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Introduction: Osteoporotic hip fractures are important health problems in geriatric patients. Several studies have evaluated the impact of hospitalization for hip fracture on the utilization of health resources and costs for sanitary services with a significant increase of them in the last years. The cost is not only related with hospitalization but also with long term complications, functional disability, rehabilitation and drug consumption. The objective of this study is to describe the new knowledge in the factors associated with the increase in the costs in patients with hip fracture.
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Introduction: The estimated incidence of hip fractures worldwide was 1.26 million in 1990 and is expected to double to 2.6 million by 2025. The cost of care for hip fracture patients is a significant economic burden. This study aimed to look at the inpatient cost of hip fractures among elderly patients placed under a mature orthogeriatric co-managed system. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of 244 patients who were admitted to the Department of Orthopaedics of Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, in 2011 for hip fractures under a mature orthogeriatric hip fracture carepath. Information regarding the costs, surgical procedures performed and patient demographics was collected. Results: The mean cost of hospitalisation was S$13,313.81. The mean cost for the patients who were managed surgically was significantly higher than that for the patients who were managed non-surgically (S$14,815.70 vs. S$9,011.38; p < 0.01). Regardless of whether surgery was performed, the presence of complications resulted a higher average cost (S$2,689.99 more than if there were no complications; p = 0.011). Every additional day from admission to time of surgery resulted in an increased cost of S$575.89, and comparing the average cost of surgery within 48 hours with that of surgery > 48 hours, the difference was S$2,716.63. Conclusion: Reducing the time to surgery, and preventing pre- and postoperative complications can help reduce the overall costs. A standardised carepath that empowers allied health professionals can help to reduce perioperative complications, and a combined orthogeriatric care service can facilitate prompt surgical treatment.
Article
Objectives: To assess the effect of hip fracture on healthcare utilization among elderly patients. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Eight general hospitals in Israel, owned by Clalit. Participants: Enrollees >65 years, admitted with a hip fracture during 2009-2013. Main outcome measures: Data collected included demographics, comorbidities, admission details related to the surgical and rehabilitation hospitalizations, mortality and costs. Mean monthly costs before and after the event were compared. Quantile regression was used to analyze associations between patient characteristics and healthcare expenditure in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Of 9650 patients admitted with hip fracture during the study period, 6880 (71%) were Clalit enrollees and included in the present study (69% females, median age: 83 years). Total mean monthly costs increased by 96% during the follow-up year ($1470 vs. $749). Costs for rehabilitation accounted for 40% of costs during the first follow-up year. Mean monthly non-rehabilitation costs increased by 21% ($877 vs. $722). Several factors were found to be consistently associated with increased mean monthly costs during the follow-up year. These included Charlson's comorbidity index, hypertension, baseline expenditure in the base year, the location of the fracture, procedure performed, department on admission, admission to the intensive care unit, discharge to a rehabilitation facility and mortality during the follow-up year. Conclusions: Hip fractures in adults in Israel are associated with a significant increase in healthcare utilization and costs. The largest increment was seen in costs for rehabilitation. However, increased costs were noted in all sub-categories of healthcare costs.
Article
Background: Serum albumin level is the most well-established serum marker of malnutrition, with a serum albumin concentration <3.5 g/dL considered to be suggestive of malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to test if serum albumin level is associated with death, specific postoperative complications (e.g., pneumonia), length of hospital stay, and readmission following a surgical procedure for geriatric hip fracture. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of geriatric patients (≥65 years of age) undergoing a hip fracture surgical procedure as part of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was conducted. Outcomes were compared between patients with and without hypoalbuminemia. All comparisons were adjusted for baseline and procedural differences between populations, and patients with missing serum albumin concentration were included in analyses using a missing data indicator. Results: There were 29,377 geriatric patients undergoing a hip fracture surgical procedure who met inclusion criteria; of these patients, 17,651 (60.1%) had serum albumin available for analysis. The prevalence of hypoalbuminemia was 45.9%. Following adjustment for baseline and procedural characteristics, the risk of death was inversely associated with serum albumin concentration as a continuous variable (adjusted relative risk, 0.59 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.53 to 0.65]; p < 0.001). In comparison with patients with normal albumin concentration, patients with hypoalbuminemia had higher rates of death (9.94% compared with 5.53% [adjusted relative risk, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.70); p < 0.001]), sepsis (1.19% compared with 0.53% [adjusted relative risk, 1.92 (95% CI, 1.36 to 2.72); p < 0.001]), and unplanned intubation (2.64% compared with 1.47% [adjusted relative risk, 1.51 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.88); p < 0.001]). The mean length of stay (and standard deviation) was longer among patients with hypoalbuminemia at 5.67 ± 4.68 days compared with those without hypoalbuminemia at 4.99 ± 3.95 days; the adjusted difference was 0.50 day (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.63 day; p < 0.001). However, the rate of readmission did not differ (p = 0.054) between patients with hypoalbuminemia (10.91%) and those without hypoalbuminemia (9.03%); the adjusted relative risk was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.21). Conclusions: Hypoalbuminemia is a powerful independent risk factor for mortality following a surgical procedure for geriatric hip fracture. These data suggest that further investigation into postoperative nutritional supplementation is warranted to decrease the risk of complications. Level of evidence: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Article
The assessment of structural and potentially economic factors determining cost, treatment type, and inpatient mortality of traumatic hip fractures are important health policy issues. We showed that insurance status and treatment in university hospitals were significantly associated with treatment type (i.e., primary hip replacement), cost, and lower inpatient mortality respectively. IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the structural level of hospital care and patient insurance type on treatment, hospitalization cost, and inpatient mortality in cases with traumatic hip fractures in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss national medical statistic 2011–2012 was screened for adults with hip fracture as primary diagnosis. Gender, age, insurance type, year of discharge, hospital infrastructure level, length-of-stay, case weight, reason for discharge, and all coded diagnoses and procedures were extracted. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression with treatment by primary hip replacement as well as inpatient mortality as dependent variables were performed. ResultsWe obtained 24,678 inpatient case records from the medical statistic. Hospitalization costs were calculated from a second dataset, the Swiss national cost statistic (7528 cases with hip fractures, discharged in 2012). Average inpatient costs per case were the highest for discharges from university hospitals (US$21,471, SD US$17,015) and the lowest in basic coverage hospitals (US$18,291, SD US$12,635). Controlling for other variables, higher costs for hip fracture treatment at university hospitals were significant in multivariate regression (p < 0.001). University hospitals had a lower inpatient mortality rate than full and basic care providers (2.8% vs. both 4.0%); results confirmed in our multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio (OR) 1.434, 95% CI 1.127–1.824 and OR 1.459, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.139–1.870 for full and basic coverage hospitals vs. university hospitals respectively). The proportion of privately insured varied between 16.0% in university hospitals and 38.9% in specialized hospitals. Private insurance had an OR of 1.419 (95% CI 1.306–1.542) in predicting treatment of a hip fracture with primary hip replacement. Conclusion The seeming importance of insurance type on hip fracture treatment and the large inequity in the distribution of privately insured between provider types would be worth a closer look by the regulatory authorities. Better outcomes, i.e., lower mortality rates for hip fracture treatment in hospitals with a higher structural care level advocate centralization of care.
Article
Introduction: Hip fractures are a common source of morbidity, mortality, and cost burden for elderly patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with hip fracture treated during the day or night at a rural level I academic trauma center and compared the postoperative outcomes and resource utilization for both groups. Methods: Patients aged ≥55 years with hip fractures treated with definitive surgical fixation from April 2011 to April 2013 were included in this study. Patients who underwent surgery between 7 AM and 5 PM were included in the day cohort, while those who underwent surgery between 5 PM and 7 AM were included in the night cohort. A total of 441 patients met the study inclusion criteria. Results: Comparison of the baseline characteristics of the two cohorts did not demonstrate significant variance. Although postoperative outcomes and resource utilization trends varied between the day and night cohort, only in-hospital cost was significantly higher in the day cohort (P = 0.04). Postoperative variables, including blood loss, [INCREMENT]hematocrit level, length of surgery, length of stay, time to surgery, in-hospital mortality, and 30-day readmission, did not vary significantly. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a significantly higher cost associated with hip fracture procedures performed between 7 AM and 5 PM. In addition, perioperative blood loss and length of surgery were used as markers of physician fatigue; however, no statistically significant difference among these variables was found between hip fracture intervention performed during the day versus at night. Level of evidence: III, retrospective observational study.
Article
The aim of the present study was to identify patient factors associated with higher costs in hip fracture patients. The mean costs of a prospectively observed sample of 402 patients were 8853 €. The ASA score, Charlson comorbidity index, and fracture location were associated with increased costs. PurposeFractures of the proximal end of the femur (hip fractures) are of increasing incidence due to demographic changes. Relevant co-morbidities often present in these patients cause high complication rates and prolonged hospital stays, thus leading to high costs of acute care. The aim of this study was to perform a precise cost analysis of the actual hospital costs of hip fractures and to identify patient factors associated with increased costs. Methods The basis of this analysis was a prospectively observed single-center trial, which included 402 patients with fractures of the proximal end of the femur. All potential cost factors were recorded as accurately as possible for each of the 402 patients individually, and statistical analysis was performed to identify associations between pre-existing patient factors and acute care costs. ResultsThe mean total acute care costs per patient were 8853 ± 5676 € with ward costs (5828 ± 4294 €) and costs for surgical treatment (1972 ± 956 €) representing the major cost factors. The ASA score, Charlson comorbidity index, and fracture location were identified as influencing the costs of acute care for hip fracture treatment. Conclusion Hip fractures are associated with high acute care costs. This study underlines the necessity of sophisticated risk-adjusted payment models based on specific patient factors. Economic aspects should be an integral part of future hip fracture research due to limited health care resources.
Article
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the one-year health and care costs related to hip fracture for home-dwelling patients aged 70 years and older in Norway, paying specific attention to the status of the patients at the time of fracture and cost differences due to various patient pathways after fracture. Methods: Data on health and care service provision were extracted from hospital and municipal records and from national registries; data on unit costs were collected from the municipalities, hospital administrations and previously published studies. Four different patient pathways were identified and the total costs for subgroups of patients according to age, sex, fracture type and instrumental activity of daily living at fracture incidence were calculated. Descriptive statistics were used to identify cost estimates. Results: The mean total one-year costs per patient were EUR 68,376 and the costs for patients alive one year after hip fracture were EUR 71,719. The patients' age and pre-fracture functional status contributed most to the total cost. Conclusions: On average, care costs accounted for more than 50% of the total cost; even for patients with good functional status before hip fracture, care costs accounted for 40% of the total cost compared with hospital costs of 38%. To reduce the financial costs of hip fractures in the care sector, the results point to the importance of preventive programmes to reduce the risk of hip fracture, but also to the importance of comprehensive geriatric care in the initial phase after a hip fracture.
Article
Fracture liaison services are recommended as a model of best practice for organising patient care and secondary fracture prevention for hip fracture patients, although variation exists in how such services are structured. There is considerable uncertainty as to which model is most cost-effective and should therefore be mandated. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of orthogeriatric (OG) and nurse-led fracture liaison service (FLS) models of post-hip fracture care compared to usual care. Analyses were conducted from a healthcare and personal social services payer perspective, using a Markov model to estimate the lifetime impact of the models of care. The base-case population consisted of men and women aged 83 years with a hip fracture. The risk and costs of hip and non-hip fractures were derived from large primary and hospital care datasets in the UK. Utilities were informed by a meta-regression of 32 studies. In the base-case analysis, the orthogeriatric-led service was the most effective and cost-effective model of care at a threshold of £30,000 per quality-adjusted life years gained (QALY). For women age 83 years, the OG-led service was the most cost-effective at £22,709/QALY. If only healthcare costs are considered, OG-led service was cost-effective at £12,860/QALY and £14,525/QALY for women and men aged 83 years, respectively. Irrespective of how patients were stratified in terms of their age, sex, and Charlson co-morbidity score at index hip fracture, our results suggest that introducing an orthogeriatrician-led or a nurse-led FLS is cost-effective when compared to usual care. Although, considerable uncertainty remains concerning which of the models of care should be preferred, introducing an orthogeriatrician-led service seems to be the most cost-effective service to pursue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Background: Hip fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Co-management models pairing orthopaedic surgeons with hospitalists or geriatricians may be effective at improving processes of care and outcomes such as length of stay (LOS) and cost. We set out to determine the effect of an integrated hip fracture co-management model on LOS, cost, and process measures. Methods: We conducted a single-center pre-post study of 571 patients admitted to an academic medical center with hip fractures between January 2009 and December 2013. The group receiving an integrated medical-surgical co-management incorporating continuous improvement methodology was compared with a control population. Primary outcome was LOS. Secondary outcomes included cost per case, time to surgery, osteoporosis (OP) treatment, preoperative echocardiogram utilization, mortality, and readmission. Results: LOS decreased from 18.2 (1.1) to 11.9 (1.5) days, a reduction of 6.3 days (P < 0.001). Mean cost decreased by $4953 (P < 0.001) per case. Mean time to surgery decreased from 45.8 (66.8) to 29.7 (17.9) hours (P < 0.001). Initiation of OP treatment increased from 55.8% to 96.4% (P < 0.001). Preoperative echocardiogram use decreased from 15.8% to 9.1% (P < 0.05). There was a nonsignificant difference in mortality rate (5.0% vs. 2.1%, P = 0.06). Readmission rate remained unchanged (4.6% vs. 6.0%, P = 0.56). Conclusions: An integrated medical-surgical co-management model incorporating continuous improvement methodology was associated with reduced LOS, costs, time to surgery, and increased initiation of appropriate OP treatment. Level of evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Article
With an annual incidence greater than 65,000 in the United Kingdom, hip fractures are a common but debilitating injury predominantly affecting those over 65. Treatment is based on the anatomical location of the fracture relative to the capsule of the hip joint - fractures occurring within it are treated by arthroplasty, while extracapsular fractures are an indication for fixation. Intertrochanteric fractures are further grouped as stable (AO/OTA 31A1/A2) or unstable (31A3) which in turn governs in the current UK guidelines whether this fixation is achieved with a dynamic hip screw or intramedullary device. Anecdotally, some units are tending towards intramedullary devices for 31A2 fractures as well, a practice which from the evidence does not appear to confer benefit and carries an excess cost. We reviewed our data submitted to the National Hip Fracture Database over the last five years and identified all intertrochanteric fractures, from which cohort we identified all patients with 31A2 fractures by review of radiographs. The cohort comprised 370 patients. We then recorded age, gender, ASA grade, abbreviated mental test score, residence from where admitted, length of stay, destination on discharge and whether any further operations were required. There was no significant difference in the demographics of the groups, year-on-year, except gender mix. There was a significant, twenty-fold rise in the use of intramedullary devices between 2011 and 2015. Length of stay, length of overall episode of care, revision rates, mortality and destination on discharge were unchanged. This use is not supported by NICE guidelines and this study offers no evidence to contradict this position. We advocate all centres examine their practice to avoid a costly intervention without clinical benefit.