The Familial Origins of European Individualism


The Familial Origins of European Individualism

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... Also, minority influence is particularly effective in individualist cultures, and Scandinavian societies are the most individualist cultures on Earth as indicated by data on historical family and political structure (MacDonald, 2018c(MacDonald, , 2019. Individualists are far more likely to see others as individuals rather than as members of competing groups, and they are relatively non-ethnocentric (Henrich, 2020;Mac-Donald, 2019. ...
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The role of Jewish activism in the transformative changes that have occurred in the West in recent decades continues to be controversial. Here I respond to several issues putatively related to Jewish influence, particularly the “default hypothesis” that Jewish IQ and urban residency explain Jewish influence and the role of the Jewish community in enacting the 1965 immigration law in the United States; other issues include Jewish ethnocentrism and intermarriage and whether diaspora Jews are hypocritical in their attitudes on immigration to Israel versus the United States. The post-World War II era saw the emergence of a new, substantially Jewish elite in America that exerted influence on a wide range of issues that formed a virtual consensus among Jewish activists and the organized Jewish community, including immigration, civil rights, and the secularization of American culture. Jewish activism in the pro-immigration movement involved: intellectual movements denying the importance of race in human affairs; establishing, staffing, and funding anti-restrictionist organizations; recruiting prominent non-Jews to anti-restrictionist organizations; rejecting the ethnic status quo as a goal because of fear of a relatively homogeneous white majority; leadership in Congress and the executive branch.
Objective This study examined whether adult children's transitions to marriage, parenthood, and divorce were related to intergenerational support exchanges. Background Intergenerational support fluctuates over the life span, often in response to major transitions, but surprisingly little research has examined longitudinally how life transitions shape the bidirectional flow of intergenerational support. Method Using data from adult children who participated in Waves 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the German Family Panel (pairfam) study, we estimated fixed effect models to explore how marital and parenthood transitions of adult children predict support exchanges between adult children and their parents (n = 5245 adult children's report of support exchanges with their mother and n = 4604 with their father; total 14,359 and 12,147 observations). Results Getting married was associated with adult children receiving less emotional support from mothers, while providing less instrumental support to their parents. Becoming a mother was associated with receiving more instrumental support from parents and receiving less material/financial support among adult children closer to their parents. When adult children became a parent, emotional and instrumental provision to mothers decreased. Getting divorced was associated with adult children receiving more emotional and material support from parents, but findings varied based on child gender and closeness with parents. Conclusion Adult children's life transitions influence patterns of support exchanged with their parents differentially based on parent–child gender composition and intergenerational closeness.
I respond to some comments by Nathan Cofnas in which he criticizes Edward Dutton's defense of my book, The Culture of Critique. In arguing against Dutton, Cofnas makes unfounded claims about The Culture of Critique.
The Household and Making of History
  • Hartman
Hartman, The Household and Making of History, 74.