysis units have been aggregated. Therefore, this study was grouped based on geographical location (north and south regions), and then an additional grouping was conducted according to the internal economic factors of each region. Using data from China’s labor-force dynamic survey as our sample, this study measured the sustainable livelihood in agricultural households. This research provided a method to quantify the sustainability of farmers’ livelihoods based on measurements of poverty vulnerability. Additionally, using the annual average temperature as the core explanatory variable to describe climate change, this study evaluated the impact and heterogeneity of climate change on the sustainability of farmers’ livelihoods and replaced the annual average temperature with the normalized vegetation index to conduct a robustness test. The empirical study showed that the average annual temperature significantly decreased the sustainability of farmers’ livelihoods. The average annual temperature change had a greater impact on farmers in the southern provinces as compared to those in the north. Southern coastal regions, eastern coastal regions, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the northeast regions were the key areas of concern. Finally, considering the current risk vulnerability of farmers, we concluded that crop breeding should be oriented to the trend of climate change, farmers’ risk prevention awareness should be increased, financial tools should be enhanced to mitigate the impact of meteorological disasters, an appropriate sustainability developmental evaluation index should be implemented, and the construction of agrometeorological disaster prevention and mitigation infrastructure should be advanced.
... When scientific, traditional, or local knowledge is valued, reinforced, and applied by stakeholders and rights holders with the capacity to implement on-the-ground improvements or influence policy decisions, conservation successes can occur at large and small scales [78][79]. Empowerment of individuals and communities is often driven by factual yet hopeful messaging [80][81][82], by documenting and celebrating conservation successes (e.g. [83][84]), and increasingly, by the successful assertion of fundamental human and property rights by historically disempowered groups including Indigenous peoples (e.g., [85]), youth (e.g., [86]), and policymakers from low-income jurisdictions (e.g., [87]). ...
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Early definitions of conservation focused largely on the end goals of protection or restoration of nature, and the various disciplinary domains that contribute to these ends. Conservation science and practice has evolved beyond being focused on just issues of scarcity and biodiversity decline. To better recognize the inherent links between human behaviour and conservation, “success” in conservation is now being defined in terms that include human rights and needs. We also know that who engages in conservation, and how, dictates the likelihood that conservation science will be embraced and applied to yield conservation gains. Here we present ideas for reconceptualizing conservation. We emphasize the HOW in an attempt to reorient and repurpose the term in ways that better reflect what contemporary conservation is or might aspire to be. To do so, we developed an acrostic using the letters in the term “CONSERVATION” with each serving as an adjective where C = co-produced, O = open, N = nimble, S = solutions-oriented, E = empowering, R = relational, V = values-based, A = actionable, T = transdisciplinary, I = inclusive, O = optimistic, and N = nurturing. For each adjective, we briefly describe our reasoning for its selection and describe how it contributes to our vision of conservation. By reconceptualizing conservation we have the potential to center how we do conservation in ways that are more likely to result in outcomes that benefit biodiversity while also being just, equitable, inclusive, and respectful of diverse rights holders, knowledge holders, and other actors. We hope that this acrostic will be widely adopted in training to help the next generation of conservation researchers and practitioners keep in mind what it will take to make their contributions effective and salient.
... The items for measuring Perceived Severity were taken from previous studies by Semenza et al. [85], Sun and Han [35], Mitter et al. [86], and Whitmarsh and Capstick [87], and the items for measuring Perceived Benefits were taken from previous studies by Hart and Feldman [88], De Groot et al. [89], and Preston, et al. [90]. The items for measuring Perceived Obstacles were taken from previous studies by Semenza, et al. [91], Hu, et al. [92], Semenza, et al. [85], and Butler and Pidgeon [93], and the items for measuring Behavioral Attitude were taken from previous studies by Patchen [94], Gifford, et al. [95], Howell [96], Viscusi and Zeckhauser [97], and Nabi, et al. [98]. The questions for measuring social exclusion were taken from previous studies by Sevoyan and Hugo [57], Forsyth [99], Woroniecki et al. [100], Chu and Michael [101], Elliott [102], and the questions for measuring Willingness to Action were taken from previous studies by Xie et al. [34], Lee, et al. [103], Mayer and Smith [104], and Zelenika, et al [105]. ...
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Climate change is the result of anthropogenic activities and will lead to widespread and rapid changes on Earth in the following decades. The climate change crisis has led to economic, social, and cultural crises worldwide. This study analyzes the factors impacting the voluntary actions of individuals to mitigate the climate change crisis. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire survey from 650 Korean adults. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical program IBM SPSS Statistics 25. The results show that the factors affecting an individual’s willingness to act on climate change mitigation were gender, social class, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived obstacles, environmental attitude, and social exclusion. In particular, the results show that social exclusion had a moderating effect on the severity of the willingness to act on climate change mitigation. Regarding the moderating effect of social exclusion, significance was determined for gender, social class, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived obstacles, environmental attitude, and social exclusion (R2 = 0.617). The government should thus make efforts to reduce social exclusion in order to strengthen individuals’ willingness to act on climate change mitigation.
... Current RHDV2 educational and outreach materials often adhere to the knowledge deficit model, which assumes that increased knowledge of RHDV2 and biosecurity measures will result in behavior changes by key stakeholders. However, this approach is ineffective for some audiences because it does not account for socio-psychological determinants of people's behavior (e.g., attitudes, beliefs, emotions; Abrahamse and Matthies, 2018;Nabi et al., 2018). Agencies should develop risk communication materials that appeal to diverse stakeholder groups with narrow goals and objectives. ...
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The increasing global emergence of pathogens transmitted between wildlife and domestic animals are critically important conservation and economic concerns. International organizations, such as the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), have called for cross-jurisdictional government investment in defensible, reliable surveillance systems and biosecurity measures to prevent pathogen transmission at the wildlife-domestic animal interface. A classic example of a pathogen that transmits across the wildlife-domestic animal interface is rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), which has spread to five continents in the 11 years since its discovery. RHDV2 is a highly contagious virus that infects wild and domestic rabbits and hares (lagomorphs). Globally, RHDV2 has resulted in population declines of wild lagomorphs, with associated biodiversity and hunting impacts, as well as economic losses for commercial rabbit industries. To assess the degree to which government agencies are positioned to engage in cross-jurisdictional approaches to mitigate pathogen spillover, we conducted the first study of how agricultural and wildlife agencies in the United States of America (U.S.) have responded to RHDV2 since it was detected in wild and domestic lagomorphs in March 2020. We surveyed and interviewed animal health personnel at 95 state wildlife and agricultural agencies, thereby accounting for all 50 states. Agencies have primarily responded to RHDV2 through disease investigations of potential RHDV2 cases, vaccinations, and education and outreach with the public and stakeholder groups. However, agencies' inconsistent jurisdiction within and across states over lagomorph populations and industries, limited knowledge of wild lagomorph populations and the composition of the domestic rabbit industry, and resource constraints have hindered management efforts. Improved understanding of the domestic lagomorph trade and transport routes is urgently needed to mitigate the risks associated with human-mediated movement of rabbits and RHDV2 across the U.S. Greater flexibility in agency funding and increased allocation of discretionary funds to agencies for management of animal diseases would allow agencies to respond more rapidly and effectively to emerging pathogens such as RHDV2. Federal leadership is needed to engage state agencies in collaborative, proactive interagency disease management across the U.S.
... In addition, Shah et al. (2021)) found a significant mediating role of fear of victimisation between exposure to climate changerelated information and pro-environmental behaviour among large universities in China. The fear of victimisation is conceptualised as the control behaviour in which an individual perceives threat as a motivation to implement a behaviour (Nabi et al., 2018). Hence, the study conceptualised the mediating role of perceived behavioural control based on TPB (Ajzen, 2020). ...
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There have been calls for organisational employees across developed and emerging economies to be more responsible towards the environment because of the heightened level of devastation in the ecosystem due to human actions. This study examines the influence of environmental concern on employee green behaviour (EGB) through the mediation of attitude, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and environmental knowledge. SmartPLS 3 software was used to analyse the relationships from 425 valid responses. The findings of our study show that environmental concern, attitude, and PBC positively predict the EGB of academics. Attitude and PBC act as complimentary mediators of the relationship between environmental concern and EGB. Equally, a linear moderated mediation analysis shows that environmental concern amplifies the link between PBC and EGB. Furthermore, an importance‐performance map analysis (IPMA) provides evidence that suggests that though employees' attitude is a less important predictor of EGB when compared with environmental concern, their respective degree of performance is equal to each other. Furthermore, this study offers substantive insights into the multiple roles of environmental concern in influencing employee green behaviour among academics in higher education institutions (HEIs). Policy implications and future research directions for environmental sustainability are discussed.
... Despite its congruence with established fear-appeal models, including the fear drive model and the EPPM model, limited research has examined the emotional flow idea when it comes to fear appeals. Nabi et al. (2018) conducted the first test of emotional flow and found that a fear → hope (FH) appeal was more effective in stimulating climate change advocacy behaviors than an appeal that relied predominately on fear and lacked emotional flow. In a similar vein, Siegenthaler et al. (2021) compared a fear appeal containing a shift from negative to positive valence with one without a shift to positive valence. ...
Article
Building upon recent theoretical perspectives on emotional flow and the dynamic nature of fear appeals specifically, this study examined the sequencing effects of the emotions (i.e., fear and hope) induced from a fear appeal on persuasion in the context of MMR vaccination. Specifically, an experiment (N = 386) with 2 video messages was conducted that manipulated the sequence in which participants experienced fear and hope, resulting in a fear → hope appeal and a hope → fear appeal. The findings show that the fear → hope appeal was more effective in increasing activism intentions than the hope → fear appeal. Fear and hope at different time points served as mediators for this effect. In addition, issue relevance was a moderator for this effect such that the fear → hope appeal was more effective only among those perceiving the issue as highly relevant. Discussions and implications are provided.
... 14 Based on both psychology and sociology, the framing effect theory explains the ability of news media to affect people's attitudes and behaviors through making slight changes. 15,16 In other words, the framework of perception provided is called a "frame," and the tone of the voice or topic of the media influences the decision-making of the audience of this content. Considering these media-framing effects, media topics and sentiment analysis for telemedicine are expected to be important factors for public acceptance. ...
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Telemedicine is rapidly growing to meet the increased needs for high-quality health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, telemedicine is still a sensitive issue as it is related to medical privatization. The use of telemedicine after the COVID-19 outbreak might be influenced by public opinion, and this may be an important key in implementing telemedicine. In this study, we aimed to assess if telemedicine-related newspaper articles and comments changed positively during the COVID-19 pandemic. From January 1, 2019, to March 1, 2020 (before COVID-19), a total of 1073 telemedicine-related articles were found in the Korean news network. Although the post-COVID-19 article collection period (from March 2, 2020, to September 30, 2020) was about half that of the pre-COVID-19, about twice the number (1934) of telemedicine-related articles were collected. And telemedicine-related news articles had a more positive tone post-COVID-19 than pre-COVID-19 (52.9% after vs 40.4% before). In conclusion, this study presented the association between the COVID-19 outbreak and changes in the media’s perception of telemedicine in Korea. This study presented that, as telemedicine begins to be utilized due to COVID-19, news media and readers who embrace it are beginning to view telemedicine positively, suggesting that COVID-19 has a positive foundation for the spread of telemedicine.
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We conducted an experiment to determine whether a conservation film increased support for conservation and whether transportation and emotion were correlated with shifts in conservation support. Viewers of short and feature-length versions of the conservation film exhibited greater alignment with story-centric beliefs and conservation behavior interest than individuals who viewed a control film. Transportation was correlated with conservation belief alignment and behavior interest; emotion was correlated with behavior interest. This study indicates that even short conservation films can be engaging and persuasive and are potentially powerful tools for generating conservation support among audiences not previously aligned with this topic.
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Engaging with the future to make better decisions in the present is key for sustainable development and climate change responses. In this conceptual paper, we suggest a scenario building approach that connects psychological principles of future thinking with future scenario development in order to advance the impact of scenarios. Future scenario work currently does not sufficiently consider processes of human communication, emotion, cognition and has only begun to focus on people’s local contexts in recent years. We argue that more understanding of psychological processes, such as cognitive biases and heuristics, as well as psychological distance, which typically occur in future thinking, can improve the impact of scenarios. Specifically, we provide a psychological basis for systematically integrating emotion-evoking aspects into future scenario development, using tailored narratives and visuals to make content tangible and meaningful for a broad spectrum of audiences, and adapting content temporally, spatially, and linguistically to audiences, in combination with inclusive and creative co-creation of scenarios and sustainable solutions. We explain why this approach has the potential to overcome some recognised cognitive biases hampering scenario impact and intended sustainable change processes, and can therefore support the co-development of sustainable and inclusive policies and solutions that empower and connect individuals, communities, and decision makers.
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We report on the first investigation of large-scale temporal associations between emotions expressed in online news media and those expressed on social media (Twitter). This issue has received little attention in previous research, although the study of emotions expressed on social media has bloomed owing to its importance in the study of mental health at the population level. Relying on automatically emotion-coded data from almost 1 million online news articles on disease and the coronavirus and more than 6 million tweets, we examined such associations. We found that prior changes in generic emotional categories (positive and negative emotions) in the news on the topic of disease were associated with lagged changes in these categories in tweets. Discrete negative emotions did not robustly feature this pattern. Emotional categories coded in online news stories on the coronavirus generally featured weaker and more disparate lagged associations with emotional categories coded in subsequent tweets.
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News media are the public’s primary source about risks such as climate change, but traditional journalistic approaches to climate change have failed to build support for collective social responses. Solutions journalism, an emerging practice focused on credible stories about responses to societal problems, may offer an alternate approach. From an online experiment with a convenience sample of U.S. undergraduates (N = 348), we found that solutions journalism stories were positively associated with perceived behavioral control, which mediated support for collective action for climate change adaptation. Additionally, attribution of responsibility to individuals and government, participant hope, and eco-anxiety were associated with support for collective action. Findings extend our understanding of how risk communication affects policy support for climate change adaptation and suggest that solutions journalism may allow journalists to communicate climate change’s danger without depressing support for social action to mitigate its effects.
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Art has always been a mirror for society, and especially activist artists aim to provoke change in societies. This chapter presents three influential pieces of environmental art that have both a high degree of political intention, as well as a relatively high level of disruption. In connection with these examples, research on art perception and the effect of art on emotions is reviewed. This is followed by an account of research from environmental psychology, with a specific focus on the effect of emotions on individual engagement with environmental topics. These strands of research are brought together and discussed with findings from the Climart project (www.climart.info) that aimed to investigate the effect of visual climate change art on engagement. To summarize, emotions triggered by art can have a strong effect on people, especially highlighting why the environmental problems are important for the individual. Individual negative emotions, such as “worry,” as well as positive emotions, such as “pride,” can both motivate and hinder people to act. Therefore, it is especially important to see every emotion in the social context and frame it is presented, to avoid unintended effects. Finally, emotions are much more sophisticated than simple levers that environmental artists and communicators can pull to get the desired result.
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Climate change is arguably the most urgent issue of our time, demanding the participation of all types of stakeholders, from individuals to governments. However, climate change communication has been focused on negative framings based on the mere presentation of data, in many cases demotivating or simply not helping in action. This Ph.D. proposes using a Research through Design (RtD) approach to create and evaluate communication design and HCI strategies to meaningfully encode and present outside the obvious, actionable climate-related messages to diverse audiences of non-experts. The studies will focus on the development of HCI projects focused on less explored climate change topics, addressing the gaps found and implementing the implications for design proposed in the first stage of the research. The purpose is to design, test, and evaluate different interactive communication strategies through iterative studies to contribute to new design solutions and guidelines for future work.KeywordsHuman-computer interactionDesignInteractionVisualisationClimate change
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Objectives: From the perspective of media framing, this paper explores how factual frame and influence frame affect the cognition of vaccine effectiveness among Chinese netizens, and how emotions vary in the process and act on the cognition. Methods: We first discuss the theoretical framework and propose hypotheses. Drawing on the cognitive theory of emotions and the Pleasure- Arousal-Dominance (PAD) model, the scale and questionnaire were designed, and used to test the influence of media framing over the cognition of vaccine effectiveness by 2-factor ANOVA and Bootstrap methods. Results: The proposed hypotheses were verified. The perceived effectiveness of domestic vaccines corresponding to the factual frame group was on average 0.19 (95% CI 0.641-0.642) higher than that of the influence frame. The impact on audience cognition from reports of positive tendency was on average 0.642 (95% CI 0.641-0.642) higher than that of negative tendency. The indirect effect of the media frame on the perceived effectiveness through the mediating variable emotion was -0.0923, at the 95% level. Conclusions: The audience can understand the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines better if the factual frame with actual data and authoritative opinions is adopted, rather than reports of the effects of the vaccines on the virus, the vaccinated, and society. Moreover, media reports should be more positive to mitigate the negative emotions, stimulate the arousal of public opinions, and improve audience cognition of report contents, thereby encouraging vaccine uptake.
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The summer heatwave of 2018 was the longest heatwave in the UK in recent years and scientists connected it to global climate change and heatwaves noted internationally. As one of the few existing studies looking at if and how the media make the link between extreme weather phenomena and climate change, this research examines whether and to what extent British broadsheets and tabloids made the connection between the heatwave and global climate change in their heatwave related texts and how climate change was framed in those texts, using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The findings reveal that, in terms of agenda setting, climate change was almost absent, especially in the widely read tabloids; in relation to the framing of climate change, the media studied did not frame climate change as the underlying cause behind the heatwave.
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Explanatory power is a key criterion for assessing the strength of a theory. This essay provides an expanded detailing of explanatory power’s three components: Plausibility, range, and postdiction. In addition, a case is made for how plausibility advancements signal field-general contributions, range-based works gravitate toward subfield-specific offerings, and postdiction assessments can be field-general or subfield-specific. This discussion is grounded with a focus on four theories: Agenda Setting, Cultivation, Uses and Gratifications, and Social Cognitive Theory. Implications for future theory advancement are discussed and short- and long-term research initiatives are detailed.
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As journalists are expected to report on events where expectations and rules are transgressed, they often report on moral violations (such as murder, tax evasion, or unjust political decisions). Exposed to journalistic reports on violations of their moral principles, individuals instantly feel that these actions are wrong. According to theories of morality, immorality perceptions are associated with specific cognitive and affective reactions. In two studies, we used the concept of a moral dyad to (a) define moral news content and (b) analyze emotional reactions and memory effects of intuitive perceptions of immorality. In both studies, immorality led to higher levels of anger and compassion, but impaired memory with effects hinging on perception of immorality. These perceptions further did not differ across different presentations of dyads. Our findings show the usefulness to employ a lens of morality to look at the entire news production and reception process.
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Guided by construal level-theory, this research seeks to understand the effect of perceived psychological distance on emotions and risk perception associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in its early stage. Survey data were collected from a nationally representative U.S. adult sample (N = 1009) in April 2020. Results reveal that social distance was negatively related to emotions and risk perception. However, hypothetical distance was not significantly related to these variables. Emotions and risk perception also mediated the relationship between social distance and support for aid response measures; theoretically, we demonstrate that people evaluate risks contingent on their emotions when making decisions. This research contributes to extant literature on psychological distance and its utility in communication messaging design during public health crises.
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The contemporary high-choice media landscape offers users considerable latitude to select media content. When it comes to media messaging about science issues like climate change, it is unclear whether audiences gravitate toward different kinds of emotionally evocative messages and what psychosocial factors underlie those preferences. Here, we presented young adults (N = 1,493) with three climate change videos to choose from (“funny,” “scary,” “informational”) and found more participants selected funny content than scary or informational. Contradicting hypotheses derived from mood management theory, negative mood was associated with selecting the scary video. Conservatives preferred the funny and scary video to the informational video, but gender identity was the strongest predictor of selective exposure with women preferring funny and scary videos to informational.
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This study illuminates the varied emotional mechanisms underlying consumer response to ads paired with emotionally congruent versus incongruent content in different placement positions. This work expands the media planning literature that has narrowly focused on thematic (in)congruency. Focusing on music videos, Study 1 empirically tests the affect regulation effect on consumer response to ads paired with emotionally incongruent music videos and the affect priming effect in congruent pairings. Furthermore, this study incorporates affective computing algorithms to pair ads with music videos based on emotional (in)congruency to advance the emerging field of computational advertising. The results from two experimental studies demonstrate that consumers prefer the emotional flow from a negative to a positive state when the ad and media context are emotionally incongruent. In the emotional congruency condition, regardless of ad position, the positively valenced ad produces more favorable responses. Study 2 further illuminates the boundary conditions of emotional (in)congruency and ad valence, suggesting that consumers’ preference for positively valenced ads in the affect regulation and affect priming processes is more prominent when consumers are less involved. When involvement level is high, negative ads are rated as more persuasive than positive ones. Involvement level also reduces ad skipping, especially when the ad and the media program are emotionally incongruent.
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The climate crisis is one of the largest global challenges that humanity has ever faced. Despite the scientific consensus on the threat, action is not occurring on the pace or level needed to stave off the consequences. As climate change is made up by complex and conjoined causes and effects, the issue is also riddled with communicative challenges which those calling for action need to tackle. Climate change communication research has, however, mainly focused on how traditional news media frame the climate change issue and overlooks climate activist and movement groups. This despite these actors being key for shifting public perceptions and public opinion. Although research on other communication actors exist, it is far from extensive and the research field overlooks the publics perceptions of the sender in relation to the construction of climate messages. Through survey data and an experiment, this doctoral thesis explores the public’s inclination towards different protest action repertoires and addresses the research gap in the climate movement message construction. Herein, the actions and words of three subgroups within the larger environmental movement are considered as one part of a larger message whole. The groups chosen action repertoires are viewed as part of the activists’ performed message and the linguistic communication styles created by lexical choices related to emotional appeals are part of the activists’ verbal/textual message. The results indicate that there is much to be gained from adhering to an alignment between lexical choices and action repertoires. Alignment may be key for understanding why some movement subgroups are successful in inspiring certain actions whilst others inspire other actions. Communication-action alignment is a way to approach the interconnectedness of actions and words for complex and abstract issues that require message recipients to construct consonant mental models to break potential cognitive dissonance.
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Effective health communication requires various strategies. This study focused on two framing strategies closely relevant to health issues. Specifically, it examined how temporal framing moderates the effects of gain-loss framing on social distancing with particular attention to the underlying affective mechanisms of these interactions. A 2 (temporal framing: proximal vs. distal) X 2 (gain-loss framing: gain vs. loss) randomized experiment was conducted with 114 undergraduate students in Korea. The results showed that loss-framing was more effective than gain-framing when presented in temporally proximal frames, but such differences diminished when presented in temporally distal frames. The interaction effects of temporal framing and gain-loss framing had indirect effects on attitudes via fear and anger. They also had an indirect effect on intentions via fear. This study's results enhance our understanding of framing effects by testing the interaction effects between two types of framing in the context of social distancing and clarifying affective mediating processes through which framing exerts its effects. These findings have practical implications for designing effective health messages.
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Technical Report
This report, the seventh on Global Warming’s Six Americas, focuses on the segments' understanding of the human health consequences of global warming, as recently described in the U.S. National Climate Assessment. Our findings indicate that even the segments most concerned about global warming have little understanding of its human health consequences. The limited awareness of global warming's health consequences strongly suggests a need for more public education on the topic.
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Climate change activism has been uncommon in the U.S., but a growing national movement is pressing for a political response. To assess the cognitive and affective precursors of climate activism, we hypothesize and test a two-stage information-processing model based on social cognitive theory. In stage 1, expectations about climate change outcomes and perceived collective efficacy to mitigate the threat are hypothesized to influence affective issue involvement and support for societal mitigation action. In stage 2, beliefs about the effectiveness of political activism, perceived barriers to activist behaviors and opinion leadership are hypothesized to influence intended and actual activism. To test these hypotheses, we fit a structural equation model using nationally representative data. The model explains 52 percent of the variance in a latent variable representing three forms of climate change activism: contacting elected representatives; supporting organizations working on the issue; and attending climate change rallies or meetings. The results suggest that efforts to increase citizen activism should promote specific beliefs about climate change, build perceptions that political activism can be effective, and encourage interpersonal communication on the issue.
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Promoting effective responses to climate change, especially among people who reject its anthropogenic causes, has been challenging. Following a qualitative study, we experimentally induce one of four frames of reference (identity, biodiversity conservation, economic prosperity, and climate change), and assess their effects on participants' behavioral intentions using three scales (consumption-investment, consumption-reduction, and political participation). The sample (N=156) included people who thought climate change is natural and those who thought it is human-induced. Results show a significant impact of the identity frame, relative to the climate-change frame, for both consumption scales, in the total sample, and among those who reject the anthropogenic causes. These results offer a way to address behavioral resistances associated with antagonistic views on climate change.
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Using an online experiment with a national sample, this study tests the effects of political efficacy messages on two types of climate-related political participation via the discrete emotions of hope, fear, and anger and compares these effects across ideological groups. Relative to a message that discusses only negative climate impacts, messages that emphasize the internal, external, or response efficacy of political actions to address climate change are found to influence hope and fear but not anger, and these effects vary by political ideology. Furthermore, exposure to efficacy information indirectly increases participation via hope—even, in some cases, among conservatives.
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Emotions play an important role in explaining why news framing has effects on opinions about immigration. Yet, our knowledge regarding which emotions are relevant for different types of news frames is limited. This survey experiment (N = 715) determines to what extent positive and negative emotions mediate framing effects about immigration, and whether mediation depends on the type of frame at stake. We exposed participants to one of four preestablished frames: the emancipation, multicultural, assimilation, or victimization frame. Results show that the emancipation and multicultural frames cause the most emotional response. Positive emotions function as mediators of framing effects on immigration opinions.
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Personal and political action on climate change is traditionally thought to be motivated by people accepting its reality and importance. However, convincing the public that climate change is real faces powerful ideological obstacles1–4, and climate change is slipping in public importance in many countries5,6. Here we investigate a di�erent approach, identifying whether potential co-benefits of addressing climate change7 could motivate pro-environmental behaviour around the world for both those convinced and unconvinced that climate change is real. We describe an integrated framework for assessing beliefs about co-benefits8, distinguishing social conditions (for example, economic development, reduced pollution or disease) and community character (for example, benevolence, competence). Data from all inhabited continents (24 countries; 6,196 participants) showed that two co-benefit types, Development (economic and scientific advancement) and Benevolence (a more moral and caring community), motivated public, private and financial actions to address climate change to a similar degree as believing climate change is important. Critically, relationships were similar for both convinced and unconvinced participants, showing that co-benefits can motivate action across ideological divides. These relationships were also independent of perceived climate change importance, and could not be explained by political ideology, age, or gender. Communicating co-benefits could motivate action on climate change where traditional approaches have stalled.
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Framing has become one of the most popular areas of research for scholars in communication and a wide variety of other disciplines, such as psychology, behavioral economics, political science, and sociology. Particularly in the communication discipline, however, ambiguities surrounding how we conceptualize and therefore operationalize framing have begun to overlap with other media effects models to a point that is dysfunctional. This article provides an in-depth examination of framing and positions the theory in the context of recent evolutions in media effects research. We begin by arguing for changes in how communication scholars approach framing as a theoretical construct. We urge scholars to abandon the general term “framing” altogether and instead distinguish between different types of framing. We also propose that, as a field, we refocus attention on the concept's original theoretical foundations and, more important, the potential empirical contributions that the concept can make to our field and our understanding of media effects. Finally, we discuss framing as a bridge between paradigms as we shift from an era of mass communication to one of echo chambers, tailored information and microtargeting in the new media environment. © 2015 Mass Communication & Society Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication
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In this commentary, we embed the volume's contributions on public beliefs about science in a broader theoretical discussion of motivated political reasoning. The studies presented in the preceding section of the volume consistently find evidence for hyperskepticism toward scientific evidence among ideologues, no matter the domain or contextand this skepticism seems to be stronger among conservatives than liberals. Here, we show that these patterns can be understood as part of a general tendency among individuals to defend their prior attitudes and actively challenge attitudinally incongruent arguments, a tendency that appears to be evident among liberals and conservatives alike. We integrate the empirical results reported in this volume into a broader theoretical discussion of the John Q. Public model of information processing and motivated reasoning, which posits that both affective and cognitive reactions to events are triggered unconsciously. We find that the work in this volume is largely consistent with our theories of affect-driven motivated reasoning and biased attitude formation.
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Consistent with earlier research supporting the use of narratives to increase message persuasiveness, this study examined the role of guilt and happiness following exposure to organ donation narratives presented in professionally produced radio ads. As hypothesized, the loss-frame narrative was significantly associated with heightened guilt, which was related to greater freedom threat perceptions and psychological reactance. Conversely, the loss-frame narrative was negatively associated (p = .06) with increased happiness. Contrary to what was hypothesized, reactance was not significantly negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward registering as an organ donor. Instead, freedom threat was directly negatively related to favorable attitudes. Our results are discussed with an emphasis on the theoretical and practical implications.
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The underlying psychological processes that enable framing effects are often described as cognitive. Yet, recent studies suggest that framing effects may also be mediated by emotional response. The role of specific emotions in mediating the framing effect process, however, has yet to be fully empirically investigated. In an experimental survey design (n = 161), this study tests two positive (enthusiasm and contentment) and two negative emotions (anger and fear) as mediators of framing effects. Our results show that while anger and enthusiasm mediate a framing effect, contentment and fear do not. These findings deepen our understanding of which discrete emotions are relevant when studying mediated framing effects.
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Current approaches explain the effects of news frames on judgments in terms of cognitive mechanisms, such as accessibility and applicability effects. We investigated the emotional effects of two news frames—an “anger” frame and a “sadness” frame—on information processing and opinion formation. We found that the two frames produced different levels of anger and sadness. Furthermore, the anger frame increased the accessibility of information about punishment and the preference for punitive measures in comparison with the sadness frame and the control group. In contrast, the sadness frame increased the accessibility of information about help for victims and the preference for remedial measures. More importantly, these effects were mediated by the anger and sadness that were elicited by the news frames.
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Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed.
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Fear-inducing representations of climate change are widely employed in the public domain. However, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the impacts that fearful messages in climate change communications have on people's senses of engagement with the issue and associated implications for public engagement strategies. Some literature suggests that using fearful representations of climate change may be counterproductive. The authors explore this assertion in the context of two empirical studies that investigated the role of visual, and iconic, representations of climate change for public engagement respectively. Results demonstrate that although such representations have much potential for attracting people's attention to climate change, fear is generally an ineffective tool for motivating genuine personal engagement. Nonthreatening imagery and icons that link to individuals' everyday emotions and concerns in the context of this macro-environmental issue tend to be the most engaging. Recommendations for constructively engaging individuals with climate change are given.
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in our discussion of emotion and dysfunction, we have intimated that emotions are instructive about persons because both emotions and the personality are organized around the problem of surviving, getting along, and flourishing over the life course begin by addressing the question of what an emotion is / describe our own [the authors'] recent work directed at illuminating what we see as one of the important issues in emotion theory—the role of cognitive appraisal embed this work in a general model of emotion, which identifies the key variables and processes within a systems framework emphasizing person-environment relationships and cognitive mediation illustrate how emotion theory makes firm contact with a variety of topics currently being pursued across diverse psychological disciplines, especially personality and social psychology the adaptational problem and the evolution of emotion / appraisal theory / personality, society, and biology in emotion (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although many scholars have pointed out problems in framing research, there has been very few systematic examinations of the published literature. To examine the common conceptual debates, the present study content analyzes framing literature from 93 peer-reviewed journals for a decade. Two methods were employed for the sample: First, every journal identified as a “communication journal” in the Journal Citation Report was included; second, keyword searches in electronic databases were used. The main findings showed that framing studies have concentrated more on message design and “unique” frames. Consistent with existing debates, results highlight the lack of research about production of frames and mixed frames. This examination of a decade's published literature reveals better direction for future research.
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It has been shown that in certain situations losses exert a stronger effect on behavior than respective gains, and this has been commonly explained by the argument that losses are given more weight in people's decisions than respective gains. However, although much is understood about the effect of losses on cognitive processes and behavior, 2 major inconsistencies remain. First, recent empirical evidence fails to demonstrate that people avoid incentive structures that carry equivalent gains and losses. Second, findings in experience-based decision tasks indicate that following losses, increased arousal is observed simultaneously with no behavioral loss aversion. To account for these findings, we developed an attention-allocation model as a comprehensive framework for the effect of losses. According to this model losses increase on-task attention, thereby enhancing the sensitivity to the reinforcement structure. In the current article we examine whether this model can account for a broad range of empirical phenomena involving losses. We show that as predicted by the attentional model, asymmetric effects of losses on behavior emerge where gains and losses are presented separately but not concurrently. Yet, even in the absence of loss aversion, losses have distinct effects on performance, arousal, frontal cortical activation, and behavioral consistency. The attentional model of losses thus explains some of the main inconsistencies in previous studies of the effect of losses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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This article describes how the effectiveness of risk communication is determined by the interaction between emotional and informative elements. An experiment is described that examined the role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks. This experiment was based on the elaboration likelihood model and the related heuristic systematic model of attitude formation. The results indicated that inducing fear of CO2 risks leads to systematic processing of information about energy conservation as a risk-reducing strategy. In turn, this results in more favorable attitudes toward energy conservation if strong arguments are provided. Individual differences in concern seem to have similar effects.
Article
The prevalence of uncertainty and opinion divergence frames in climate change news reporting has generated concerns about the misrepresentation of scientific consensus. We first develop reliable, valid, and more nuanced measures of often-conflated types of uncertainty and opinion divergence frames. Then we analyse the co-occurrence combinations of those distinct types of opinions, sources, and topics in mainstream climate change news stories between 2005 and 2015. Results indicate that while uncertainty and opinion divergence frames are indeed frequent, once clearly distinguished, they in general accurately reference non-scientist sources (e.g. government officials) and topics that do not have a scientific consensus (e.g. the severity of climate change effects).
Article
Fear appeal research has focused, understandably, on fear as the primary emotion motivating attitude and behavior change. However, while the threat component of fear appeals associates with fear responses, a fear appeals’ efficacy component likely associates with a different emotional experience: hope. Drawing from appraisal theories of emotion in particular, this article theorizes about the role of hope in fear appeals, testing hypotheses with two existing data sets collected within the context of sun safety messages. In both studies, significant interactions between hope and self-efficacy emerged to predict behavioral intentions. Notable main effects for hope also emerged, though with less consistency. Further, these effects persisted despite controlling for the four cognitions typically considered central to fear appeal effectiveness. These results, consistent across two samples, support the claim that feelings of hope in response to fear appeals contribute to their persuasive success. Implications for developing a recursive model of fear appeal processing are discussed.
Article
This study explores discrete emotions (guilt, fear, hope) as mediators for effects of goal framing on perceived threat of climate change and willingness to sacrifice. To reconcile conflicting evidence, the study introduces and tests the distinction between gain-positive frames (positive consequences of engaging in climate protection), gain-negative frames (avoiding negative consequences when engaging in climate protection), and loss frames (negative consequences of not engaging in climate protection). Results show that gain-negative frames increase perceived threat and willingness to sacrifice, while loss frames increase them through guilt and fear. Hope is increased by a gain-positive frame but subsequently lowers both outcomes.
Article
The knowledge deficit model proposes that more information increases public knowledge levels about a given topic and thus leads to improved attitudes and practice. However, research critiques the varying and limited ability of the deficit model. We argue that the deficit model can also produce an unintended cumulative advantage system: growing inequality between and within the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) gap of individuals and groups due to a wide variety of possible moderators. Over time, these effects can exacerbate gaps between individuals’ and groups’ levels of KAP. We discuss the negative effects of increasing inequality in sustainability KAP and provide recommendations for future research.
Article
This study examined the relationships between narrative involvement, affect, risk perceptions, and environmental policy preferences. Experiment 1 involved a 3 (news, documentary, entertainment) × 2 (hydraulic fracturing, genetically modified organisms) mixed between- and within-subjects experiment. Results indicated a serial mediation model in which narrative involvement increased the likelihood of a negative affective response, in turn increasing risk perceptions and policy preferences for stricter regulation of environmental hazards. In Experiment 2, the pathway was tested for positively valenced content. Narrative involvement with positively valenced media produced a significantly lower negative affective response than negatively valenced media, but no difference terms of positive affect.
Article
A meta-analytic review of the relative persuasiveness of gain-and loss-framed messages (based on 165 effect sizes, N=50,780) finds that loss-framed appeals are not generally more persuasive than gain-framed appeals. For encouraging disease prevention behaviors, gain-framed appeals are more persuasive than loss-framed appeals; for encouraging disease detection behaviors, gain-and loss-framed appeals do not differ significantly in persuasiveness. The relative persuasiveness of differently framed appeals seems little influenced by (a) whether the gain-framed appeals emphasize the attainment of desirable states or the avoidance of undesirable states or (b) whether the loss-framed appeals emphasize the attainment of undesirable states or the avoidance of desirable states.
Article
Some scientifically well-established results—such as the fact that emission of greenhouse gases produces global warming—are rejected by sizable proportions of the population in the United States and other countries. Rejection of scientific findings is mostly driven by motivated cognition: People tend to reject findings that threaten their core beliefs or worldview. At present, rejection of scientific findings by the U.S. public is more prevalent on the political right than the left. Yet the cognitive mechanisms driving rejection of science, such as the superficial processing of evidence toward the desired interpretation, are found regardless of political orientation. General education and scientific literacy do not mitigate rejection of science but, rather, increase the polarization of opinions along partisan lines. In contrast, specific knowledge about the mechanisms underlying a scientific result—such as human-made climate change—can increase the acceptance of that result.
Article
Fear appeals are a polarizing issue, with proponents confident in their efficacy and opponents confident that they backfire. We present the results of a comprehensive meta-analysis investigating fear appeals' effectiveness for influencing attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. We tested predictions from a large number of theories, the majority of which have never been tested meta-analytically until now. Studies were included if they contained a treatment group exposed to a fear appeal, a valid comparison group, a manipulation of depicted fear, a measure of attitudes, intentions, or behaviors concerning the targeted risk or recommended solution, and adequate statistics to calculate effect sizes. The meta-analysis included 127 articles (9% unpublished) yielding 248 independent samples (NTotal = 27,372) collected from diverse populations. Results showed a positive effect of fear appeals on attitudes, intentions, and behaviors, with the average effect on a composite index being random-effects d = 0.29. Moderation analyses based on prominent fear appeal theories showed that the effectiveness of fear appeals increased when the message included efficacy statements, depicted high susceptibility and severity, recommended one-time only (vs. repeated) behaviors, and targeted audiences that included a larger percentage of female message recipients. Overall, we conclude that (a) fear appeals are effective at positively influencing attitude, intentions, and behaviors; (b) there are very few circumstances under which they are not effective; and (c) there are no identified circumstances under which they backfire and lead to undesirable outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
The mitigation of climate change requires reductions in the amount of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. One way to achieve this in the short run is through the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology. The viability of CCS not only depends on technical and regulatory issues, but also on public attitudes. Communication plays an important role in shaping these attitudes. This paper reports on two experiments performed to examine effects of emphasis framing in CCS communications, meaning that greater weight is given to advantages of CCS over disadvantages or vice versa. Although emphasis framing can be effective in shaping attitudes, our findings suggest that there may be long-term costs to using this communication technique as it can be perceived as manipulative. Moreover, emphasis framing is judged as relatively illegitimate when the source is expected to be impartial rather than biased.
Article
This study investigates how U.S. network television news stories have conveyed threat and efficacy information about climate change, both directly and indirectly, through the discussion and framing of climate change impacts and actions. Results show that while impacts and actions are discussed independently in a majority of broadcasts, they are rarely discussed in the same broadcast. Moreover, while news coverage frequently conveys the threat of climate change, it provides an inconsistent efficacy message, often including both positive and negative efficacy cues. Finally, impacts are framed primarily in terms of environmental consequences, whereas actions are framed in terms of political conflict.
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Overwhelmingly, the literature on the persuasive influence of emotions has focused on individual emotions, fear in particular, though some recent attention has been given to mixed emotions in persuasive appeals. Building on this newer wave of research, this article argues that instead of focusing on singular emotional states or collections of emotions evoked by a message, it might prove valuable to explore the flow, or evolution, of emotional experience over the course of exposure to a health message. The article offers a brief introduction to the concept of emotion, followed by a review of the state of the literature on the use of emotion in health messages. The concept of emotional flow is then introduced along with a consideration of how it has been tacitly incorporated into the study of emotional health messages. Finally, the utility of the concept of emotional flow is elaborated by articulating the ways in which it might be harnessed to facilitate the creation of more effective health messages, individually as well as across campaigns. The article concludes with an agenda for future research.
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Fear-inducing representations of climate change are widely employed in the public domain. However, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the impacts that fearful messages in climate change communications have on people's senses of engagement with the issue and associated implications for public engagement strategies. Some literature suggests that using fearful representations of climate change may be counterproductive. The authors explore this assertion in the context of two empirical studies that investigated the role of visual, and iconic, representations of climate change for public engagement respectively. Results demonstrate that although such representations have much potential for attracting people's attention to climate change, fear is generally an ineffective tool for motivating genuine personal engagement. Nonthreatening imagery and icons that link to individuals' everyday emotions and concerns in the context of this macro-environmental issue tend to be the most engaging. Recommendations for constructively engaging individuals with climate change are given.
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Hope has the potential to be a powerful motivator for influencing behavior. However, hope and messages that evoke hope (hope appeals) have rarely been the focus of theoretical development or empirical research. As a step toward the effective development and use of hope appeals in persuasive communication, this study conceptualized and operationalized hope appeals in the context of climate change prevention. Then, the study manipulated components of the hope evocation part of a hope appeal. Specifically, the components were designed to address appraisals of the importance, goal congruence, future expectation, and possibility of climate protection, resulting in a 2 (strong/weak importance) × 2 (strong/weak goal congruence) × 2 (strong/weak future expectation) × 2 (strong/weak possibility) between-subjects pretest-posttest factorial design. Two hundred forty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of the 16 message conditions and completed the study online. The study tested whether the four appraisals predict feelings of hope. It determined whether message components that address importance, goal congruence, future expectation, and possibility affect appraisals, feelings of hope, and persuasion outcomes. Finally, this study tested the effects of feelings of hope on persuasion outcomes. This study takes an important step toward enabling the effective use of hope appeals in persuasive communication. FULL TEXT: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/SZi6teNhkkXi2HQ5nhjF/full
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Does the relationship between media use and learning about climate change depend more on audiences' scientific literacy on their ideological biases? To answer this question, we evaluate both the knowledge gap and belief gap hypotheses as they relate to climate change. Results indicate belief gaps for news and entertainment content and a knowledge gap for edutainment content. Climate change knowledge among conservatives decreased with greater attention to political news, but increased with greater attention to science news. TV entertainment was associated with a significant decrease in knowledge about climate change among liberals to similar levels as conservatives. Edutainment was associated with a widening gap in knowledge based on respondents' scientific literacy. Implications for informal learning about controversial science through the media are discussed.
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Seeming public apathy over climate change is often attributed to a deficit in comprehension. The public knows too little science, it is claimed, to understand the evidence or avoid being misled. Widespread limits on technical reasoning aggravate the problem by forcing citizens to use unreliable cognitive heuristics to assess risk. An empirical study found no support for this position. Members of the public with the highest degrees of science literacy and technical reasoning capacity were not the most concerned about climate change. Rather, they were the ones among whom cultural polarization was greatest. This result suggests that public divisions over climate change stem not from the public’s incomprehension of science but from a distinctive conflict of interest: between the personal interest individuals have in forming beliefs in line with those held by others with whom they share close ties and the collective one they all share in making use of the best available science to promote common welfare.
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I will discuss the various challenges scientists must confront in efforts to communicate the science and implications of climate change to the public. Among these challenges is the stiff headwind we must fight of a concerted disinformation effort designed to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding of the problem and the reality of the underlying societal threat. We also must fight the legacy of the public's perception of the scientist. That is to say, we must strive to communicate in plainspoken language that neither insults the intelligence of our audience, nor hopelessly loses them in jargon and science-speak. And through all of this, we must maintain our composure and good humor even in the face of what we might consider the vilest of tactics by our opposition. When it comes to how best to get our message out to the broader public, I don't pretend to have all of the answers. But I will share some insights and anecdotes that I have accumulated over the course of my own efforts to inform the public about the reality of climate change and the potential threat that it represents.