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Effects of Training on Employee Performance



Despite employing already experienced employees, human resource managers design training and development programs to make employees learn and achieve skills, ability, and knowledge about their responsibilities. Organizations do this with the understanding that employees form the backbone of organizations. However, it is still unclear on how Lebanese companies achieve the level of education and training for their employees. The study collected primary data from a sample of 303 respondents. The researcher visited a sample of respondents from their workstations to administer questionnaires. The findings showed that the two companies from Lebanon design different training programs. The two companies design training programs that focus on short-term skills and development programs for long-term abilities. Some of the programs include organizing programs outside the workplace, attending workshops, participating in department activities, and watching others. Training programs benefited employees as well as the two companies. Employees cited that they were able to develop inner satisfaction, received positive evaluation feedback, understood how to achieve a quality output, and developed career beyond classwork.
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Effects of Training on Employee Performance: A Case Study of Bonjus and Khatib &
Alami Companies
Ali Halawi & Nada Haydar
The aim of this paper is to understand the effects of training on the performance of employees
from two Lebanese companies - Bonjus Company and Khatib & Alami Company. Currently,
organizations rely on improved capability, skills, and knowledge of talented employees to
achieve positive performance. Despite employing already experienced employees, human
resource managers still design training and development programs to make employees learn
and acquire skills, ability, and knowledge about their responsibilities. This is done with the
understanding that employees form the backbone of organizations. However, it is still unclear
on how Lebanese companies achieve the level of education and training for their employees.
The study collected primary data from a sample of 303 respondents. The researcher visited a
sample of respondents from their workstations to administer questionnaires. The findings,
however, showed that the two companies from Lebanon design different training programs.
The two companies design training programs that focuses on short-term skills and
development programs for long-term abilities. Some of the programs include organizing
programs outside the workplace, attending workshops, participating in department activities,
and watching others. Consequently, training programs benefited employees as well as the two
companies. Employees cited that they were able to develop inner satisfaction, received
positive evaluation feedback, understood how to achieve a quality output, and developed
career beyond classwork. Nevertheless, management noted that they experienced challenges
of implementing training programs because of fear to spend more resources, communication,
bureaucracy, less support from top-level managers, and failure to have structures. The
implications of the findings for practice were highlighted.
Keywords: Training, employee, development, performance.
Across the world, organizations have sought to rely on improved skills, knowledge, and
capability of the talented workforce to create competitive advantage (Shu-Rung & Chun-
Chieh, 2017). To develop the desirable skills, knowledge, and capability of employee and
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position them to perform their responsibilities, managers in charge of human resource
training design different training programs (Lakra, 2016). Such training programs not only
target to improve the familiarity of employees about their responsibilities, but it also helps to
encourage employees to develop more commitment towards their job. Huang & Jao (2016)
explained that organizations design training programs to prepare their employees to perform
their jobs correctly and according to the laid down standards. Organizational personnel
design training sessions to ensure that they optimize the potentials of employees. Khan &
Baloch (2017) opined that majority of organizations prefer to invest in different programs
that create new skills through long-term planning. This is to enable them adapt to any current
and future uncertainties. Therefore, they ensure that they improve the performance of their
employees through superior levels of commitments and motivation.
It is of great significance to note that employees are the backbone of any organization. No
matter how big or small the organization is, employees are the true determinants of how
successful or how incompetent an organization will turn out to be. Therefore, having an
adequately trained workforce is vital to ensure that the workplace has the right employees
that have been professionally trained and qualified to do their tasks properly. But the problem
here is that the economy is very dynamic in nature, and organizations are expected to give
more output than they had given before. All this demand places strain on the managers and in
turn they are forced to pressurize their employees for better performance and output levels.
However, to have a productive workforce, it is absolutely essential that employees get the
adequate training they require. In return, Organizations are compelled to implement updated
employee training strategies every now and then, with an intention to increase the
productivity of employees.
Background and Literature Review
According to the World Bank, Employee training is a program aimed at helping employees
gain specific skills and knowledge. The acquired knowledge and skills are provided to assist
employees in improving their job performance (World Bank, 2011). Training is developed
through organized programs that ensure employees are given skills that are essential in the
job market. Therefore, before embarking on this kind of training, it is important for any
agency to first understand the needs of employers. Take for example, Lebanon, both
government and private agencies (Khoury et al., 2014) undergo training. This approach helps
in training as many employees as possible to make them qualified for better jobs. There are
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also other essential reasons why employee-training programs are developed. For instance,
training makes it easier for an organization to retain good talents that helps in the growth of
profits. With great talents, an organization can overcome challenges of operation. In return,
the employers lay down well-developed strategies, and great milestones are reached in
regards to performance. Although employee training should not only be offered to attract
better jobs, it should also be supportive towards achieving organizational strategic path.
According to Jaoude (2015), organizations providing high-level training have been able to
realize three times increasing profits compared to competitors. However, to possess such
high impact programs and employees is not simple; it requires a mixture of alignment and
planning. This involves developing and designing training in a manner that meets the
organization’s top goals. Furthermore, employee training should be based on gaps in the job
market. This is done through identification of what employees possess regarding skills and
the ideal ones required for the job. Through this approach, training can effectively be offered
based on motivation, skills mastery, and giving critical thinking skills to employees. Lastly,
training should be done based on practical and class lessons to produce effective and
sustainable skills in the workforce (Urdinola, 2013).
Employee Training Programs
Globally, organizations have been enrolling their employees in training programs to enhance
their skills, knowledge, and capabilities. Most of them facilitate the training through the
development of programs with the ability to meet their employee’s needs. However, Khan et
al. (2011) stated that some firms provide their employees with opportunities to enroll in
training programs established by another firm. Accordingly, the previous studies have shown
that if well implemented, the internal programs are more effective than the external ones. The
difference emanates from the fact that the internal programs are designed in such a way that
they respond to pre-determined training needs (Jehanzeb & Beshir, 2013). The external
programs are designed for a diverse population from different organizations, and thus, they
are relatively less effective (Khan et al., 2011). Aguinis & Kraiger (2009) found out that the
external programs are not always ineffective. In some cases, they are better than the internal
training programs since they impart new and essential knowledge/skills that an organization
may not have information about.
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Therefore, when designing training programs, firms focus on providing the employees with
opportunities for the development of general and specific skills. The programs are meant to
make available sales, technical, communications, organizational development, management
development, career development and supervisory development training, among others. As
Valle et al. (2009) explained, the training is not provided to the lower-level employees only,
but also to the managers and supervisors. Some forms of training, such as sales training, are
suitable for the employees. Conversely, management training is likewise offered to the
managers to enhance the skills needed for their roles. Also, supervisory training is provided
to the supervisors. Further, communication and career development training can be offered to
the employees, the managers, and the supervisors. Gerpott et al. (2017) explained that the
management and supervisor training can be provided to the employees in lower levels that are
set to be promoted.
The implementation of training programs is done while taking into consideration the method
of skills and knowledge development that is needful. Huang & Jao (2011) noted that there are
two key training methods, namely; behavioral and cognitive training. Thus, a firm selects the
most suitable method that should be implemented in the training program. However, Elnaga
& Imran (2013) explain that the two methods can be applied in the same program at the same
time. The cognitive method involves the provision of theoretical training to the employees or
managers. The theoretical information is provided to the trainees through verbal or non-
verbal communication or both. Quartey (2012) elucidate that the firms that offer cognitive
training focuses on the enhancement of the knowledge and skills of the trainees and also
influences their attitudes through stimulating learning.
Examples of cognitive approaches are lectures, program instruction, computer-based training,
discussions, and use of an intelligent tutorial system. On the other hand, the behavioral
method involves the use of practical approaches to provide training. These practical
approaches facilitate a change in the behaviors of the trainees. Thus, Khan & Baloch (2017)
gave the explaination that the behavioral approaches are suitable for skill development.
Examples of the behavioral approaches are role-played in basket techniques, equipment
stimulators, case studies, business games, behavioral modeling and games, and simulations.
Khan & Baloch (2017) further describe that some of the approaches categorized under the
cognitive method, such as computer-based training, have a tendency to facilitate skills
development, in addition to the acquisition of knowledge. In the same vein, some of the
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approaches classified under the behavioral method, such as case studies, provide knowledge
as well as skills.
Huang & Jao (2016) identified two strategies that are integrated into managerial and
employee training, namely; off job training and on-the-job training. Off-the-job training
entails providing training to the employees or managers in a context away from the site,
where the skills and knowledge gained are to be applied (Huang & Jao, 2016; Yasin &
Gomes, 2010). The strategy requires the trainees to leave their work-responsibilities and
concentrate on training. Conversely, on-the-job training is undertaken in the workplace as the
trainee handles work responsibilities. In such training, a more experienced employee or
manager can act as the instructor. Alternatively, an organization can hire a professional
instructor to provide the training. Huang & Jao (2016) also stated that the formal training in a
context away from the workplace can be used to support the job training. As such, the two
strategies can be applied together. The previous studies have shown that during the recent
years, most organizations have shown an increased preference for off job training (Khan et
al., 2011). The change has been facilitated by limitation associated with the on the job
training, such as lack of opportunities for group discussion, lack of adequate training
facilities, and the presence of hostile internal environment for training. More so, the training
techniques vary depending on the training strategy that is adopted. On-the-job training
techniques include mentoring, coaching, demonstrations, job rotation and team building
exercises (Matsuo, 2014). Examples of the off job training techniques are brainstorming,
discussions, case studies, behavior modeling, conferences, and lectures. Some of the
techniques such as demonstrations, however, can be applied in both the work settings and
away from work.
Training programs should be designed with the careful consideration of different factors that
influence choices for training methods. By doing so, chances of achieving the desired goals
increases tremendously. The choices for the suitable methods can be determined by human
factors such as the presence or availability of a trainer (Erixon & Wahlström, 2016). Other
influential factors include subject area (Quartey, 2012), training objectives (Aguinis &
Kraiger, 2009), time and materials availability (Khan et al., 2011), and principles of learning
(Khoury et al., 2014). Erixon & Wahlström (2016) described four stages of implementation
of training programs, namely; training needs assessment, development of training program
design, implementation, and evaluation.
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Purpose and Scope
This paper focuses on Lebanese companies in order to understand the effects of training on
employee performance. Therefore, in addition to this broader aim, the key areas of focus
1. To find out types of training programs used by Lebanese companies.
2. To find out the benefits of proper training programs among the Lebanese companies.
3. To explore the challenges of implementing proper training programs used by the
Lebanese companies.
This study will look at how managers are investing in their human capital, to gain a
competitive advantage and retain their position in the market. Two Lebanese companies,
Bonjus Company and Khatib & Alami Company, will be used as case studies. Employee
training is a new strategy widely practiced in the Lebanese market. However, there has been
inadequate research regarding the subject. Thus, the main objective of this study is to find out
the challenges and benefits of proper employee training programs.
This research will be a good resource for Lebanese companies wanting to improve their
training programs and increase their productivity. The study will also give an insight to
different training methods and their outcomes on the organization that could help
organization managers to see the best-fit training program for their organization. Obviously,
this will surely increase the organization's productivity and ultimately their profit.
Research Hypotheses
H1: Lebanese companies design different training programs to develop their employees
H2: Training programs have positive impact on performance of employees at workplace
H3: Different challenges experienced among HR managers affect implementation of training
programs in companies
Despite the successful completion of the research, there were a few limitations encountered
especially during the collection of data. The first limitation experienced was the
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unavailability of time for the respondents to participate in the interviews. The second
limitation was language barrier as most employees on the subordinate level could not
understand some English terms used in the interviews, especially those terms relating to
human resource management. The third limitation was the insufficient secondary sources on
employee training in Lebanese companies. The fourth limitation, however, was finances. The
researcher spent a lot of money visiting different companies to gather information. Due to the
busy schedules of the employees, it was hard to interview many respondents at the same time.
Methodology and Design
The study attempted to collect data from two groups. The first group comprised of managers
in charge of human resources and those that take part directly or indirectly in training,
development, and performance evaluation. The second group consisted of lower-level
employees working in different departments. However, the nature of such an arrangement
made it possible to apply snowball and simple sampling techniques respectively.
This paper adopted the use of questionnaire instruments to collect primary data from
employees of Bonjus Company and Khatib & Alami Company in Lebanon. The sampling
approach made it easier to access all the targeted respondents. Although, due to the fact that
majority of the respondents had a busy schedule of attending to their daily operations at their
workstations, we opted to use a drop-off/pick-up technique to collect primary data. Other
scholars have succeeded in using this technique (Steele et al., 2007). For instance, according
to the previous study conducted by Jackson-Smith et al. (2016), the technique involved
delivering self-administered questionnaires to the workstations of respondents and the
doorsteps of their offices.
The major aspect of the survey methodology requires a face-to-face communication with the
respondents. During the first communication, we first introduced ourselves and explained the
objective of our study as indicated in the introduction section of the survey questionnaires.
Then, we left the questionnaires with the respondents with the promise that we would come
back after two weeks to pick them. However, there were also other cases where we could not
find the respondents either at their offices or workstations. In such cases, we opted to slide
the questionnaires underneath the door with a note promising that we would come to pick the
questionnaires. We considered a grace period of two weeks bearing in mind that a majority of
the respondents could not find time to respond to the questionnaires within a short period.
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Secondly, we also wanted to achieve a high response rate. Besides, the collection process
became successful because of quick follow-ups. We ensured that we made some telephone
calls or send short-text-messages (SMSs).
While we could have used other techniques to collect the data, drop-off/pick-up technique
provided some advantages. First, we managed to make face-to-face contact and initiate verbal
communication with samples of respondents. The approach was most applicable in cases
where the respondents were at their workstations and offices. For example, we managed to
explain to them the objective of our study and the reason why we had selected some of them.
Also, we got the opportunity to communicate with individual respondents while reading an
introduction and my cover letter that we had already used to obtain acceptance from the
company’s top management.
Furthermore, we decided to use the snowball-sampling technique on the basis that we found
it difficult to identify specific managers working in the human and resource department. Most
importantly, we wanted to pin point those that had participated directly or indirectly in
training and development programs in the two case study companies. While following the
guidelines provided by Saunders et al. (2009), we made use of four stages to recognize
managers to participate in this study. The first step involved making contact with one or two
managers from the population. The second step requires asking them to provide assistance to
identify other respondents working in the same department. Similarly, the third step entailed
asking the new respondents to give support to identify other new respondents. We only
stopped when we could not identify other cases, and the sample was large enough to manage.
Data Analysis and Findings
The data analysis was conducted through a process from the coding to the results. According
to Mayer (2015), data analysis begins from data cleaning, coding, input, and analysis.
Data cleaning was done to remove all missing variables that respondents either failed to fill
or could not be read and understood. On the other hand, coding was done to assign binary
numbers to all certain variables/items. The binary numbers were used as labels (Graue, 2015).
Based on the nature of objectives, the paper applied the IBM SPSS v. 20 to analyze primary
data. For example, section 2 of the questionnaires requested respondents to select among the
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multiple response choices by ticking the type of training strategy they had used. The analysis
involves defining variables sets to come up with multiple response sets. Hence, descriptive
statistics were used to find out the level of mean and dispersion of three value (standard
deviation, minimum, and maximum values). The second analysis involves bivariate
correlation to understand the relationship between training and level of performance.
It is apparent that human resources managers from the two companies design training
programs that focuses on short-term skills. At the same time, they design development
programs to allow employees develop their long-term abilities. Besides, irrespective of the
type of training program that management uses, Molina & Ortega (2003) explain that every
human resource personnel follow three major steps. First, one needs to assess the needs of an
organization and the current skills that employees have. This first approach ensures that
management takes stock of skills to understand how to determine the training needs. Second,
the concerned personnel must design training activities that can help meet the already
identified needs. This means the organizations have to develop different training programs
that align with the identified needs. Lastly, the third step involves conducting an evaluation of
the training to ascertain the effectiveness of the training in achieving set goals.
Specifically, management from the two companies adopts the first strategy of training as a
general form of training. Taylor & Vaught (2016) are in support of this step. Additionally,
human resource personnel from the two companies ensure that employees across all the
functional units benefit from information regarding their responsibilities and functions. To
illustrate this, some of such information accessible to employees in different departments
covers what human personnel expect from individual employees. An example is how to
embrace employees that comes from a different cultural background, and how they can
respond in cases of discrimination. Aguinis & Kraiger (2009) posited that any company that
implements this strategy must first collect information from their employees to understand
the needs of a company.
The findings support the second step that management takes to design different training
programs. For example, the design of a questionnaire allowed respondents to give their
opinions on Likert scales as to whether or not they agreed that the company have succeeded
in adopting training programs. The above results collaborate with other empirical studies and
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secondary literature that has attempted to explore different training and development. Meyer
(2010) explains that irrespective of the size and area where a company operates, human
personnel can design different strategies to equip their employees with the needed skills,
abilities, and knowledge. Furthermore, he outlines them as orientation, on-the-job, apprentice
programs, off the job, online training, job simulation, and vestibule training. Mason &
Wetherbee (2004) concluded in their study that sought to understand different leadership
training program through which organizations, libraries, and nonprofit foundations have
developed various programs.
Most importantly, organizations enroll their personnel in classes, libraries, and seminars to
learn leadership skills. Schmidt (1994) recommends that organizations need to embrace non-
traditional training programs. They should include the use of day-to-day assignments that
make managers assign employees with experienced supervisors, utilize digital technology to
refer employees to where they can access online materials for learning, and enrolling some
employees in short-term lectures such as leadership classes.
An empirical study by Callahan & Watson (1995) tries to understand practical training and
development programs used to train librarians. They maintain that some needs experienced
by librarians across the world include; challenges of evolving technology, an ever-increasing
demand for new services, and reduction in budgets. Furthermore, organizations also
experience needs such as automation, reevaluation of services offered to students, and
expansion of libraries. They concluded that major practical approaches includes encouraging
librarians to attend seminars, attend workshops through agencies, attend computer classes,
and being assigned to experienced supervisors.
The importance of such training programs has been utilized to achieve the needs of individual
employees and that of the company. The findings revealed in the current study show that the
two companies got the opportunity to design programs that could make employees benefit
from new skills and advancement. They were found to form important determinants of inner
satisfaction among employees as well as life-long learning, quality output, and interpersonal
relationship. In this paper, therefore, the analyzed data confirms that management from the
two companies had opportunities to design training and development programs. Thus, this
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could assist them to have a positive influence in developing their careers beyond the theories
gained in the classroom.
Most importantly, training provides employees with the needed skills, abilities, and
knowledge to perform the jobs according to the company procedures. Consequently, this ends
up enhancing confidence among employees regarding their abilities and satisfaction while
performing their jobs. Zhao et al. (2014) explains that satisfied employees always find a
reason to deliver beyond their expectations. Different training programs that employees go
through enable them to learn about the requirements of serving customers for the two
companies. Ultimately, this has a strong influence on their satisfaction level, which in turn
increases productivity and profitability. The above discussion indicates that providing
employees with a well-designed training and development program helps them to become
more profitable and to gain more satisfaction while performing their jobs.
The findings presented in this section also support previous results that training plays an
important role in predicting effective and continued commitment (Butler & Lobley, 2016).
The opportunity for employees to start developing their career beyond what they have learned
in class accounted for 30.5%. This implies that training programs are good indicators of the
willingness to spend more by investing in employees. While at the same time, it is a sure way
of making employees develop a high level of commitment towards their work places. Such a
commitment is likely to inspire employees to achieve life-long learning.
Moreover, the challenges of implementing proper training programs among the Lebanese
companies refer to the fact that most of the companies in Lebanon have put in place measures
in their quest to not only develop skills, knowledge, and ability among employees, but also to
ensure that such skills transform into returns on investment (ROI). It is important to note the
suppress management efforts that is directed towards designing programs that enhance their
For example, on a five-point Likert scales from 1 to 5 (1 = strongly agree, 5 = strongly
disagree), majority of respondents indicated that their company still grapple with the issue of
taking long to identify resources that can assist employees to implement training initiatives.
Even though it is understandable that the management from the two companies could be
using different programs to develop skills among employees, some tangible and intangible
resources must support the implementation of such programs.
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Training requires financial support, training rooms, experienced trainers, and time. However,
delays in identifying key resources have made the company to implement programs within a
stipulated time frame. The above findings are also coupled with the fear that by spending
more on employees, the company might incur more losses. Organizing programs such as
inviting keynote speakers to talk about the specified topic would require the company to pay
such speakers. Similarly, making reservations on the conference and seminary rooms means
that a company has to pay for accommodation. Not all of these expenses and others not
mentioned here indicate that the company will be willing to sponsor training programs.
According to the findings, a majority of respondents agreed that issues of bureaucracies made
communication and structures hinder effective implementation of training programs. The
findings were in support of other previous studies that maintain that organizational structures
and bureaucracy formed important problems in hindering training. For instance, Burkard et
al. (2012) posited that issues revolving around organization structures and bureaucracy tend
to subject employees to look for other means of creating their satisfaction from other line
managers before the company achieves its goals. A strong agreement among employees on
these statements is a sure indicator of how different companies in Lebanon have failed to
achieve the training and development of their employees on time. A study by Friedman
(2014) echoed the importance of initiating communication in an environment where
managers and employees can enforce free and effective communication. Thus, effective
communication has been found to support openness and trust among employees.
Consequently, this allows employees to communicate by sharing ideas when performing
group work, teamwork, or when offering orientation training.
Organizational culture always serves a critical role in facilitating the implementation of
different programs. Weber et al. (2016) argued that organizations with cultures that limit any
proposed changes are also likely to fail to implement new training initiatives no matter how
critical the training might be. A majority of respondents were found to support this item.
They indicated that the workplace has restrictive measures that hinder management from
taking needed changes. Hence, this ends up affecting the implementation of an entire
program. Similarly, Syrnyk (2012) explains that employees are likely to resist any form of
changes through hidden fears. In fact, such employees are always willing to do anything to
ensure that their company does not execute the needed changes.
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Friedman (2014) explains that management support is also a factor that makes organization
come up with strategies whose implementation requires the efforts of other employees. This
implies that an absence of management support would lead to derailing activities needed to
achieve an identified goal. Maxwell et al. (2012) posited that execution of any training
program must depend on funding to buy needed resources. Thus, failure of management
support could also be the source of delays in identifying needed resources. Based on the fact
that the two companies do not get full management support, this paper could as well deduce
that majority of organizations in Lebanon do not get full support from managers in charge of
human resource, operations, and other functional units.
To sum it all up, effective communication explained above helps employees initiate support
from managers. However, when an organization lacks effective communication, this can
derail training programs.
Conclusion and Recommendations
To begin with, through proper training, the organization creates and improves the nature of
the present workers. The training will influence the conduct of employees and their working
abilities resulting in improved performance and further productive changes that serve to build
the performance of the employee. Training additionally has a noteworthy part of the
employee performance by instilling in them the important skills required to perform different
tasks in the organization.
The organization can consider training employees in critical thinking, central leadership,
teamwork, and relating to people bringing about beneficial firm-level results. Training is also
an important tool for the company to patch up the performance of all the employees for the
organization’s development and success by expanding employee productivity. It is useful to
both the employees and the employers of a company. However, an employee will turn out to
be more proficient and beneficial on the chances that he is trained well. Training is
fundamental to expand efficiency as well as to inspire and motivate employees by telling
them how essential their occupations are and giving them all the data they need to make their
output better.
Most employees have a few shortcomings in their working environment skills. Therefore, a
training program enables them to fortify those skills that every employee needs to progress.
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This diminishes any frail connections inside the organization that depends intensely on others
to finish important work assignments.
Moreover, an employee who gets the vital training is better able to execute tasks assigned to
him/ her. He/she turns out to be more mindful of safety measures and legitimate methods for
basic errands. The training may likewise build the worker's confidence since he/she has a
more grounded comprehension of the business and the duties of the activity. This confidence
may bring about outstanding performances and new ideas that will help to exceed
expectations. Continuous training additionally keeps the employees on the cutting edge of
industry improvements. Employees who are able and willing to change the standards of the
company enable the organization to hold a position as a leader and to become a solid
competitor inside the business.
Further, an organized training and development program guarantees that employees have a
dependable experience and background knowledge. The consistency is especially pertinent to
the organization's essential policies and procedures. All workers should know about the
procedures and expectations of the organization. This incorporates security, discrimination,
and administrative undertakings. Putting all employees through regular training in these
sections guarantees that all staff individuals at least have exposure to the data.
Finally, employees with access to training and development programs have the favorable
position in different organizations that are forgotten and left to look for training opportunities
all alone. The investment in training that an organization makes shows the workers that they
are valued. The training further creates a supportive working environment. Employees may
access the training they would not have thought about or sought out themselves. Accordingly,
employees who feel challenged and appreciated through training opportunities may feel more
satisfied with their job. This motivates them to become more innovative and thus improving
their performance.
Based on the above, the study recommends that a company should set aside time for
employees to undergo interviews by adjusting their shifts. Moreover, the company can ensure
that the employees respond to all questions asked on the questionnaire by encouraging them
that it will be for their own benefit.
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Aguinis, H. & Kraiger, K. (2009). Benefits of training and development for individuals and
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... Dalam praktik manajemen, perusahaan mengandalkan peningkatan kemampuan, keterampilan, dan pengetahuan karyawan berbakat untuk mencapai kinerja positif. Meskipun sudah mempekerjakan karyawan yang berpengalaman, manajer sumber daya manusia tetap perlu merancang program pelatihan dan pengembangan untuk membuat karyawan belajar dan memperoleh keterampilan, kemampuan, dan pengetahuan berkaitan dengan tanggung jawab pekerjaan karena karyawan merupakan tulang punggung organisasi (Halawi & Haydar, 2018). ...
... Sementara itu, telah dibuktikan bahwa kinerja karyawan tidak hanya dipengaruhi secara positif oleh pelatihan saja, namun ada faktor lain yang lebih penting yang berasal dari individu setiap karyawan sendiri, yaitu motivasi (Susanti et al., 2018;Mulyadi, 2018;dan Anindita et al., 2018). Motivasi memiliki hubungan yang tinggi dengan kinerja karyawan (Ma'ruf & Chair, 2020) atau dengan kata lain, motivasi memiliki ikatan yang cukup kuat dengan kinerja karyawan (Halawi & Haydar, 2018). Motivasi ekstrinsik seperti adanya program insentif/bonus/komisi yang menarik, atau minimal memberikan pujian bagi karyawan yang telah menyelesaikan tugas sesuai target, dan memberikan pengakuan atas kerja karyawan yang baik lebih dapat mempengaruhi kinerja karyawan (Nilasari dkk., 2021). ...
... Nirha Jaya Tehnik Makassar yang menunjukkan bahwa motivasi mempunyai tingkat hubungan yang kuat dengan kinerja karyawan. Sebelumnya (Halawi & Haydar, 2018) melakukan studi kasus pada karyawan Perusahaan Bonjus dan Khatib & Alami dan membuktikan bahwa ada hubungan yang cukup baik antara motivasi dengan kinerja karyawan. Sementara itu, (Nilasari dkk., 2021) menjelaskan bahwa motivasi seperti adanya program insentif/bonus/komisi yang menarik, atau minimal memberikan pujian bagi karyawan yang telah menyelesaikan tugas sesuai target, dan memberikan pengakuan atas kerja karyawan yang baik dapat mempengaruhi kinerja karyawan. ...
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Salah satu bank swasta yang mampu berhasil bertahan di masa sulit saat terjadi pandemic Covid-19 adalah Bank Central Asia (BCA), khususnya cabang Probolinggo. Keberhasilan BCA tersebut tentu tidak lepas dari kinerja karyawan yang tinggi sebagai dampak dari praktik manajemen sumber daya manusia (MSDM) yang tepat, yaitu dengan mengoptimalkan pelatihan dan motivasi yang ada dalam diri karyawan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pelatihan dan motivasi terhadap kinerja karyawan BCA cabang Probolinggo di masa pandemi Covid-19. Sebanyak 40 karyawan telah dipilih menjadi responden penelitian melalui teknik sampling sampel jenuh. Data kuantitatif diperoleh melalui penyebaran kuisioner berskala likert 5 points yang kemudian dianalisis menggunakan analisis Partial Least Square dengan bantuan software SmartPLS versi 3.3.3. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa baik pelatihan maupun motivasi sama-sama berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap kinerja karyawan, walau motivasi memiliki pengaruh yang lebih kuat dibandingkan pelatihan. Ini terjadi karena selama pandemi Covid-19, pelatihan dilakukan secara online yang dinilai oleh karyawan tidak seefektif pelatihan offline. Penelitian selanjutnya dapat menganalisis secara lebih mendalam tentang jenis pelatihan dan jenis motivasi yang paling mmeberikan dampak bagi kinerja karyawan.
... Training is one of the factors that will accommodate all these needs. Then Hind (2008) in (Halawi & Haydar, 2018) evaluates the relationship between knowledge management including training programs with creativity and innovation. The education and training program has a positive, direct and significant effect on creativity and innovation. ...
... Training has a positive and significant relationship to work innovation behavior. (Halawi & Haydar, 2018). ...
... Moreover, other studies, for example, by Halawi and Haydar (2018), elaborate on training to deal with skill deficits and performance gaps to improve employee performance. According to Jyoti and Rani (2017), bridging the performance gap refers to executing an appropriate training intervention to improve specific skills and abilities of employees and boost employee performance. ...
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Purpose The paper investigates how talent management influences employee performance in the banking industry in Nigeria. Despite various economic policies of the Central Bank of Nigeria aimed at reshaping the banking industry, talent management and development for the digital age is the concern of the most bank. Rapid digital transformation has been affecting the banking industry, which requires the banking industry to rethink a strategic way to achieve inclusive, resilient, and sustainable growth. Design/methodology/approach The questionnaires were used to obtain information from 302 full-time employees of the top five banks in the Nigerian banking industry. The collected data were analyzed using the Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM). Findings This study shows that talent attraction and development significantly and positively influence task performance. In comparison, talent retention was found to have no significant effect on task performance. This study found that work engagement positively mediates talent attraction, development and task performance. Work engagement did not mediate the relationship between talent retention and task performance. Originality/value For the industry to motivate high-performing employees in this digital economy, talent management will need to be carefully designed to create the most enduring competitive advantage. In conclusion, this study will benefit the Nigerian banking industry by apprehending the predictors of task performance so that the prevalence of poor task performance among the employees is well managed.
... This is because the process of DT among employees could change not only proficiency as well as behaviors of workers, but it also enables them to adjust to innovation, which likely improves the effectiveness of employees as well as enterprises (Khan et al., 2016). A positive causal linkage from the programs of DT to PE has been discovered in previous studies (Afsana et al., 2016;Singh, 2016). Overall, it can posit that, PE can be positively determined by DT (H2) ...
... which is carried out with the skills and abilities possessed by the employee; 2) Quantity of work, namely the amount of work produced which is usually expressed in terms such as units or cycles of completed work activities; 3) Timeliness, namely the level of completion of work activities during a predetermined period of time which becomes the standard for achieving work completion times; 4) Effectiveness, namely the level of use of organizational resources (manpower, money, technology, and raw materials) that can be maximized to increase the results of each unit of resource use; and 5) Independence, namely the level of an employee who is able to carry out his work functions well, as well as work commitment and responsibility to the organization. Several previous research results indicate that effective training and geographical education can be one of the factors that influence employee performance improvement (Aditya, 2015;Afroz, 2018;Afsana, Afrin, & Tarannum, 2015;Ampomah, 2016;Halawi & Haydar, 2018;Kasim, Rantetampang, & Lumbantobing, 2016;Maduningtias, 2020;Otuko, Chege, & Douglas, 2013;Rudhaliawan, 2013;Safitri, 2019;Segeren, 2012;Tukunimulongo, 2016). However, training and geographical education is not always able to have a significant effect on the work results of employees who are increasingly This is proven by research conducted by (Mihardjo, Jermsittiparsert, Ahmed, Chankoson, & Hussain, 2020;Pakpahan, 2014) whose results show that partially training and geographical education does not significantly affect employee performance. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the effect of effective training and geographical geographical education on the development of employee performance at PT. PLN (Persero) Main Unit Distribution West Java Bandung City. The population in this study were all employees who worked at PT. PLN (Persero) Main Unit Distribution West Java Bandung City, totaling 172 people and with the number of samples taken as many as 120 people. For the research method used in this study, namely in the form of descriptive and verification research methods and with data processing and analysis techniques in the form of simple linear regression analysis whose calculations use the help of SPSS version 25.0 software program. The research results obtained indicate that effective training and geographical education and development has a significant influence on employee performance at PT. PLN (Persero) Main Unit Distribution West Java Bandung City. This shows that the good and bad work results shown by employees at work can be determined by how effective the implementation of training and geographical education and development programs held by the company is, where the more effective the implementation, the higher the work results due to better employee skills.
... An individual is highly motivated when there is an improvement in the production or productivity level, and the natural use of novel technology is demonstrated then the presence of job performance is evident (Nassazi, 2013;Sandamali et al., 2018;Swaminathan et al., 2019). This statement can be further supported by a study conducted by (Halawi & Haydar, 2018) in Lebanon that training will stimulate the behaviour of employees and their abilities to perform the job efficiently and productively. Additionally, training is a significant factor of the employee performance, which instils crucial skills needed to undertake various jobs in the company (Diamantidis & Chatzoglou, 2018, Mahadevan & Yap, 2019Alnawfleh, 2020). ...
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p>Currently, many organizations are facing trials when competing in the turbulent business environment; this is coupled with the current Covid-19 pandemic, which has worsened the strength of the organizations. The telecommunication companies in Malaysia was also not spared in this situation. Therefore, a crucial strategy for the telecommunication companies to gain competitive advantage is by conducting training to its employees at all levels to overcome this current drawback. This research aims to discover if training impacts job performance and job satisfaction which are two crucial variables that leads to the telecommunication company’s survival and growth. Therefore, in order to achieve the objective of this research, the survey procedure is used to develop a thorough profile, which is gathered from 316 out of 500 formal standardized questionnaires sent to employees at three major telecommunication companies in Malaysia. This research utilized the quantitative methods to produce empirical outcomes and substantiations that answer the research questions. The literature examined the areas of training, job performance, and job satisfaction to fill the gap and to determine the significance of training programs conducted on job performance and job satisfaction. The analysis shows that training is statistically significant and has a strong relationship with job performance and job satisfaction. The hypothesis depicted that training programs conducted in the telecommunication companies have a significant relationship with job performance and job satisfaction of the employees. Thus, the findings of this study could aid as an example to other companies in Malaysia to not take granted of the impact of training on job performance and job satisfaction. By undertaking continuous training, companies could rise against the current economic problems caused by the Covid-19 pandemic and continue to survive and flourish as well as maintain its competitive strength. Article visualizations: </p
... Training for employees reduces stress and strain and can facilitate stress management in organisation (Eby et al., 2019). Training creates a supportive working environment and shows the workers that they are valued (Halawi and Haydar, 2018). ...
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This study aimed to explore the effects of strategic training on talent management in Iranian National Tax Administration (INTA). The type of research, in terms of the nature of data, is mixed (qualitative-quantitative). Using insights from 20 managers in this organisation and three academic experts, five broad levels of factors of training were identified for implementing talent management. The five dimensions of strategic training with talent management approach included the organisation’s macro policies and strategies, future attitude, merit orientation, value-orientation and comprehensiveness. In the quantitative stage, the impact of the strategic training system on talent management implementation was examined. The quantitative data were gathered with questionnaires from 493 managers and experts of INTA, Fars province. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling in PLS software. The results of the quantitative research indicated that the strategic training system had a positive and significant impact on implementing talent management.
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This study investigated the influence of training and development on employee performance in selected university libraries in SouthWest , Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted for this research work. A structured questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection. The total enumeration technique was employed, and out of the total copies of the questionnaires administered, 103 were completed and returned. Frequency distribution and percentages were used for analysis, while the hypotheses were tested using correlation and regression analysis tools of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The result of the study showed a significant correlation between staff training and development and employee performance in university libraries in Nigeria. The result of this research also showed that staff training and development significantly influence the performance of library staff in selected university libraries. The study, therefore, recommends that university libraries management should regularly organize training and developmental programs for their employees. Furthermore, the research suggests that library employees should be encouraged to participate in training organize within and outside their institutions, as this would ensure increased performance/productivity.
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The purpose of this paper is to determine the role of work motivation in mediating training and organizational culture for improving employee performance. Motivation is a way to improve the performance of employees who work at different levels. Employees feel motivated to achieve better performance after being given training. In addition, employees feel motivated by being involved in achieving company goals. This study aims to answer whether work motivation can improve employee performance and whether work motivation has a significant role in mediating training and organizational culture in improving employee performance. This study uses a quantitative approach by surveying to obtain primary data from respondents. Simple random sampling is a technique for taking samples. All employees of the Social Security Administrator in Tangerang City are the research targets. The sample of this study was 98 respondents, in determining the amount using the Slovin formula at the five percent margin of error. Analysis of research data using Smart PLS to test the research hypothesis. The results showed that work motivation could directly improve employee performance. Work motivation plays a significant role in mediating organizational culture to improve employee performance, but not training. More findings are that organizational culture directly affects work motivation, but not for training. Originality/value in this study is that organizational culture has a strong influence in motivating workers and has implications for improving employee performance in State-Owned Enterprises in the field of Social Security Providers.
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This study has evaluated the perceptions of employees about the impact of training on job performance at Lux Grand Gaube Resort and Villas. Training is very important in the hotel sector as it is a fundamental and effectual instrument in the successful accomplishment of the firm's goals and objectives, resulting in higher productivity. The main research question was "How far employees perceive the impact of training on their job performance? "and the research objective was "to measure the perception of employees on how training has impacted on their job performance''. The findings from the data obtained through a self-administered questionnaire from 208 respondents, as per calculated sample size, revealed that training on the overall enhances job performance. The four dimensions of training were Induction, On-the-Job, Off-the-Job, Online. The results indicated from employee's perspective that "apprenticeship associated to work" for Induction, "mentoring for career advance" for On-the-Job training, "workshop enhance knowledge" for Off-the-Job training, and "continuous staff development" Online training were most important. Based on the results obtained, it has been noted there is still room for improvement. Based on the results obtained, it has been noted that there is still room for improvement. Recommendations were made for the hotel to continue investing in its human resource assets through the different methods of training in order to maintain its competitive edge. Also, there is a need to ensure that all employees undergo some days of training per year in order to refresh or update themselves for better job performance. The study is limited due to being only quantitative and using closed ended questions in the questionnaire. Further research might consider using larger scale and other training dimensions to carry the survey. Lastly, qualitative study or mixed method might be considered as this will help to have better understanding and insights of training. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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Background: The last few decades saw an intense development in information technology (IT) and it has affected the ways organisations achieve their goals. Training, in every organisation is an ongoing process that aims to update employees' knowledge and skills towards goals attainment. Through adequate deployment of IT, organisations can effectively meet their training needs. However, for successful IT integration in training, the employees who will use the system should be positively disposed towards it. This study predicts employees' intention to use the e-training system by extending the technology acceptance model (TAM) using interactivity and trust. Methods: Two hundred and fourteen employees participated in the study and structural equation modelling was used in the analysis. Results: The findings of the structural equation modelling reveal that interactivity, trust, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have direct and positive effects on employees' intention to use e-training. It was also shown that perceived ease of use had no effects on perceived usefulness, while trust has the strongest indirect effects on employees' intention. In addition, the results of Importance-Performance Map Analysis (IPMA), which compares the contributions of each construct to the importance and performance of the model, indicate that to predict intention to use e-training, priorities should be accorded to trust and perceived usefulness.
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This editorial offers new ways to ethically practice, evaluate, and use quantitative research (QR). Our central claim is that ready-made formulas for QR, including ‘best practices’ and common notions of ‘validity’ or ‘objectivity,’ are often divorced from the ethical and practical implications of doing, evaluating, and using QR for specific purposes. To focus on these implications, we critique common theoretical foundations for QR and then recommend approaches to QR that are ‘built for purpose,’ by which we mean designed to ethically address specific problems or situations on terms that are contextually relevant. For this, we propose a new tool for evaluating the quality of QR, which we call ‘relational validity.’ Studies, including their methods and results, are relationally valid when they ethically connect researchers’ purposes with the way that QR is oriented and the ways that it is done—including the concepts and units of analysis invoked, as well as what its ‘methods’ imply more generally. This new way of doing QR can provide the liberty required to address serious worldly problems on terms that are both practical and ethically informed in relation to the problems themselves rather than the confines of existing QR logics and practices.
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The way in which quantitative research and qualitative research are conventionally contrasted with each other runs along familiar lines – the former is seen as offering 'hard', 'factual' data, while the latter is depicted as softer, as providing deeper insight, but at the expense of being necessarily more 'interpretivist' and 'subjective' in its approach. Seldom is it recognised that this way of distinguishing the two methodologies is, in fact, rooted in our quantitatively determined beliefs about human experience. This paper aims to uncover these assumptions and to identify how they are rooted in our underlying preconceptions about the perceptual process itself. It outlines a new platform upon which the distinction between quantitative and qualitative research can be established and which links the latter with semiotics.
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Oregon wineries have become increasingly reliant on tasting-room employees to increase wine distribution. Properly training tasting-room employees is essential to increasing sales of wine at wineries. In this study, the researchers explore the methods, techniques, and practices employed to train Oregon tasting-room employees. The results indicate managers perceive product knowledge as the most common form of training needed for tasting-room employees to succeed. Sales incentives were not consistent in the findings of the training programs. Three out of every four managers responded that job shadowing was the most popular form of training in their tasting rooms.
This article offers an approach to conducting qualitative research in Management Studies by providing researchers with guidelines to apply Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR). Although in the pursuit for structure, management researchers may be cautious of using qualitative research, CQR offers a structured qualitative research design option. The article explains how an adapted CQR design aligns well with most structured qualitative research methods. To describe an adapted CQR method, a research example based in Management Studies was used. This research example involved the development of a comprehensive theoretical framework that identified the various components of organisational reputation and reputation management and aimed at describing the role of social media within this framework. The primary research design of the research example consisted of two phases. The first phase comprised of an organisational policy document analysis. The second phase consisted of qualitative in-depth, semi-structured interviews with various departmental or divisional heads aimed at enriching the data collected using document analysis of specific policy documents. In both phases, a research team was employed as well as an auditing or verification system in keeping with the CQR method, where the research team considered the data codes, data coding, analysis and interpretation throughout the research process. This article further outlines the process followed and provides coding structures, which could be adopted for other similar studies. Ten CQR guidelines are proposed, which management researchers could apply when using document analysis in Management Studies as well as three guidelines for using interview transcripts from semi-structured interviews. The CQR research process foundation was the research team approach adopted when analysing, coding and reporting on data collected. The adoption of a method such as CQR, or a modified version thereof, allows for a team of researchers to institute a process of validation to the research process and the results by thoroughly examining their own individual understandings of the data.
This paper reports original research which measures the social and economic impact of training and skills development on individuals who participated in training provided by social purpose, nonprofit organizations. An implicit policy assumption is that such organizations contribute to social and economic regeneration. Examining the costs and benefits of training to trainees, an adapted Return on Investment methodology measures any economic benefit, while an Index of Social Benefit measures changes in individual well-being. The results demonstrate that while changes to both the economic and social well-being of trainees occur, it does not necessarily relate solely to the training they received. Instead, changes reflect other, often complex, aspects of trainees’ lives, although training may facilitate change. Furthermore, social purpose, nonprofit organizations need to evince the socioeconomic benefits of their training programmes to secure future funding, public or private, but proving their successful delivery may be difficult to determine.