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Abstract

Teachers’ expertise is mostly based on insights acquired in their own practice, and not on academic knowledge. Although many attempts have been made to explain this, it is not clear which conditions foster and which barriers hinder teachers’ use of academic knowledge. Therefore, this review study explores barriers and conditions for teachers’ academic knowledge utilisation in the literature since 2001. We have developed a comprehensive model to categorise barriers and conditions at four levels: the research knowledge level, the individual teacher level, the schoolorganisational level, and the communication level. Our review study reveals that structural collaboration, such as school-university partnerships and innovative communication networks, is increasingly proposed as a strategy to improve teachers’ utilisation of academic knowledge.

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... However, research in the field of evidence-based practices has shown that teachers do not generally refer to empirical findings and educational theories as a source for their teaching practice or professional learning (Brown & Zhang, 2016;Dagenais et al., 2012;Hetmanek et al., 2015;van Schaik, Volman, Admiraal, & Schenke, 2018). Instead, they regard information from their colleagues as more useful than information obtained from professional journals (Landrum, Cook, Tankersley, & Fitzgerald, 2002;Williams & Coles, 2007). ...
... Besides competences related to evidence-based teaching, beliefs regarding the relevance of scientific content for practice are considered highly important (Kiemer & Kollar, 2021). One possible hindrance is scepticism toward the relevance of scientific content for teaching practice (Broekkamp & van Hout-Wolters, 2007;van Schaik et al., 2018;Vanderlinde & van Braak, 2010). This scepticism is often specified as a lack of applicability and perceived practical relevance of scientific knowledge for a teacher's work (Borg, 2010;Broekkamp & van Hout-Wolters, 2007;Joram, Gabriele, & Walton, 2020). ...
... The body of knowledge central to this belief comprises "all formal knowledge relevant to the practice of teaching" (Buehl & Fives, 2009, p. 370): knowledge belonging to the three main areas subject-specific content knowledge, subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge, and general pedagogical knowledge, or other relevant formal knowledge in the teaching context (Shulman, 1987). Because a critical belief toward theory and research is widespread among teachers (Borg, 2010;Broekkamp & van Hout-Wolters, 2007;van Schaik et al., 2018;Vanderlinde & van Braak, 2010), we assessed teachers' scepticism toward the relevance of scientific content for teaching practice. ...
Article
Research shows that beliefs such as scepticism toward the relevance of scientific content can hinder teachers’ evidence-based practices. Despite this consequence of scepticism, little is known about its predictors. Therefore, we first analysed the relationship between scepticism toward the relevance of scientific content and preferred information sources with a sample of 332 teachers: Scepticism led to a lower preference for scientific sources. Second, we examined characteristics of professional competence as possible predictors of scepticism. We found that scepticism was lower among enthusiastic teachers, but it was higher when teachers believed in inborn teaching competences or were low academic achievers.
... Recently, Thomm et al. (2021a) showed that the SIE could also account for why preservice teachers develop critical stances toward educational research findings-a crucial barrier to implement evidence-informed practices as early as in initial teacher education (e.g., van Schaik et al., 2018). Despite reporting generally positive attitudes toward educational research, preservice teachers began to question its potency to examine the topic at stake when facing belief-inconsistent educational research findings. ...
... However, some studies implicitly have addressed aspects related to pertinence. As mentioned above, there is a multitude of studies indicating that (preservice) teachers frequently judge educational research as irrelevant and detached from their practice (McIntyre, 2005;Hammersley, 2013;Winch et al., 2015;Farley-Ripple et al., 2018;van Schaik et al., 2018;Thomm et al., 2021b) and favor experiencebased knowledge, instead (e.g., Bråten and Ferguson, 2015;van Schaik et al., 2018;Kiemer and Kollar, 2021). Cain (2017) found that teachers did not only question the validity of findings but assigned science "no greater authority than their own experiences or other forms of information" (p. ...
... However, some studies implicitly have addressed aspects related to pertinence. As mentioned above, there is a multitude of studies indicating that (preservice) teachers frequently judge educational research as irrelevant and detached from their practice (McIntyre, 2005;Hammersley, 2013;Winch et al., 2015;Farley-Ripple et al., 2018;van Schaik et al., 2018;Thomm et al., 2021b) and favor experiencebased knowledge, instead (e.g., Bråten and Ferguson, 2015;van Schaik et al., 2018;Kiemer and Kollar, 2021). Cain (2017) found that teachers did not only question the validity of findings but assigned science "no greater authority than their own experiences or other forms of information" (p. ...
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Article
When facing belief-contradictory scientific evidence, preservice teachers tend to doubt the potency of science and consult scientific sources less frequently. Thus, individuals run the risk not only to maintain questionable assumptions but also to develop dysfunctional stances toward research as a reliable source of knowledge. In two studies, we (a) replicated findings on the so-called scientific impotence excuse (SIE) in education and (b) differentiated the effects on the potency and pertinence of science to investigate educational topics to better understand the nature of SIE-related science devaluation. Both studies followed a 2 × 2 mixed experimental design: Preservice teachers assessed their prior belief about an educational topic (i.e., effectiveness of grade retention) before and after reading either confirming or disconfirming scientific evidence concerning the topic. Study 1 ( N = 147 preservice teachers; direct replication) confirmed the central prior findings of science devaluation when belief-evidence conflicts occur. In contrast, the results of Study 2 ( N = 152; follow-up study) revealed no systematic devaluations of science when disentangling the facets of potency and pertinence. Despite partial devaluation tendencies, both studies revealed that preservice teachers adapted their prior beliefs to the evidence presented. These findings extend previous research by providing insights into the conditions of science devaluation.
... Policymakers and researchers often criticize that the impact of research on education is limited [48]. One of the most important reasons is that scientific knowledge is mostly exchanged in scientific communities and shared in scientific journals [58,59]], most of which are not accessible by practitioners and policymakers [35,39,41,61]. Moreover, transfer has been often understood as a one-way activity (from research to practice), rarely as a transfer from practice to research [9,49]. ...
... But often, practitioners perceive themselves as "experimental subjects" of researchers [27] who are interviewed and tested by researchers, but do not perceive research findings to be responsive to their needs and relevant to their practice [4]. At the same time, teachers indicate that they benefit from educational research on new and innovative teaching methods [58]; scientific knowledge on the use of digital media is preferred [35]. ...
... First of all, scientific knowledge is seen as objective, generalizable, based on methodological procedures, impersonal, and used to develop theory [19,60]. In contrast, teachers' expertise is based more on unique practical experience and personal knowledge [60] than based on theory [13,19,24,30,33,58]. On the one hand, research knowledge may foster professional knowledge about digital media for teachers and educators by explaining problematic situations, identifying critical factors for success, and providing reasons for taking certain actions to solve problems by using digital media. ...
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Article
Using digital media to improve teaching and learning is one of the most pressing challenges in education. This challenge can only be met if the transfer of research knowledge to practitioners is successful. So far, little is known about transfer strategies researchers in the field of digital media are pursuing. Transfer strategies may include activities to identify research questions that are relevant for every day teaching and learning, to communicate research findings or to collaborate with practitioners during the process of research. In this scoping review, empirical studies on the use of digital media were screened to examine types of transfer strategies. 483 empirical studies have been categorized by different properties. The results of a latent class analysis identify research approaches using collaborative, sequential, and no transfer strategies. Research projects without explicitly elaborated transfer strategies cover 78% of all studies. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether study design, data collection, data analysis, and disciplinary background could predict the likelihood of specific transfer strategies. The results of regression analyses indicate that the transfer from research to practice in the field of digital media should be optimized.
... In reality, however, educators often face a multitude of barriers in accessing education research. These can include journal paywalls or, in articles they can access, complex, jargon-filled language and methodology [1,2]. Teachers also often lack institutional support and working relationships with education researchers that would allow them to put education research into practice in their classrooms [1][2][3]. ...
... These can include journal paywalls or, in articles they can access, complex, jargon-filled language and methodology [1,2]. Teachers also often lack institutional support and working relationships with education researchers that would allow them to put education research into practice in their classrooms [1][2][3]. Even when faculty are aware of research-based teaching strategies, they often face further barriers in time, familiarity, and access when it comes to actually implementing them in the classroom [4][5][6]. ...
... Returning to our research questions, we find that blogs can help readers engage with DBER literature and lower the barriers for engaging with it. Our reader survey indicated that our articles about peer-reviewed research are easier to understand and use less jargon, addressing two of the barriers prior work has found educators encounter when trying to engage with peer-reviewed studies [1,2]. We acknowledge that this is likely a result of the different audiences served by our blog and peer-reviewed literature. ...
Conference Paper
Discipline-based education researchers produce knowledge that aims to help instructors improve student learning and educational outcomes. Yet, the information produced may not even reach the educators it is intended to influence. Prior work has found that instructors often face barriers to implementing practices in peer-reviewed literature. Some of these barriers are related to accessing the knowledge in the first place such as difficulty finding and understanding research and a lack of time to do so. To lower these barriers, we created an online blog, PERbites, that summarizes recent discipline-based education research in short posts that use plain language. Having covered nearly 100 papers to date, we conducted a survey to see if we were addressing the need we had originally set out to address. We posted a 23-item survey on our website and received 24 usable responses. The results suggested that readers do generally agree that we are meeting our original goals. Readers reported that our articles were easier to understand and used more plain language than a typical discipline-based education research (DBER) journal article. At the same time, readers thought that all the important information was still included. Finally, readers said that this approach helped them keep up with DBER studies and read about papers they otherwise would not have. However, most readers did not indicate they changed their teaching and research practice as a result of reading our blog. Our results suggest that alternative methods of sharing research (e.g., non-peer reviewed publications or conference talks) can be an effective method of connecting research with practitioners, and future work should consider how we as a community might build on these efforts to ensure education research can make meaningful changes in the classroom.
... In reality, however, educators often face a multitude of barriers in accessing education research. These can include journal paywalls or, in articles they can access, complex, jargon-filled language and methodology [1,2]. Teachers also often lack institutional support and working relationships with education researchers that would allow them to put education research into practice in their classrooms [1][2][3]. ...
... These can include journal paywalls or, in articles they can access, complex, jargon-filled language and methodology [1,2]. Teachers also often lack institutional support and working relationships with education researchers that would allow them to put education research into practice in their classrooms [1][2][3]. Even when faculty are aware of research-based teaching strategies, they often face further barriers in time, familiarity, and access when it comes to actually implementing them in the classroom [4][5][6]. ...
... Returning to our research questions, we find that blogs can help readers engage with DBER literature and lower the barriers for engaging with it. Our reader survey indicated that our articles about peer-reviewed research are easier to understand and use less jargon, addressing two of the barriers prior work has found educators encounter when trying to engage with peer-reviewed studies [1,2]. We acknowledge that this is likely a result of the different audiences served by our blog and peer-reviewed literature. ...
Full-text available
Preprint
Discipline-based education researchers produce knowledge that aims to help instructors improve student learning and educational outcomes. Yet, the information produced may not even reach the educators it is intended to influence. Prior work has found that instructors often face barriers to implementing practices in peer-reviewed literature. Some of these barriers are related to accessing the knowledge in the first place such as difficulty finding and understanding research and a lack of time to do so. To lower these barriers, we created an online blog, PERbites, that summarizes recent discipline-based education research in short posts that use plain language. Having covered nearly 100 papers to date, we conducted a survey to see if we were addressing the need we had originally set out to address. We posted a 23-item survey on our website and received 24 usable responses. The results suggested that readers do generally agree that we are meeting our original goals. Readers reported that our articles were easier to understand and used more plain language than a typical discipline-based education research (DBER) journal article. At the same time, readers thought that all the important information was still included. Finally, readers said that this approach helped them keep up with DBER studies and read about papers they otherwise would not have. However, most readers did not indicate they changed their teaching and research practice as a result of reading our blog. Our results suggest that alternative methods of sharing research (e.g., non-peer reviewed publications or conference talks) can be an effective method of connecting research with practitioners, and future work should consider how we as a community might build on these efforts to ensure education research can make meaningful changes in the classroom.
... Al observar la literatura reciente, se aprecia cómo la naturaleza de las principales razones por las que los docentes consideran irrelevante la investigación educativa son variadas. Estudiando las razones internas que impiden que algunos docentes se dediquen a la investigación, se señala principalmente la falta de habilidades de los docentes para utilizar el conocimiento científico (van Schaik et al., 2018), probablemente por la falta de formación de los docentes en torno al tema de investigación educativa (Ion & Iucu, 2014), aunque se señalan otras razones internas como la falta de tiempo para investigar (Kostoulas et al., 2019). En esta línea, autores como Anwaruddin & Pervin (2015) señalan que los docentes no se comprometen con la investigación porque no han sido "alfabetizados" en ella cuando estaban en su formación inicial. ...
... Por ejemplo, varios estudios (p. ej., Ion & Iucu, 2014;Anwaruddin & Pervin, 2015;van Schaik et al., 2018) destacan que en algunos casos los docentes sabían realizar una investigación de manera muy superficial, pero prácticamente no habían conocido investigadores educativos en su proceso de formación. ...
... Otro grupo de razones ajenas a los propios docentes radican en la constitución de la investigación educativa. Entre las principales dificultades en el uso de la investigación inherentes a la propia investigación educativa, la literatura refleja principalmente la complejidad del lenguaje que se utiliza (van der Linde & van Braak, 2010), la dificultad de extrapolar los resultados de los estudios al aula (van Schaik et al., 2018) y la poca relevancia de los resultados de investigación para su enseñanza (Kostoulas et al., 2019). En referencia a la dificultad de la extrapolación, autores como Biesta (2007) destacan los peligros de entender la investigación educativa como una herramienta que permite conocer únicamente qué metodologías de enseñanza funcionan. ...
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Article
Al contrario que en otras áreas del conocimiento en las cuales la investigación es sinónimo de progreso, en el ámbito educativo la investigación no se acaba de concebir como un pilar esencial que permite mejorar la práctica educativa. Tomando este problema como punto de partida, se analizaron las respuestas abiertas de 264 docentes españoles de todas las etapas educativas, quienes dieron sus razones principales por las que el profesorado no le daba la suficiente importancia a la investigación educativa, así como sus propuestas para mejorar esta situación. Después de un análisis inductivo, los hallazgos apuntan a que se detectaron un total de 19 razones por los que el profesorado no le da importancia a la investigación educativa y 15 propuestas para mejorar la implicación y competencia del profesorado. Tras los correspondientes análisis se apreció un alto grado de unanimidad en la amplia mayoría de las dificultades o barreras del profesorado hacia la investigación educativa, así como en las propuestas para mejorar esta situación independientemente de su etapa educativa de origen. Por una parte, las principales dificultades que presenta el profesorado y por las cuales no se implica lo suficiente con la investigación educativa son 4: Falta de formación, falta de tiempo, zona de confort docente y dificultad de transferencia de los resultados al aula. Por otra parte, las principales propuestas que hace el profesorado para mejorar esta situación son 4: Formación a lo largo de la etapa universitaria así como a lo largo de sus vidas profesionales, cambio en la distribución del tiempo destinando una serie de horas a la investigación y reducir en cierto grado las horas de docencia, reparto de incentivos al profesorado que investiga (económicos, méritos…), y la presentación de propuestas de investigación prácticas y reales con temas que el profesorado se encuentre en clase.
... Looking at the recent literature, it is appreciated how the nature of the main reasons why teachers consider educational research irrelevant are varied. Studying the internal reasons that prevent some teachers from engaging in research, the lack of skills of teachers to use scientific knowledge is mainly pointed out (van Schaik et al., 2018), probably because of the lack of training of teachers around the topic of educational research (Ion & Iucu, 2014), even though other internal reasons are pointed out like lack of time for researching (Kostoulas et al., 2019). Along these lines, authors such as Anwaruddin & Pervin (2015) point out that teachers do not commit to research because they have not been "literate" in it when they were in initial training. ...
... In this sense, Demircioglu (2008) emphasizes the relevance of reviewing the weaknesses of the plans and programs of the teaching staff in matters of educational research. For instance, several studies (e.g., Ion & Iucu, 2014;Anwaruddin & Pervin, 2015;van Schaik et al., 2018) highlight that in some cases teachers knew how to carry out a research very superficially, but they have practically not met educational researchers within their training process. ...
... Another group of reasons unrelated to the teachers themselves lie in the constitution of educational research. Among the main difficulties in the use of research innate to educational research itself, the literature mainly reflects the complexity of the language that is used (van der Linde & van Braak, 2010), the difficulty of extrapolating the results of the studies to the classroom itself (van Schaik et al., 2018) and the low relevance of the research results for their teaching (Kostoulas et al., 2019). In reference to the difficulty of extrapolation, authors such as Biesta (2007) highlight the dangers of understanding educational research as a tool that allows us to know only which teaching methodologies work. ...
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Article
Unlike other fields of knowledge in which research is synonymous of progress, in the educational field, research is not seen as a pillar to improve teaching practice. Taking this problem as a starting point, open responses of 264 Spanish teachers from all educational stages were analysed on the reasons why teachers do not give importance to educational research, as well as the possible proposals to improve this situation. After an inductive analysis, the findings suggest that there was a total of 19 reasons why teachers do not give importance to educational research, and 15 proposals to improve their involvement, being these categories accepted unanimously regardless the educational stage of the teachers. On the one hand, the main reasons why educational research does not impact on teaching practice were 4: lack of training, lack of time, teachers’ comfort zone and difficulty of transference of the results to the classroom. On the other hand, the main proposals to improve this situation were also 4: training throughout the university degree and throughout working life, changing the distribution of time (fewer hours of teaching and more hours of research), distribution of incentives (economic, merits ...), and proposal of practical and real topics of what the teachers need in class.
... P odría parecer obvio afi rmar que la investigación educativa debe servir como una fuente de conocimiento para guiar la toma de decisiones sobre las prácticas de las aulas y las iniciativas de la administración (Joram et al., 2020). Sin embargo, parece más claro que los mundos de la investigación y práctica educativa permanecen separados, divorciados o distanciados (van Schaik et al., 2018). Al analizar esta distancia de forma específi ca en la práctica docente se observa que es una problemática instalada en la literatura vigente y que ha sido documentada tanto en el contexto nacional como internacional (e.g. ...
... Una de las difi cultades para que estén más implicados es el lenguaje que utiliza la investigación educativa a la hora de comunicar sus resultados, que se considera como demasiado técnico y especializado (Ion y Iucu, 2014;Vanderlinde y van Braak, 2010). Frente a esa forma de comunicación, hay profesores que prefi eren revisar documentos más prácticos para actualizar sus conocimientos (Gore y Gitlin, 2004;van Schaik et al., 2018). Al respecto, McGann et al. (2020) sugieren que, para mejorar esta apreciación, se pueden utilizar plataformas de intercambio que ofrezcan herramientas de colaboración y aprendizaje en las que participen distintos agentes educativos (profesores no universitarios, investigadores, administrados, directivos, etc.) y que permitan un aprendizaje mutuo. ...
... Recordemos que estos autores evidenciaron que los futuros maestros y maestras consideran importante la investigación educativa, pero indican que no la seguirán realizando cuando ejerzan la profesión, porque las eventualidades de la práctica pasarán a ser su prioridad. El porqué de esta apreciación abre el debate sobre la escasez de oportunidades para investigar que hay en las escuelas, un aspecto que mencionan autores como van Schaik et al. (2018), y también sobre el tipo de actividades de investigación que llevan a cabo los docentes en formación, que en muchos casos son, además de escasas, excesivamente teóricas (Vereijken et al., 2018). ...
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Preprint
This article aims to design and validate ascale of perception towards educational r esearch. The instrument, which was applied to a sample of 324 university and non-university teachers, is made up of three dimensions: Value towards educational research, Involvement with educational research, and Competence in educational research. The results revealed excellent goodness-of-fi t and reliability values, making its use relevant for the academic and educational fi eld. In addition, statistically signifi cant differences were found in the three dimensions of the instrument in favour of university teachers. These results provide important theoretical and practical implications.
... Evidence-based approaches in education policy are linked to the expectation that the findings of empirical educational research can serve as a knowledge basis for rational 1 Replaced in 2015 by the Every Student Succeeds Act (2015). decisions and thereby improve the performance of education systems (e.g., Peurach and Glazer, 2012;Tseng et al., 2017). Repeatedly, programs of evidence-based educational reform challenge empirical educational research (Biesta, 2007;Schrader et al., 2020) to communicate research findings to policymakers and practitioners, thereby contributing to improving actions and decisions (Penuel et al., 2020). ...
... Repeatedly, programs of evidence-based educational reform challenge empirical educational research (Biesta, 2007;Schrader et al., 2020) to communicate research findings to policymakers and practitioners, thereby contributing to improving actions and decisions (Penuel et al., 2020). However, there is a broad consensus that the communication of research findings and their application in the broad field of education has not been satisfactorily implemented to date (Broekkamp and Hout-Wolters, 2007;Kinyaduka, 2017;Tseng et al., 2017). This muchcited and multifaceted gap between research and practice has led to a controversial debate about evidence-based approaches in education. ...
... This muchcited and multifaceted gap between research and practice has led to a controversial debate about evidence-based approaches in education. For example, the communication of research findings is criticized that it resembles a one-way approach that neglects the need to address practice issues (Tseng et al., 2017). Hargreaves (1999, p. 246) also refers to the contextuality of policy and practice decision-making processes in which scientific evidence is one factor in a complex structure. ...
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Article
Research collaboration promises a useful approach to bridging the gap between research and practice and thus promoting evidence-informed education. This study examines whether information on research collaboration can influence the reception of research knowledge. We assume that the composition of experts from the field and scientists in a research team sends out signals that influence trust in as well as the relevance and applicability of the finding. In a survey experiment with practitioners from the field of adult education the influence of different research team compositions around an identical finding is tested. The results show overall high trust, relevance and applicability ratings with regard to the finding, regardless of the composition of the research team. We discuss the potential importance of additional information about research collaborations for effective knowledge translation and point out the need for more empirical research.
... It is these pedagogical beliefs which determine the teacher's attitude towards teaching and learning and as such, the most recent trend amongst teachers is to seek knowledge that is specific to their contexts i.e., distinct knowledge, which is applicable to their own teaching situation, as opposed to generic knowledge. In addition, Schaik et al. (2018) suggests that the following two modes of teacher knowledge be addressed in an integrated manner within professional learning programmes, these being practical knowledge and personal knowledge. Practical knowledge is linked to the teachers practice and it provides the teachers with teaching orientations that are concrete, specific, integrated and contextually rich. ...
... The Advanced Diploma in Education, an in-service teacher professional learning training programme for Mathematics teachers, is both innovative and future focused, aimed at equipping educators to effectively address the current and future challenges of education in South Africa. It also affords educators the opportunity to acquire the various types of knowledge, such as practical and personal knowledge as outlined by Schaik et al. (2018), that underpin effective teachers' practice, which will not only broaden their own access to Higher ...
... Most of the respondents in (Figures 3 and 4) indicated that their conceptual understanding of certain concepts has improved. One of the focus points of the course content was to address the conceptual understanding of the course participants and this, as highlighted in the literature review by Buczynski and Hansen (2010), Schaik et al. (2018) and Ball et al. (2008), is one of the crucial characteristics of any successful teacher training programme. In relation to Figures 1 and 2, in which all respondents indicated that their teaching skills have improved, Figures 5 and 6 gives a more focussed analysis of the type of skills which were improved upon. ...
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Technical Report
This research study will focus on the influence that an Advanced Diploma in Education in Mathematics Teaching had on the practices of currently serving (INSET) mathematics teachers, in the Intermediate (IP), Senior (SP) and Further Education and Training (FET) phase, in the Limpopo (Thabazimbi district), Western Cape and Northern Cape province of South Africa. Based on the data (both quantitative and qualitative), the format of the SUNCEP ADE programmes focused on professional learning that is sustained, supportive, not too focused on theory, linked to teachers practice and the context in which they work, and provided positive affirmation of SUNCEP’s practice-based teacher professional learning approach to teacher education programmes. An approach to teacher education in which teachers become serious learners in and around their practice, rather than superficially implementing strategies and activities learnt at workshops that are episodic and finite in nature.
... Some previous studies have argued that the FT approach has positive effects on the learning process of students [13][14][15][16][17][18]. For instance, FT can engage more students due to the availability of the teacher as reverse teaching and students may be more satisfied with the flipped method. ...
... This structure allows spending time in the classroom to clarify content through small explanations [26]. The activities that encourage more active participation of the student, such as the resolution of problems or cases, and that allow the student to become more involved in the learning process have a positive impact on the process of learning [15][16][17] because students reach a higher degree of understanding than in more passive methodologies [14]. Moreover, they can display the flipped material continuously, which reinforces the learning, especially those aspects with a greater complexity [27]. ...
... The FT structure allows spending time in the classroom to clarify content through small explanations [26]. Some previous studies (e.g., [15][16][17]) state that activities encouraging more active participation of the student, such as the resolution of problems or cases, have a positive impact on the learning process. Accordingly, Handelsman et al. [14] note that students reach a higher degree of understanding than in more passive methodologies. ...
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Article
Flip teaching (FT) is a methodology with a significant impact on the educational innovation trend that encourages active learning and facilitates the learning of students. The main objective of this study is to measure the impact of flip teaching on the learning of a course at a higher education institution. To analyze the differences in the exam marks between students that follow FT and other methodologies, the t-statistic and Mann-Whitney U test have been used. Results indicate that FT allows improving the performance of students and achieving collateral capacities, such as responsibility and awareness, making learning more sustainable. This study makes an interesting contribution to existing research in education and demonstrates that it is possible to introduce FT in a block of the course and can be transferable to other courses.
... Previous studies identified various barriers ranging from lack of time to engage with evidence on top of other professional tasks, belief systems that devalue the importance, practicality, and usability of scientific evidence for teaching practice, as well as a lack of skills or knowledge to evaluate scientific evidence (see e.g., Gitlin et al., 1999;Williams and Coles, 2007;Thomm et al., 2021b). Thereby, different approaches exist that attempt to systematize these different barriers by using categorizations that range from rather broad distinctions between knowledge-and motivation-related barriers (e.g., Kiemer and Kollar, 2021) to more nuanced ones (e.g., van Schaik et al., 2018;Brown et al., 2022). While van Schaik et al. (2018), for example, differentiate between research knowledge level, individual teacher level, school organizational level, and communication level to systematize barriers, Brown et al. (2022) use the categories benefit, cost, and signification. ...
... Thereby, different approaches exist that attempt to systematize these different barriers by using categorizations that range from rather broad distinctions between knowledge-and motivation-related barriers (e.g., Kiemer and Kollar, 2021) to more nuanced ones (e.g., van Schaik et al., 2018;Brown et al., 2022). While van Schaik et al. (2018), for example, differentiate between research knowledge level, individual teacher level, school organizational level, and communication level to systematize barriers, Brown et al. (2022) use the categories benefit, cost, and signification. ...
Full-text available
Article
Teachers around the world are increasingly required by policy guidelines to inform their teaching practices with scientific evidence. However, due to the division of cognitive labor, teachers often cannot evaluate the veracity of such evidence first-hand, since they lack specific methodological skills, such as the ability to evaluate study designs. For this reason, second-hand evaluations come into play, during which individuals assess the credibility and trustworthiness of the person or other entity who conveys the evidence instead of evaluating the information itself. In doing so, teachers' belief systems (e.g., beliefs about the trustworthiness of different sources, about science in general, or about specific educational topics) can play a pivotal role. But judging evidence based on beliefs may also lead to distortions which, in turn, can result in barriers for evidence-informed school practice. One popular example is the so-called confirmation bias, that is, preferring belief-consistent and avoiding or questioning belief-inconsistent information. Therefore, we experimentally investigated (1) whether teachers trust knowledge claims made by other teachers and scientific studies differently, (2) whether there is an interplay between teachers' trust in these specific knowledge claims, their trust in educational science, and their global trust in science, and (3) whether their prior topic-specific beliefs influence trust ratings in the sense of a confirmation bias. In an incomplete rotated design with three preregistered hypotheses, N = 414 randomly and representative sampled in-service teachers from Germany indicated greater trust in scientific evidence (information provided by a scientific journal) compared to anecdotal evidence (information provided by another teacher on a teacher blog). In addition, we found a positive relationship between trust in educational science and trust in specific knowledge claims from educational science. Finally, participants also showed a substantial confirmation bias, as they trusted educational science claims more when these matched (rather than contradicted) their prior beliefs. Based on these results, the interplay of trust, first-hand evaluation, and evidence-informed school practice is discussed.
... Barrières die uit onderzoek naar voren komen zijn bijvoorbeeld: gebrekkige kennis over onderzoek (bij leraren) en onderwijs (bij onderwijsonderzoekers), de moeilijke toegang tot kennis uit onderzoek (voor leraren), het ontbreken van een cultuur van onderzoeksmatig werken in onderwijsinstellingen, en weinig contact tussen onderwijsinstellingen/leraren en onderzoekers waardoor ze elkaars perspectieven onvoldoende kennen (vgl. ook Van Schaik et al., 2018). ...
... Als het gaat om de organisatieniveaus dan zien we dat in deze projecten waarin samengewerkt wordt tussen meerdere partners en leraren en onderzoekers ook meerdere organisatieniveaus te onderscheiden zijn waarin bevorderende en belemmerende factoren een rol spelen. In aanvulling op eerder onderzoek van Van Schaik (et al., 2018) kunnen we dan ook stellen dat het relevant is om rekening te houden met het niveau van de individuele onderzoeker, het niveau van onderzoeksorganisatie en het niveau van het consortium. Als aanvulling op het 'flows of knowledge, expertise and influence model' van Meagher et al (2008) stellen we voor om niet alleen te kijken naar kennisgebruikers (leraren/lerarenopleiders) ten opzichte van kennisontwikkelaars (onderzoekers), maar juist naar hoe we deze rollen meer met elkaar kunnen verenigen en bewust inzetten als grensrollen ten behoeve van kennisbenutting. ...
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Technical Report
Kennisbenutting is één van de belangrijkste doelen van praktijkgericht onderzoek, maar blijkt nog steeds moeilijk te verwezenlijken. Deze overzichtsstudie beoogt inzicht te geven in de wijze waarop diverse partners samenwerken, de mate en wijze van kennisbenutting en de factoren die hieraan bijdragen in recent Nederlands onderwijsonderzoek.
... Learning mathematics has been described as the process of building a scaffold from the ground up, a rising and expanding network of ideas supported by the synthesis and consolidation of ideas students have already developed (Tall, 2013;Thurston, 1990). Day to day in the classroom, this process is non-linear, as teachers and students visit related ideas back and forth, retracing steps, making connections, bringing new ideas to bear on old ones, and vice versa. ...
... Secondly, in order for research to contribute to practice, teachers and educational designers need practical access to it. Some barriers to access are physical or financial, while others have simply to do with the time it takes to find, read, and synthesise reports of multiple studies, and the study or training required to be familiar enough with research practices and strands of work in the field for critical analysis (van Schaik et al., 2018). ...
... Learning mathematics has been described as the process of building a scaffold from the ground up, a rising and expanding network of ideas supported by the synthesis and consolidation of ideas students have already developed (Tall, 2013;Thurston, 1990). Day to day in the classroom, this process is non-linear, as teachers and students visit related ideas back and forth, retracing steps, making connections, bringing new ideas to bear on old ones, and vice versa. ...
... Secondly, in order for research to contribute to practice, teachers and educational designers need practical access to it. Some barriers to access are physical or financial, while others have simply to do with the time it takes to find, read, and synthesise reports of multiple studies, and the study or training required to be familiar enough with research practices and strands of work in the field for critical analysis (van Schaik et al., 2018). ...
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Book
Leong, Y. H., Kaur, B., Choy, B. H., Yeo, J. B. W., & Chin, S. L. (Eds.). (2021). Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA): Excellence in Mathematics Education: Foundations and Pathways. Singapore: MERGA. Available online at https://www.merga.net.au/Public/Publications/Annual_Conference_Proceedings/2021-MERGA-conference-proceedings.aspx
... The article draws on a number of frameworks of research use (e.g., Hemsley-Brown & Sharp, 2003;van Schaik et al., 2018; see also Higgins, 2020) to explain conceptual aspects of the design of the original and updated Toolkit. The overarching rationale is the exploration of a number of tensions in research communication and impact such as the accessibility of evidence, balanced against the accuracy of summaries, and the usefulness of this information in terms of how actionable it is for the user (see Figure 1). ...
... There are numerous factors that can explain the observed difficulties that act as barriers for the dissemination and uptake of educational research (Cherney et al., 2012). These include the professional culture, which influences teachers' attitudes and perceptions, time pressures and other commitments, access to relevant research and the perceived relevance and quality of that research (van Schaik et al., 2018). This sets up a series of responsibilities that can be understood as the responsibility of the user in terms of how applicable the research is to a different context, how appropriate to pupils' needs and how acceptable the research is in terms of values. ...
Article
This article compares and contrasts two versions of the Education Endowment Foundation's (EEF) Teaching and Learning Toolkit (‘Toolkit’), a web‐based summary of international evidence on teaching 3–18 year‐olds. The Toolkit has localised versions in six different languages in Australia, Cameroon, Chile, Jordan and Spain. The initial Toolkit, created in 2011 with funding from the Sutton Trust and updated since then with funding from EEF, drew upon over 250 meta‐analyses across 30 areas of education research. An updated version, drawing on a database of over 2500 single studies from these meta‐analyses was launched in Autumn 2021. This change was motivated by increased interest in evidence‐use in education, and a desire to engage in more rigorous synthesis of primary studies. The article presents the rationale for these changes, outlines the methods adopted to populate and analyse the Toolkit database and presents results from this analysis. Findings indicate that although the broad picture of the relative benefits of the different approaches is similar, a more fine‐grained analysis is possible. This deeper synthesis can provide more specific guidance about what has been successful in the different areas of the Toolkit in research studies and offers opportunities for further refinement and improvement. This increased specificity, however, comes at the cost of greater complexity in the findings and the implications for policy and practice, and it increases the challenge of ensuring findings are both accurate and accessible. A final section reflects on the challenges of summarising evidence from research to inform decision‐making in education.
... Munro (2010) examined information seeking as an indirect measure of science devaluation by asking participants to rate how probably they would use a variety of scientific and non-scientific sources to seek information about the topic. We extended the scope of potential sources to include experiential sources, because prior research indicates that (preservice) teachers specifically underscore the significance of experiential knowledge rooted in personal experiences and observations, anecdotal evidence and conventional wisdom, while being critical about the relevance and usefulness of scientific sources (Br aten & Ferguson, 2015;Gitlin et al., 1999;van Schaik, Volman, Admiraal, & Schenke, 2018). Although both scientific and experiential knowledge are essential and valuable for future teachers (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005), conflicts between prior beliefs and scientific evidence may foster and stabilize a strong preference for experiential over scientific sources. ...
... In general, our participants reported a positive view on the potency of research and indicated higher appreciation of scientific than of non-scientific sources. This is of interest given the frequent reports that (preservice) teachers regard knowledge from educational research as being of little use for their professional practice (Allen, 2009;van Schaik et al., 2018). Our results add that preservice teachers seem to have favourable orientations towards the potency of research to provide valid answers on educational issues. ...
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Article
Background: Knowledge from educational research frequently contradicts preservice teachers' prior beliefs about educational topics. Such contradictions can seriously affect their attitudes towards educational research and can counteract efforts taken to establish teaching as a research-based profession. Aims: Inspired by Munro's (2010, J. Appl. Soc. Psychol., 40, 579) work on science discounting, this study examined whether preservice teachers tend to devalue the potency of educational research when evidence contradicts their beliefs. Sample: We used data from 145 preservice teachers from different German universities. Methods: In an experimental design, participants indicated their prior beliefs about an educational topic (i.e., effectiveness of grade retention) before and after reading either confirming or disconfirming scientific evidence. Dependent variables were, first, whether participants devalued the potency of science to study this focal topic and whether they generalized this devaluation to further related and unrelated topics; second, whether participants preferred non-scientific over scientific sources to inform themselves about the focal topic as an indirect measure of science devaluation. Results: Interaction effects on both outcome variables confirmed that participants devalued educational research and its sources when scientific evidence conflicted with their prior belief. Yet, results did not corroborate any generalization of devaluation to further topics. Despite the devaluation, participants indicated belief revision in the direction of the evidence read. Conclusions: Preservice teachers may indeed critically question educational research when scientific evidence conflicts with their prior beliefs. However, they may also adapt their assumptions in light of strong evidence. More research is needed to clarify the conditions of devaluation and belief revision.
... Yet, many educational scientists and educators seem reluctant to endorse EBE, and EBE seems to only slowly find its way into educational practice (Dagenais et al., 2012;Van Schaik et al., 2018;Joram et al., 2020). Critiques against EBE are numerous and highly cited. ...
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Article
Over the past two decades, educational policymakers in many countries have favored evidence-based educational programs and interventions. However, evidence-based education (EBE) has met with growing resistance from educational researchers. This article analyzes the objections against EBE and its preference for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conclude that the objections call for adjustments but do not justify abandoning EBE. Three future directions could make education more evidence-based whilst taking the objections against EBE into account: (1) study local factors, mechanisms, and implementation fidelity in RCTs, (2) utilize and improve the available longitudinal performance data, and (3) use integrated interventions and outcome measures.
... There was a lack of familiarity with PCC among the teachers themselves and the educational activities they needed to master to be able to teach it [35]. A known barrier for implementation from the literature is a lack of competence in using the innovation [36]. We also found that programme directors experience that content related to PCC is not easy to grasp for students who need time and personal growth to master it. ...
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Article
Background There is an increasing trend towards person-centred care (PCC) worldwide, suggesting that PCC should be mastered by future health care professionals. This study aims to explore programme directors’ views on facilitators and barriers to implementing PCC in four of the largest national study programmes in Sweden training future health care professionals. Methods A qualitative design was applied and interviews were conducted with 19 programme directors of Swedish national study programmes in medicine, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Themes were sorted according to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) in an abductive approach. COREQ guidelines were applied. Results The overarching theme, as interpreted from the programme directors’ experiences, was ‘Person-centred care is on the move at different paces.’ The theme relates to the domains identified by the CFIR as outer setting, innovation, inner setting and process. PCC was understood as something familiar but yet new, and the higher education institutions were in a state of understanding and adapting PCC to their own contexts. The movement in the outer setting consists of numerous stakeholders advocating for increased patient influence, which has stirred a movement in the inner setting where the higher educational institutions are trying to accommodate these new demands. Different meanings and values are ascribed to PCC, and the concept is thus also ‘on the move’, being adapted to traditions at each educational setting. Conclusion Implementation of PCC in Swedish higher education is ongoing but fragmented and driven by individuals with a specific interest. There is uncertainty and ambiguity around the meaning and value of PCC and how to implement it. More knowledge is needed about the core of PCC as a subject for teaching and learning and also didactic strategies suitable to support students in becoming person-centred practitioners.
... This, hopefully, yields informed decisions to shape appropriate policies (Benoit, 2013). Although perhaps self-evident, it is important to select potential solutions based upon their capacity to optimize the utility of decision-makers (Cattaneo, 2018;van Schaik et al., 2018). Howlett et al. (2009) argue that for this stage, decisions should be made that require either positive, negative, or even non-decision responses. ...
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Article
Although there is increased need for closing the gap between educational research and policy to better enable effective practice, addressing the problem remains a challenge. A review of current literature reveals a lack of systematic guidelines which clarify how collaboration between researchers and policy-makers can actually be achieved. Therefore, this study aims to articulate a framework which satisfies these needs. We used Lasswell’s stages heuristic model, integrated with perspectives from Kingdon's model, as a basis for building this framework, and conducted semi-structured interviews with nine experts in educational research and policy-making to gain understanding for how to effectuate their collaboration. The study identified six main stages for achieving effective collaboration, and the resulting framework could prove useful to future applications.
... Educational research was rarely used. It seems that facilitators and teachers have difficulties with interpreting educational research and applying academic knowledge in their teaching practice (Van Schaik et al., 2018). ...
Article
Teachers' collective learning supports teachers to use social, theory, and practice as sources for learning. The aim of the current study is to explore to what extent facilitators support teachers’ collective learning and stimulate these sources for learning. Findings showed that facilitators paid sufficient attention to social and practice sources for learning but paid little attention to theory which hampered the inquisitive dialogue about shared vision, collective actions, and evaluation and reflection. Facilitators, who concentrated on student learning processes, focused more on monitoring collective learning and supporting meaning-oriented reflection than facilitators who concentrated on learning activities.
... There are also recommendations for academia and schools to create long-term collaboration around practice development research and teacher-researchers (SOU 2018:19). Both researchers and practitioners have observed a gap between educational research and practice (as also described by Broekkamp & van Hout-Wolters, 2007;van Schaik et al., 2018). A relationship of collaboration between researchers and teachers can enable shared learning (Baumfield & Butterworth, 2007), which has been reported to promote reflection and change in teaching practices (Grau et al., 2017). ...
... Teachers` view on teaching and learning may change following the improvement of their knowledge, skills, experiences, and professional attitudes (Chai, Koh, & Teo, 2019;Keay, Carse, & Jess, 2019;Van-Schaik, Volman, Admiraal, & Schenke, 2018). Several school phenomena such as students` development, community, and administrative changes also encourage teachers to find out the effective strategies in their instructional designs. ...
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Article
The implementation of effective pedagogy in instructional strategies is an interesting discussion among educationists due to the rapidly transformation in educational context. The aims of this study are to identify the current literature related to effective pedagogy in primary education and to highlight its categories in teaching learning situation. The method used in this study is literature approach by reviewing 15 current journal articles in five years, from 2017 to May 2021. The study shows that several characteristics of effective pedagogy still attract the researchers to discuss in their papers during the current five years. The fundamental characteristics of effective pedagogy frequently highlighted in primary education are: classroom management, teachers` competences, instructional strategies, valuable learning, and students` achievement. The conclusion of this study, several current literatures highlight that the effective pedagogy is the general view of teachers to specify their action to carry out the new strategies, approaches, and methods to fostering primary school pupils.
... The relevance of perceived utility is underscored by findings such as that the perceived utility of science is associated with teacher-education students' motivation to study theory-based coursework as opposed to practical coursework [87], with the quality of their evidence-based reasoning [11], and with their selection of scientific information sources [13]. Moreover, the perceived utility of science has been found to be associated with teachers' use of research-based information [90,91]. ...
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Article
Knowledge about how science works, trust in scientists, and the perceived utility of science currently appear to be eroding in these times in which “alternative facts” or personal experiences and opinions are used as arguments. Yet, in many situations, it would be beneficial for the individual and all of society if scientific findings were considered in decision-making. For this to happen, people have to trust in scientists and perceive science as useful. Still, in university contexts, it might not be desirable to report negative beliefs about science. In addition, science-utility and science-trust associations may differ from explicit beliefs because associations were learned through the co-occurrence of stimuli rather than being based on propositional reasoning. We developed two IATs to measure science-utility and science-trust associations in university students and tested the psychometric properties and predictive potential of these measures. In a study of 261 university students, the IATs were found to have good psychometric properties and small correlations with their corresponding self-report scales. Science-utility and science-trust associations predicted knowledge about how science works over and above self-reported beliefs. The results suggest that indirect measures are useful for assessing beliefs about science and can be used to predict outcome measures.
... This is common in oral communication via WhatsApp chat application in Indonesia given that there is still an unequal position between lecturers and students in two-way communication. This phenomenon also occurs in developing countries such as parts of Asia and Africa (Schaik et al., 2018). This is supported by the finding that, when compared to other strategies, the students used the most positive politeness. ...
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Article
The study of politeness in education setting interaction has increased in last decades. However, the investigation of politeness strategies in lecturer-student interaction using WhatsApp is relatively unexplored. Therefore, this study aims to explore politeness strategies used by a lecturer and students in virtual communication using WhatsApp during thesis consultation. The researcher applied a mixed method: qualitative and quantitative research to discover the politeness phenomena in WhatsApp interaction. The participants of the study were 10 undergraduate students of English Department, University of HKBP Nommensen, and a lecturer as their thesis consultant. The data of the study consist of 50 screenshots of WhatsApp chats thesis consultation. The results show that all four types of politeness strategies were found in lecture-students interaction. The politeness strategies used by the lecturer and students differ greatly. The lecturer dominantly employed bald on-record (30. 93%) with the most imperative sentences realization; on the other hand, the students tend to use positive politeness strategy (23.20%) with the most greetings realization. This demonstrates that lecturers keep their distance when communicating, whereas students attempt to “get closer” during the interaction. The different politeness strategy choices are caused by the different power and social status (position) factors between lecturers and students. The findings of this study also show that the politeness strategies chosen by lecturers and students are not always consistent with previous similar studies.
... Grensobjecten kunnen in verschillende systemen een eigen betekenis hebben. Zo is het studentenonderzoek in de setting van de lerarenopleiding een proeve van bekwaamheid voor onderzoekend vermogen; voor de school kan studentenonderzoek een bouwsteen zijn om samen met ervaren leraren te professionaliseren en te werken aan onderwijsontwikkeling en -verbetering, zodat de school onderbouwde keuzes kan maken, en het beleid op onderzoek kan baseren (Van Schaik et al., 2018). Om dit laatste te realiseren maken we het studentenonderzoek tot spil in een, wat wij noemen, slimme verbinding. ...
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Book
current trends in subject matter and vocational pedagogics in the Netherlands
... Dissemination by non-academic members of the project teams and the barriers related to the relevance of research and suggestions by the projects explained the largest percent changes in scores, indicating the importance of these factors when considering what promotes RKU. These results are broadly similar to those reported for other sectors, such as education [26] or social work [23], and provide indications for best practices to overcome the gap between researchers and practitioners. ...
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Article
The significant resource investment in research on ecosystems for development of the Global South does not necessarily result in high levels of research knowledge utilisation (RKU). Understanding the factors associated with various levels of RKU can inform funding agencies and researchers developing new projects. We applied a combination of a questionnaire survey and follow up interviews with members of research teams of multiple, broadly comparable projects to make an assessment of achieved RKU levels using a combination of quantitative statistical hypothesis testing and narrative description of survey responses. Research knowledge dissemination by members of the project team who work for non-academic institutions or champions, e.g. particularly motivated people that promote and facilitate implementation or adoption of the project results, and via television was associated with higher research knowledge utilization. By contrast, dissemination by members of the project team working for academic institutions and via peer-reviewed journals was associated with lower RKU. The achieved level of RKU was consistently lower than the targeted level of RKU across spatial scales. The discrepancy between the perceived level of RKU and the evidence provided by survey respondents indicates the need for better monitoring the utilisation of research knowledge in development pathways. Our results further suggest that three years project duration is too short to achieve high levels of RKU in socio-ecological systems. We recommend involvement of non-academic members of the project team in project design, leadership and dissemination for increasing RKU.
... Secondly, in order for research to contribute to practice, teachers and educational designers need practical access to it. Some barriers to access are physical or financial, while others have simply to do with the time it takes to find, read, and synthesise reports of multiple studies, and the study or training required to be familiar enough with research practices and strands of work in the field for critical analysis (van Schaik et al., 2018). ...
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Conference Paper
Collaborative work between a curriculum authority and a research university with respect to curriculum review work.
... Hendriks and colleagues (2021) provide a nuanced understanding of teachers' perceptions of educational experts, as well as the influence of epistemic aims on these perceptions, and Thomm and colleagues shed further light on barriers to accessing and using educational research, including time constraints and perceived sourcing skills, as well as the perceived failure of educational research to provide definitive results with clear implications (Thomm, Sälzer et al., 2021). Educational researchers have further been accused of conducting irrelevant, short-lived, and artificial experiments that fail to account for educational realities and contextual variations (Bubikova-Moan & Opheim, 2021;Slavin, 2002;Van Schaik et al, 2018). Educational researchers are met with hurdles in terms of school cultures and the degree to which research consultation is supported by them (Greene, 2016), and teachers' perceptions of their ability to teach and interact with students, since teachers that are satisfied with their results might be more tempted to continue with business as usual (Thomm, Sälzer et al., 2021). ...
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Article
In this commentary, I seek to join the ongoing conversation about evidence-informed educational practice that has been threaded through this special issue. I do so by drawing on related insights from the fields of teachers' beliefs and epistemic cognition and considering the roles of teacher education and educational research in improving (preservice) teachers' use of educational research. In particular, I focus on the merits of explicit research-based practice in teacher educators' teaching and ways that they can encourage preservice teachers' interactions with educational research in class, and methods of changing the beliefs that may underlie (preservice) teachers' engagement with educational research evidence, and finally, the need for clearly communicated research, including details of implementation.
... Estos elementos son coherentes con lo mencionado por autores como Gore y Gitlin (2004), Ion y Iucu (2014) y Cain (2016), quienes concluyen que la falta de habilidades de los docentes para encontrar, traducir y aplicar el conocimiento basado en la investigación es una barrera para que lo utilicen. Respecto al nivel de conocimiento acerca de la investigación, van Schaik, et al. (2018) mencionan las dificultades que enfrenta la accesibilidad al conocimiento académico por parte de los profesores. Si bien se reconoce que hay algunos cambios al respecto, muchas de las publicaciones quedan en la esfera del mundo académico (Levin, 2011;Martinovic et al., 2012). ...
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Article
RESUMEN. Este artículo presenta una propuesta de modelo de formación en investigación educativa para los futuros profesores. El modelo se basa en cuatro elementos fundamentales: los beneficios que la investigación educativa tiene para los profesores, la necesidad de llevar a cabo investigación de la propia práctica docente, la toma de conciencia sobre los obstáculos que existen entre la investigación educativa y la práctica docente y el camino que conlleva avanzar hacia un profesor universitario que sea investigador. Con todos estos antecedentes, se formula un modelo compuesto por dos grandes dimensiones: formación sobre investigación educativa y formación en y sobre el contexto educativo. Esta propuesta pretende convertirse en un aporte para comenzar a incluir a la investigación educativa en la formación de profesores como un elemento fundamental en la construcción de un docente reflexivo y actualizado capaz de observar críticamente su quehacer pedagógico. ABSTRACT. This article proposes a training model in educational research for future teachers. The model is based on four fundamental elements: the benefits that educational research has for teachers, the need to carry out research into one's own teaching practice, awareness of the obstacles that exist between educational research and teaching practice, and the path towards a university professor who is a researcher. With all this background, a model composed of two major dimensions is proposed: training in educational research and training in and about the educational context. This proposal aims to contribute to the inclusion of educational research in teacher training as a fundamental element in the construction of a reflective and updated teacher capable of critically observing his or her pedagogical work.
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Article
Teacher knowledge building (TKB) is indispensable for teachers’ continuing professional development (PD). However, studies on how teacher knowledge is built and how to facilitate this process are scarce. In this study, we critically reviewed the existing literature on TKB since 2016, focusing mainly on in-service teachers working in K-12 school settings. Thirty-six studies were identified and analysed regarding approaches to TKB, mechanisms underlying TKB, conditions facilitating TKB, and the measurement of TKB. On the basis of our findings, we propose a conceptual framework that firstly helps research community to understand and assess TKB and secondly provides promising approaches to design effective PD for teachers’ knowledge building.
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Article
A goal of teacher education is to promote evidence-based teaching. Teacher beliefs are assumed to act as facilitators or barriers to evidence-based thinking and practices. In three sub-studies with a total of N = 346 German student teachers, the extent of student teachers’ beliefs about education science and their consequences and sources were investigated. First, the results of questionnaire data indicated that student teachers held skeptical beliefs about education science: On average, they perceived education science as less complex than their subject disciplines and as less important for successful teaching than their subject didactics. Additionally, they endorsed myths about learning and teaching. Second, the more skeptical the student teachers’ beliefs, the lower their engagement in education science courses within teacher education. Third, hypotheses about potential sources of these skeptical beliefs were experimentally tested as starting points for changing beliefs. The results showed that the “soft” research methods typical of education science and a general tendency to perceive research findings as trivial (hindsight bias) might contribute to this devaluation. Furthermore, students studying the natural sciences and students with little experience with education science held more skeptical beliefs.
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Article
It is important for students to understand force concepts because they are central to learning physics and other sciences; however, students find it difficult to understand. There are calls for teachers to tap into their professional knowledge and develop beliefs that help them assist students comprehend the topic. To meet this challenge, teachers’ perceptions of their knowledge base for teaching force concepts should be probed because perceptions act as windows into teachers’ practices. This study, therefore, explored physics teachers’ perceptions of their knowledge base for teaching force concepts. Science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) frameworks were used to develop a questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale administered to 100 physical science teachers who were randomly selected from 54 schools in five districts in Lesotho. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results suggest that, even though teachers reported positive views about their knowledge base, there is no correlation between sub-components of curricular knowledge. It is concluded that teachers should build the curricular knowledge by participating in collaborative activities. It is, therefore, recommended that studies that probe teachers’ actual knowledge of PCK constructs are executed, so that appropriate information is available when planning professional development activities targeting teachers’ PCK. Keywords: force concepts, pedagogical content knowledge, teacher knowledge, teachers’ perceptions of knowledge
Article
Propositional teacher knowledge is recognised as valuable in classroom teaching practice, yet little attention has been paid to it relative to practical knowledge. This mixed-methods study aimed to understand the relationship between teachers’ propositional knowledge and their classroom teaching practice in the collaborative school context using the case of Chinese (Shanghai) novice secondary mathematics teachers. The first quantitative phase, analysing 95 teachers from the 2018 TALIS, finds that propositional Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge (MPCK), General Pedagogy Knowledge (GPK) and Cross-curricular Teaching Knowledge (CTK) positively relate to effective teaching practice. The qualitative follow-up phase, interviewing six teachers with secondary mathematics teaching experience, suggests the value of propositional knowledge in three other areas, including Mathematical Content Knowledge (MCK), Curriculum Knowledge (CK), and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK), as well as possible barriers in transforming propositional knowledge into practical knowledge. Overall results suggest that a collaborative school context aids this transition, helping teachers develop their practical knowledge to enhance the effectiveness of their teaching.
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Article
Purpose This study explores the achievements and process of a group of Chinese primary school teachers learning from a research-based school-university collaborative project. Design/Approach/Methods We used qualitative methods to construct our research design, collecting data through participatory observations of weekly meetings, teacher interviews, and participants’ reflective journals. Both thematic analysis and discursive analysis were employed as strategies to scrutinize the data. Findings We categorize teachers’ learning into five achievements: outcome, processual, democratic, catalytic, and dialogic achievement. A further examination highlights seven successive learning actions composing an implicit mechanism to facilitate these achievements: questioning, analyzing, modeling, examining, implementing, reflecting, and consolidating. Originality/Value As a longitudinal study, we more comprehensively record details about teachers’ learning by conducting their own research. Although school-university heterogeneous collaboration has potential conflicts, teachers can improve their problem-solving and knowledge creation and sharing abilities, promoting a sense of professional accomplishment. These findings also suggest the need to reconsider the authentic process of teacher research, a task equally significant for international educators.
Chapter
In den vorangegangenen Beiträgen dieses Bandes wurde skizziert, welche Arten von Fehlvorstellungen rund um den Lehrberuf existieren, wie „Mythen“ zum Lehren und Lernen entstehen, warum sie überdauern (Menz & Seifried, in diesem Band) und wie man diese erkennen kann (Asberger et al., in diesem Band). Sie bergen die Gefahr, dass sie Lehrkräfte zu falschen pädagogischen Entscheidungen verleiten, daher ist es bedeutsam, fehlerhafte Vorstellungen in der LehrerInnenbildung aufzudecken und gezielt zu verändern. Dazu bedarf es einer planvollen, didaktisch durchdachten Vorgehensweise, denn fragwürdige oder gar dem aktuellen Forschungsstand widersprechende Überzeugungen sind stabil, meist in eine gewachsene Wissensstruktur eingebettet und veränderungsresistent. In diesem Beitrag wird auf Grundlage der Erkenntnisse aus der conceptual change-Forschung und einer (sich zunehmend konstituierenden) Psychologiedidaktik ein didaktischer Ansatz vorgestellt, der auf Konzeptveränderung abzielt und auch in der Aus- und Weiterbildung von Lehrkräften umgesetzt werden kann. An Beispielen häufig anzutreffender „Bildungsmythen“ werden einige Methoden und Seminarkonzepte illustriert, die das Potenzial haben (oder sich in der Hochschullehre als geeignet erwiesen haben), lehr-/lernbezogene Fehlvorstellungen von Lehramtsstudierenden zu verringern und durch evidenzbasiertes (d. h. das jeweils beste verfügbare wissenschaftliche) Wissen zu ersetzen bzw. anzureichern.
Article
Connecting research to practice by knowledge brokering in education, which is considered here as functionally synonymous with knowledge mobilisation, is currently under‐researched, difficult to define, and not well understood. This narrative synthesis review curates recent research concerning characterisations of knowledge brokering in education, considering the models and metaphors that have been used to describe and prescribe its activities, and then goes on to consider the limited evidence on effective knowledge brokering and what this suggests about possibilities for its evaluation in education contexts, which is considered necessary and urgent. Interpersonal relationships and social contexts are considered key to educational knowledge brokering, which has also been described as transforming knowledge, often by mediation, boundary‐spanning, and/or bridging. It is suggested that those doing the work of knowledge brokering (knowledge brokers) should have a deep understanding of the context and terrain of both research and practice (and perhaps policy) in education. A need is proposed for theoretical and empirical work to define the purposes and pitfalls of educational knowledge brokering in practice, related to issues of trust and credibility, and to enable evaluation and accountability to take place.
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The last decade has seen an increased focus through policy and research for schools to move towards an evidence‐informed practice. Although some practitioners now access the external research evidence when deciding which interventions to adopt in their school, research suggests many still do not. Instead, approaches to teaching and learning are often informed by trends and the opinions and experiences of practitioners. Little is known about what intervention programmes/approaches are used in schools and whether they are evidence‐based. We conducted this study to assess the range and evidence of interventions used in a school cluster in Wales, which comprised two secondary schools, seven primary schools and one special school. Using questionnaires, we evidenced 242 interventions. Following screening, we included 138 of these in the analysis and categorised them according to the ‘SEN Areas of Need’. We then conducted a rapid systematic review of the literature for these interventions and found that 30% had some evidence of positive impact on pupil outcomes, 67% had no published evidence, and 3% had causal evidence to suggest they were ineffective. One year later, we conducted a follow‐up study to assess if schools’ knowledge of the evidence for the interventions, presented through a summary report, had an impact on their provision. Our data suggest that the reports had very little impact on existing provision, and some schools continued to use the same interventions. The limitations of this study and directions for the cluster, policy and research are discussed.
Article
The field of knowledge brokering in education—aiming to better connect research to practice—is currently emerging. Evidence of a community dissonance between researchers and practitioners in education suggests that models of knowledge brokering that consider the perspectives and priorities of both groups are required. It is also a priority to identify what kinds of knowledge brokering products such as research summaries are successful at communicating research to teachers, potentially functioning as boundary objects. We report findings from a comparative judgement study where a group of 28 mathematics teachers and a group of 19 mathematics education researchers ranked twenty research summaries, from different sources, in terms of their success at communicating the research to teachers, and explained which features contributed to this ranking. Overall the findings suggest moderate consensus both within and between the two groups, and some important areas of difference. Both groups agreed that graphic design was the most important element of a research summary; that being summarised, having implications for practice and being easy to read or accessible and well‐structured were key features of a research summary; and that the length of the research summary or the time it might take to read were also important. Whereas teachers mentioned the choice of topic of the research summary and to some extent language more than researchers, researchers highlighted some other features of successful research summaries for them that teachers did not: ideas around methodology and use of evidence, opportunities for critical reflection, and issues of trust and credibility.
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Background Teachers’ perception of psychology is of importance because they get in contact with psychology as a scientific discipline and should apply (educational) psychological findings. This requires a generally positive attitude toward corresponding findings, which should be fostered during teacher education. Objective The goal of this study was to examine preservice teachers’ perception of findings from psychology in general and educational psychology in particular, thereby differentiating between confidence in and valuing of the same. Method Two subsamples of n = 937 German preservice teachers and n = 310 psychology majors participated in an online survey. Results Compared with natural science disciplines or another “harder” psychological subdiscipline, preservice teachers perceived psychology as less scientific, and judged findings from psychology and educational psychology to be less credible but more valuable. While both confidence in and valuing of findings from psychology were higher among psychology majors than among preservice teachers, the opposite was true for educational psychology. However, all differences were rather small. Conclusion We conclude that preservice teachers’ perception of (educational) psychology is not alarmingly poor. Teaching Implications The high valuing of scientific findings from (educational) psychology could be used to also foster a broader reliance on scientific findings (examples are discussed).
Article
This study aims to understand the extent to which 56 teachers developed new academic-based voices about teaching in the context of a research-informed teaching course. The empirical evidence consisted of a set of 228 short reports written by participants on the course. Each report reflects a fragment of knowledge acquired by a teacher and includes four sections: the source of research information, the verbatim text extracted from research, its perceived usefulness, and the type of curriculum content. Each written report was considered a thematic unit of analysis, and data were analysed with qualitative and quantitative methods. Findings showed a wide variety of sources and features of academic information acquired by teachers, teachers’ differing purposes in using this information, and various curriculum-related contents. The findings also revealed three main types of teachers’ academic-based voices, which we have labelled theory-informed voice, practice-informed voice, and educational-tool-informed voice. The study demonstrates that each teachers’ voice was distinctly used in each identified curriculum content.
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Forskningslitteracitet är ett relativt nytt begrepp som handlar om att förstå, värdera och omsätta forskning i praktiken. Här ingår till exempel att kunna göra skillnad på originalforskning och texter som handlar om forskning och att förstå forskningens villkor. Att skolan ska bygga på vetenskaplig grund och beprövad vetenskap står i Skollagen, och för att kunna leva upp till det behövs forskningslitteracitet.
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Understanding processes of selecting, evaluating, and using relevant information sources to inform oneself about scientific topics, that is, sourcing, is a current topic within educational psychology. This special issue combines recent research about sourcing with a particular focus on its role in the reception of educational research by (future) teachers. Recent debates about standards of teacher professionalism emphasize that teachers should be able to inform and justify their professional actions and decisions on the basis of scientific evidence. Thus, sourcing is an essential competence in retrieving and using relevant research knowledge. The contributions of this special issue shed light on different processes, requirements, and consequences of sourcing in the context of teacher education and teachers' work. They study potential factors and criteria that may affect teachers' selection, evaluation, and use of (non-)scientific information sources even in the pre-service stage of their development. Moreover, the studies analyze the impact of source preferences and accessibility of scientific sources on pre-service and in-service teachers' conceptions of educational topics and perceptions of educational research knowledge. Together with the two subsequent critical discussions, the contributions of this special issue point to challenges and obstacles that research usage by teachers and its preparation in teacher education face.
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Recent research and reform efforts in science education have consistently stressed the importance of coherent science instruction, in which learning opportunities are connected and contextualized by meaningful phenomena, focus on a small set of core ideas over time, and generate a need-to-know about new ideas through a set of connected lessons. Yet, this type of instruction remains uncommon in schools. We argue that science teacher education has the potential to play a powerful role in promoting coherent science instruction in schools, but to reach this potential, science teacher education programs themselves must be coherent. Based on existing literature and our work in an international collaboration focused on effective practices in science teacher education, we identify key features of coherent science teacher education programs and present a new model that we refer to as the Science Teacher Education Programmatic Coherence (STEP-C) model. The STEP-C model illustrates how key elements of science teacher education are situated relative to each other, potentially serving as a powerful tool for program design.
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La universidad realiza las funciones de enseñanza, investigación y vinculación con el entorno, por lo que el proceso de evaluación institucional de la gestión del conocimiento y del capital intelectual es indispensable para conocer las actividades que ejecuta. La investigación es de tipo cuantitativa, transeccional, correlacional, no experimental, el contexto de prueba es las Universidades Cofinanciadas del Ecuador (UCE), responde al ¿cómo estudiar los procesos de gestión del conocimiento que realiza la universidad? y propone probar la utilidad del Modelo para la Evaluación de la Gestión del Conocimiento de la Universidad (MEGCU). El alfa de Cronbach alcanza 0.95 y el análisis factorial exploratorio muestra a los procesos particulares de creación, transferencia/almacenamiento y aplicación/uso de conocimiento como variables latentes que explican las actividades que realiza el conjunto de las UCE. The university realizes the functions of teaching, research and linkage with the environment, so the process of institutional assessment of knowledge management and intellectual capital is essential to understand the activities it implements. The research is quantitative, transectional, correlational, and non-experimental. The testing context is the Co-Funded Universities of Ecuador (UCE), which responds to the question of how to study the knowledge management processes carried out by the university and proposes to demonstrate the usefulness of the Model for the Assessment of University Knowledge Management (MEGCU). Cronbach's alpha reaches 0.95 and the exploratory factorial analysis shows the particular processes of creation, transfer/storage and application/use of knowledge as latent variables that explain the activities carried out by the group of UCE. A universidade realiza as funções de ensino, pesquisa e ligação com o meio ambiente, por isso o processo de avaliação institucional da gestão do conhecimento e do capital intelectual é essencial para entender as atividades que ela implementa. A pesquisa é quantitativa, transeccional, correlacional e não-experimental. O contexto de teste é a Universidade Co-Fundada do Equador (UCE), que responde à questão de como estudar os processos de gestão do conhecimento realizados pela universidade e se propõe a demonstrar a utilidade do Modelo de Avaliação da Gestão do Conhecimento Universitário (MEGCU). O alfa de Cronbach atinge 0,95 e a análise factorial exploratória mostra os processos particulares de criação, transferência/armazenamento e aplicação/utilização do conhecimento como variáveis latentes que explicam as atividades realizadas pelo grupo da UCE.
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Teachers' reception of educational research is considered important for improving teaching and student learning. Yet, it is a challenging task requiring teachers to have access to scientific sources, the skill and time to find and exhaust such resources, and the capacity to interpret retrieved information. If such essential conditions are not met, teachers have hardly any chance to engage in research reception and, consequently, may question the value and relevance of research findings to their practice. Prior research has suggested that teachers are indeed critical of educational research findings and rarely refer to them. Based on data from the field trial ( N = 674) and main study ( N = 2,549) of a national extension study of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 in Germany, this study explored the role of (a) teachers' access to scientific sources, (b) perceived lack of skill and time to search for research findings, and (c) their familiarity with research methods/statistics as potential predictors of their appreciation of evidence-based practice, and perceived irrelevance of educational research findings. Structural equation models demonstrated that perceived lack of skill and time to find research findings, in particular, substantially affected participants' irrelevance perceptions. The more participants assessed their sourcing skill and time to be too constrained to engage in research reception, the more they judged research findings to be irrelevant to their practice. Though source access and familiarity with research methods/statistics indicated only small or even no effects, they strongly correlated with participants' perceived lack of sourcing skill and time. Better source access and greater familiarity were associated with less concern about one's skill and time resources to search for relevant research findings. These findings potentially underline the relevance of strengthening both teachers' access to scientific sources and individual capacities to understanding research contents.
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Previous research has found a high prevalence of some (educational) psychological misconceptions (i.e., incorrect but often popular assumptions that contradict results from psychological research) among (pre-service) teachers. However, the number of topics that have been investigated is limited. Additionally, knowing the sources of misconceptions might be helpful for rebutting them. Furthermore, anecdotal evidence has been found to be important for informing (pre-service) teachers' practice, but personal experiences also are among the main sources of misconceptions. Therefore, we hypothesized that pre-service teachers would predominantly view sources of anecdotal evidence as the origin of their educational psychological beliefs in general and the main source of their misconceptions in particular. In an online survey (with correlational and quasi-experimental elements) of N = 836 pre-service teachers, we found that educational psychological misconceptions were less prevalent than expected but that pre-service teachers indeed mainly based their beliefs on sources of anecdotal evidence (personal experiences and narratives from other people) and that these nonscientific sources turned out to be the main sources of their misconceptions (comparison with scientific sources: d = 0.19 and d = 0.23). Furthermore, referring more to sources of anecdotal than scientific evidence (research and lectures) was associated with undesirable aspects, that is, more misconceptions ( d = 0.21) and less reduction of misconception endorsement through empirical refutation-style information ( d = 0.30) but not with a lower judgment of the view that it is possible to examine educational psychological topics scientifically. In sum, our results indicate that basing one's beliefs more on sources of anecdotal than scientific evidence is associated with outcomes that stand in contrast to evidence-based education. Future research should investigate why pre-service teachers concentrate on sources of anecdotal evidence, how to make sources of scientific evidence more tempting, and whether counteracting misconceptions by showing the downside of nonscientific sources is effective.
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In this paper, I argue that the movement for research utilisation in education can be seen as part of an attempt to alter the foundations on which teachers base their decisions, replacing liberal values with which teaching has been associated, with the values of ‘what works’. I review the empirical literature around teachers’ use of research to ascertain why teachers access educational research; how they understand and evaluate research; the effect of teachers’ research use on their teaching and students; and some of the differences between teachers’ attitudes to research. At present, there is little evidence that teachers’ values are undermined by research utilisation but there is a need to keep this matter under review.
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This mapping of research on partnership in teacher education provides an overview of themes and analyses problems identified in the studies that were included. The mapping gives a status of research in the field; identifies knowledge gaps and suggests improvements in partnership models. Studies included describe partnerships as complex and resource-intensive cross-institutional infrastructures for knowledge sharing, with the ambition to enhance the practice-relevance of teacher education, bridge theory and practice and support mentoring and professional learning. How well partnerships function depends on how they are structured, responsibilities defined and work divided. The studies reveal tensions at all levels, and argue for the need for competent academic leadership in the establishment, running and renewal of partnerships. A major challenge is how to establish and maintain productive learning relations between the partners. As some current models appear to be dysfunctional, there is an obvious need for innovative thinking in teacher education partnerships.
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Internationally, efforts are being made for educational practice to be research-informed on the grounds that schoolteachers will implement what research shows will ‘work’. However, teachers do not necessarily accept research findings; sometimes they contest them. This article considers teachers’ contestation in two empirical studies, using the concepts of denial, opposition, rejection and dissent as a framework for understanding such contestation. It finds three reasons why teachers contest research evidence: within-research issues, issues around generalising from research to practice, and non-congruence with personal values. These are explored with reference to the power differentials that are said to exist between research and practice.
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To improve classroom teaching in a steady, lasting way, the profession needs a knowledge base that grows and improves over time. In spite of the continuing efforts of researchers, archived research knowledge has had little effect on the improvement of practice in the average classroom. In this paper, we explore the possibility of building a useful knowledge base for teaching by beginning with practitioners’ knowledge. We outline the features of this knowledge that make it an attractive starting point and then identify the requirements that must be met for this knowledge to be transformed into a professional knowledge base for teaching. By reviewing briefly a bit of educational history, we offer an incomplete explanation for why the U.S. has no countrywide system that meets these requirements. We conclude by wondering if U.S. researchers and teachers can make different choices in the future to enable a system for building and sustaining a professional knowledge base for teaching.
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To improve classroom teaching in a steady, lasting way, the teaching profession needs a knowledge base that grows and improves. In spite of the continuing efforts of researchers, archived research knowledge has had little effect on the improvement of practice in the average classroom. We explore the possibility of building a useful knowledge base for teaching by beginning with practitioners’ knowledge. We outline key features of this knowledge and identify the requirements for this knowledge to be transformed into a professional knowledge base for teaching. By reviewing educational history, we offer an incomplete explanation for why the United States has no countrywide system that meets these requirements. We conclude by wondering if U.S. researchers and teachers can make different choices in the future to enable a system for building and sustaining a professional knowledge base for teaching.
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This paper examines the experiences of Canadian university researchers and school district staff who engaged in a 6-year collaborative series of research projects investigating school inclusion in a regional school division in Canada. As a capstone to the research projects, members of the research team engaged in a facilitated inquiry session to explore and articulate lessons learned about inclusion and collaboration throughout the span of the project. The key finding was that collaboration is a critical factor in both inclusive education and university-school district research partnerships. The reflections and experiences of the research team are examined and discussed. Collaboration is illustrated both as prerequisite to and corollary of university-school district research partnerships. Resumo: Este artigo examina as experiências de pesquisadores de uma universidade canadense e de consultores distritais que se engajaram em projetos de pesquisa colaborativos durante seis anos, os quais investigaram a inclu-são escolar na regional school division no Canadá. Como um elemento fundamental para o projeto de pesquisa, os membros da equipe engajaram-se em discussões voltadas a explorar e articular lições aprendidas sobre inclusão e colaboração durante todo o período do projeto. Os resultados indicam que a colaboração é um fator crítico na educação inclusiva e nas parcerias de pesquisas distritais universidade-empresa. As reflexões e as experiências da equipe de pesquisa foram analisadas e discutidas. Além disso, a colaboração é ilustrada como pré-requisito e como consequência de parcerias em pesquisas distritais entre universidade-escola. Palavras-chave: Colaboração; Colaboração universidade-escola; Educação inclusiva.
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Recent policy statements have urged greater use of research to guide teaching, with some commentators calling for a ‘revolution’ in evidence-based practice. Scholarly literature suggests that research can influence policy and practice in ‘instrumental’, ‘conceptual’ or ‘strategic’ ways. This paper analyses data from two studies in English comprehensive schools, in which teachers were given research reports about teaching gifted and talented students, and supported over a 12-month period, to incorporate findings into practitioner research projects of their own devising. Participant observation data, interviews and teachers’ written reports were analysed in three phases; analysis revealed that the teachers used research in instrumental and strategic ways, but only very occasionally. More frequently, their use of research was conceptual. Within this category, research influenced what teachers thought about, and how they thought. The process is theorised as a ‘long, focused discussion’, to which research contributed a ‘third voice’, in dialogue with individual teachers (the ‘first voice’) and their colleagues (the ‘second voice’). Given the dearth of empirical work on this topic, it is argued that this theory, whilst tentative, provides an appropriately nuanced framework for further investigations of teachers’ use of research evidence.
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In the last 100 years, research discoveries and new knowledge have transformed the lives of many around the world. Special education research has provided equally startling advances leading to improved practices that have dramatically improved the lives, learning, and competencies of persons with and without disabilities. Common to research in all disciplines is the gap between initial discoveries and their becoming a part of routine practices. However, unique to special and general education research are the sepa-rateness of the research and practice communities, the limited relevance of educational research, the failure to articulate manageable research-validated interventions, and the weak opportunities for professional development. These are among the primary reasons that explain the current gap between research and practice in special education. Implications and solutions are discussed. Major Advances and Discoveries ~Jnique in our lifetime has been arrival of the much-anticipated year 2000. One of the more interesting aspects of this event has been the thought provoking retrospectives on the accomplishments of the last 100 years. Not the least of which was what 100 years of scientific innovation and discovery has meant to the human race. As global communication has moved from taking months to transport a single piece of information to the split-second time it takes to e-mail documents , the pace of scientific discovery has taken a similar path. For example, AIDS research was non-existent less than two decades ago when becoming HIV+ meant certain death. Today AIDS researchers have begun to discuss HIV+ as a serious but manageable disease. This outcome is truly impressive considering that large scale federal funding for research in the US only dates back to World War II; Lewis and Clark's 1803-06 exploration of the territory west of the Mississippi is considered by many to be the first federally-funded research project! Consider just a few of the discoveries that have transformed the lives of the current generation on this planet: the discovery of time, disease mechanisms (bacteriology/ immunology), the brain, computers, and observational measurement (telescope, microscope; magnetic resonance imaging).
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This study investigated the way developing, sharing and using of research-based knowledge occurred in the school–university research network of a master’s programme for in-service teachers in the Netherlands. Over a 10-month period, a combination of quantitative and qualitative network data was collected. Data were analysed at three network levels: school, pairs of master’s students and research supervisors, and individuals. Overall, results indicate that building knowledge productive relationships in a master’s programme is a complex endeavour. Although individual master’s students and research supervisors aimed for continuing knowledge processes in school and university after student’s graduation, few actually did. The school context and the strategies of research supervisors provided students with too little support for sustaining the knowledge processes. This study shows from a network perspective the complexities, challenges and potential of developing partnership relationships in a master’s programme between schools and universities as well as between master’s students and research supervisors.
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Postgraduate master’s programs for in-service teachers may be a promising new avenue in developing research partnership networks that link schools and university and enable collaborative development, sharing and use of knowledge of teacher research. This study explores the way these knowledge processes originating from master’s students’ research occurs in the school–university network of a master’s program embedded in the K–12 school environment of a Central Management Organization in the US. Questionnaires, interviews, and logs were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data at four time-points over a 10-month period. Data were analyzed at three network levels: school, dyad, and individual. Findings indicate that the school network context provided both master’s students and research advisors with a supportive context for collaboratively engaging in knowledge processes during research as well as after they graduated. However, the network context was not enough to build sustainable and productive relationships in the partnership network.
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In this short invited essay I want to raise some concerns about positioning scholarship on teaching and learning within the disciplines. As this journal and others attest, not all pedagogical work is located there, but with the recent interest in scholarly work on teaching and learning there has been an accompanying move to more firmly wed pedagogical scholarship to the disciplines (Healey 2000). I'd like to begin with what is lost when the preference is for pedagogical scholarship owned by the disciplines. Placing scholarship within a discipline narrows the potential audience. Discipline-specific pedagogical periodicals are not read widely within the discipline but they are not read at all by faculty outside the discipline. This has two negative consequences. First, good work that transcends discipline-specific considerations of teaching is now seen by a limited number of faculty when it is in fact relevant to a much larger audience. Case in point: the most well organized and succinct summary of the research on active learning I have seen was published in the Journal of Engineering Education (Prince, 2004). I have yet to share this convincing case for engaging students with any faculty member who did not respond to it favorably. Many techniques, including specific strategies, can be used in a wide variety of disciplines.
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Since the 1990s there has been an increasing role for evidence in public sector policy and practice. The Modernising Government agenda demands that policy be evidence-based, and this has been accompanied by similar calls for the use of evidence by practitioners to support a rational and optimal approach to public service delivery. However, it is increasingly recognised that simply improving the content and availability of the evidence base is not sufficient to secure such changes. Explicit and active strategies are required to ensure that research really does have an impact on policy and practice. A wide diversity of approaches to enhance the impact of research has emerged in response to this need. Strategies vary in terms of the scale of the project and resources involved, the targets for research impact, the nature of impact intended and the implementation context. We can also distinguish between approaches in terms of those activities undertaken within the research community to "push" research out to potential users, and those undertaken in practice and policy contexts to encourage demand for and uptake of research findings. To help systematise current thinking about research impact and draw together evidence of effectiveness of different approaches, it is useful to develop some categorisations of these diverse initiatives and practices. This paper presents a taxonomy of interventions to enhance the impact of research on public sector policy and practice which has been developed by the Research Unit for Research Utilisation (RURU) at the University of St. Andrews. One taxonomy already widely used in the research impact field is that developed by the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) review group within the Cochrane Collaboration (see Appendix I). This categorisation reflects the nature and concerns of EPOC's remit to address how to improve the practice of healthcare professionals. RURU's taxonomy, by contrast, is cross-sectoral and is concerned more specifically with increasing the impact of research. It covers a wide range of policy, practice and organisational targets for research impact. Further, it is not solely concerned with interventions to change behaviour, but also includes approaches which encourage more conceptual or "enlightenment" uses of research in changing knowledge, understanding and attitudes.
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This paper is about the relationship between research, policy and practice in education. It outlines reasons for the increased interest in research and its impact and describe some of the difficulties in studying this relationship. A conceptualization of the knowledge mobilization process is presented that identifies three overlapping and interacting domains – the production of research, the end use of research, and the intermediary processes that link these two. The paper reviews current research and develops ideas about all three of these aspects, identifying areas of understanding and gaps in current knowledge. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://vimeo.com/56377921
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This study characterises the links between research and practice across 12 projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities (TCs). Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants’ roles and knowledge generated by the teacher community. Three patterns emerged pertaining to the sources of knowledge informing lesson plans: design guided by formal and practical knowledge, by classroom-data and practical knowledge or by a combination of all three. Findings further suggest that the emphasis given to the use of formal knowledge over classroom-data or vice versa restrains the full accomplishment of research and practice links. Across the projects studied, university researchers contributed to linking research and practice by directly or indirectly supporting community activities. Surprisingly, the role of teachers in the generation and dissemination of formal knowledge was limited. Further research should explore the effects of collaboration within TCs on researchers and policy-makers.
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This study investigates the predictors of school practitioners’ (N = 2,425) use of educational research. The suggested model explained significantly but modestly the infrequent use of educational research by practitioners. The latent factor opinions about research had the most explanatory power. The results are discussed in connection with existing knowledge about school practitioners’ use of educational research and implications for further research and practice. Keywords: school practice, predictors of use, use of research-based information, factor analysis, multiple regression. Cette étude examine les facteurs prédictifs de l'utilisation des connaissances issues de la recherches éducatives par les praticiens scolaires (N = 2425). Le modèle proposé a expliqué de façon significative, mais modestement, l'utilisation peu fréquente de la recherche éducative par les praticiens. Le facteur latent "opinions sur la recherche" est celui qui est le plus corrélé à l'utilisation des recherches éducatives par les praticiens scolaires. Les résultats sont analysés en relation avec les connaissances actuelles sur l'usage scolaire de la recherche éducative par les praticiens. Les implications pour les recherches futures et pour la pratique sont également explicités. Mots clés: pratiques scolaires, facteurs prédictifs de l'utilisation, utilisation des connaissances issues de la recherches, analyse factorielle, regression multiple.
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The field of knowledge mobilisation (KM) addresses the multiple ways in which stronger connections can be made between research, policy and practice. This paper reviews the current situation around knowledge mobilisation in education. It addresses changing understandings of KM, considers some of the main issues in conducting empirical research in the field, and looks at the state of activity to promote and increase KM, offering commentary and suggestions in each area.
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Current policies place unprecedented demands on districts to use evidence to guide their educational improvement efforts. How districts respond is likely to be influenced by how individuals in the district conceptualize what it means to use evidence in their ongoing work. This study draws on sensemaking and institutional theory to investigate how individuals in one urban school district conceive of evidence-based practice. The study develops grounded typologies that describe the ways that individuals conceptualize high-quality evidence, appropriate evidence use, and high-quality research. It then explains variation in conceptions, pointing to the ways organizational responsibilities and reform history shape how individuals come to understand evidence-based practice. The article closes by suggesting implications for district response to federal policy demands for evidence-based practice.
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In this article, the authors explore if and how knowledge communities have the potential to help improve the communal efforts of practitioners, intermediaries and researchers to change education. An explorative study was conducted with a survey that was distributed among 187 workers in the Dutch educational field to investigate if and how knowledge communities are realized, and could contribute to bridge the gap between educational research and practice. The survey explored the role of communities from four perspectives derived from the literature in the field: their heterogeneity, informality, interactivity and effectiveness. The findings show that many communities are active, and that their members perceive them as heterogeneous, informal, interactive and effective ways to collaborate with others. Frequent and face-to-face communication, as well as financial support, seems to positively influence how the community is perceived by its members. It is concluded that the potential of knowledge communities deserves to be investigated in more detail so that the collaborative educational change taking place in the communities can be optimized and sustained for the future.
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This study examined practicing teachers' assessments of the trustworthiness, usability, and accessibility of intervention information obtained from four sources: other teachers or colleagues, workshops and inservice presentations, college courses, and professional journals. We found significant differences along each dimension, with teachers generally rating their colleagues and workshops or inservices not only as more accessible sources of information but as providing more trustworthy and usable information as well. We found no significant differences between groups of teachers affiliated with general versus special education and no differences in ratings as a function of years of teaching experience. This article discusses the implications of these findings for practice and for further research, as well as the importance of this line of inquiry to the ongoing debate about bridging the gap between research and practice.
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