Book

Sensory Templates and Manager Cognition: Art, Cognitive Science and Spiritual Practices in Management Education

Authors:

Abstract

This book explores the role of art and spiritual practices in management education. It takes recent developments in cognitive science relating to the metaphorical and embodied nature of cognition as its starting point. Introducing the concept of ‘sensory templates’, Springborg demonstrates how managers unconsciously understand organizational situations and actions as analogous to concrete sensorimotor experiences, such as pushing, pulling, balancing, lifting, moving with friction, connecting and moving various substances. Real-life management and leadership case studies illustrate how changing the sensory templates one uses to understand a particular situation can increase managerial efficiency and bring simple solutions to problems that have troubled managers for years. Sensory Templates and Manager Cognition will be of interest to scholars and students of managerial cognition, leadership and neuroscience, as well as practising managers and management educators.
... Through dance training the researcher can increase his or her proprioception, the ability to perceive the movement of one's physical body, his or her interoception, the ability to sense subtle internal movements in the body, and his or her felt sense, "a body sensation that is meaningful" (Cornell 1998). Such skills are important, recent developments in cognitive science suggests that even the most abstract concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience (Ackerman et al. 2010;Barsalou and Wiemer-Hastings 2005;Wiemer-Hastings and Xu 2005) and that if two people ground the same conceptual term (the word) in two different sensorimotor experiences (different sensory templates) it will, in fact, operate as two different concepts and enable the two people to perceive and act in very different ways (Springborg 2018;Springborg and Ladkin 2018). ...
... This is only possible insofar as the description of the sensorimotor ground of concepts is omitted from the presentations of research. Thus, developing awareness of the sensory templates, the embodied ground of their own thinking, and developing the ability to put these into words is important for researchers to attain accuracy and transparency in their research presentations (Springborg 2018). Such awareness can be developed through somatic practices, including dance practices. ...
Chapter
In this chapter Weston and Farber position food as an arts-based research method that can be used to gain an enriched understanding of organizational life. Food is under-researched in business and management studies and the authors address this gap by examining how food intersects with organizational life. The wide and varied ways that food is woven through everyday life at work demonstrates its value as a context that can deepen understanding of organizational engagement. In this chapter Weston and Farber review food research from three perspectives. First, they show how food has been used as a research context for examining social engagement. Second, they document a range of diverse qualitative research methods that have been applied to investigate food practice in the workplace. Third, they examine food as an arts-based research method wherein food is used as a tool to accentuate and enrich social interaction during the research process. Finally, they offer two illustrative examples to highlight their own use of food as an arts-based research method and as a mode of knowledge dissemination. These illustrative examples aim to guide researchers through the process of using food as an arts-based method.
... Through dance training the researcher can increase his or her proprioception, the ability to perceive the movement of one's physical body, his or her interoception, the ability to sense subtle internal movements in the body, and his or her felt sense, "a body sensation that is meaningful" (Cornell 1998). Such skills are important, recent developments in cognitive science suggests that even the most abstract concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience (Ackerman et al. 2010;Barsalou and Wiemer-Hastings 2005;Wiemer-Hastings and Xu 2005) and that if two people ground the same conceptual term (the word) in two different sensorimotor experiences (different sensory templates) it will, in fact, operate as two different concepts and enable the two people to perceive and act in very different ways (Springborg 2018;Springborg and Ladkin 2018). ...
... This is only possible insofar as the description of the sensorimotor ground of concepts is omitted from the presentations of research. Thus, developing awareness of the sensory templates, the embodied ground of their own thinking, and developing the ability to put these into words is important for researchers to attain accuracy and transparency in their research presentations (Springborg 2018). Such awareness can be developed through somatic practices, including dance practices. ...
Chapter
Dancers are increasingly seeing their art as a form of research. This is reflected in the development of new techniques, dance notation, and ever-expanding choices of topics that dancers deal with through their performances. Consequently, dance has become a treasure chest for researchers. In this chapter, I present a range of ideas for how elements from the world of dance can be adopted by researchers in business, management, and humanities. Adopting such elements from the world of dance is particularly useful when studying unconscious, affective, and aesthetic aspects of organisational life. For inspiration, I have included four different research designs drawing on dance. However, the possibilities are endless, and the reader is encouraged to be creative.
... By sketches, prototypes, movement phrases and other means of expression, players not only can test novel solutions but also enter learning paths while exploring alternative opportunities step by step [35]. Playing with material and its potential symbolic power as well as a non-verbal encounter with fellow players will open a different view on reality than a primarily rational, merely linguistic discourse [36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a growing interest in the effects of arts-based interventions on organizational change, concepts aiming at business innovation and product development other than residencies are rare. Furthermore, little is known about the role and impact of artists involved in idea-generating formats. How does the personal presence of artists in a heterogenous working group influence the procedure? To what extent do artists unfold their creative qualities while dealing with such a non-artistic challenge? The paper introduces a method named Art Hacking that applies professional labour attitudes typical for artists and artistic modes of thinking to business problems and enhances the approach by having artists attend the whole intervention. One of these events was taken as a case for exploring the role of four artists in the collective idea-generation process. The results of participatory observation along critical incident technique substantiate the thesis that in interdisciplinary “playgrounds” artists implicitly become process leaders. They are catalysts for awareness, sensemaking and change of perspective.
... Organisational Learning for and with VUCA: Learning Leadership Revisited Antonacopoulou p. 10-32 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21714/2238-104X2018v8i2S-40869 Submission: Mai/22/18 -Second version: Jul/15/18 -Acceptance: Jul/15/18 'sensory knowing' (Panayiotou, 2017;Springborg, 2018) all of which emphasise the role of the senses as integral to perceiving, judging and acting. These accounts however, predominantly focus on enactment and embodiment of the senses. ...
... Although art-based interventions are increasingly being used in management learning interventions (Darsø, 2004;Mack, 2012;Page, Grisoni, & Turner, 2014;Schiuma, 2009Schiuma, , 2011Springborg, 2015Springborg, , 2018Sutherland, 2013;Taylor & Ladkin, 2009) there is little understanding about the mechanisms through which various ABIs foster particular learning outcomes. This theoretical paper addresses this concern by revisiting the philosophy of art and education (Arnheim, 1969;Dewey, 1934;Eisner, 2002;Langer, 1951), which is often used to argue the value of ABIs, in the light of research findings from the field of embodied cognition (Barsalou, 2008;Niedenthal, Barsalou, Winkielman, Krauth-Gruber, & Ric, 2005;Rohrer, 2007;Wilson, 2002). ...
Article
Teachers and consultants increasingly use art-based interventions (ABIs) to facilitate manager learning. However, there is little understanding of the mechanisms through which ABIs produce learning outcomes of value to organizations. This theoretical paper addresses this concern by revisiting the philosophy of art and education in light of developments in neuroscience known as embodied cognition. Specifically, we examine the role played by simulations in behavioral change and the way in which ABIs can foster the creation of simulations. This leads to two propositions, a) representing a phenomenon through new simulations can create new possibilities for interacting with this phenomenon; and b) making art is a means by which managers can construct new simulations. The significance of these propositions is illustrated by re-interpreting three accounts of art-based interventions found in the literature. These propositions have important implications for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of ABIs in management education. In particular, they emphasize the need to match art medium with desired outcomes, provide support for the view that ABIs are well suited to learning about complex managerial challenges, and question the effectiveness of verbal reflection as part of ABIs.
... Although art-based interventions are increasingly being used in management learning interventions (Darsø, 2004;Mack, 2012;Page, Grisoni, & Turner, 2014;Schiuma, 2009Schiuma, , 2011Springborg, 2015Springborg, , 2018Sutherland, 2013;Taylor & Ladkin, 2009) there is little understanding about the mechanisms through which various ABIs foster particular learning outcomes. This theoretical paper addresses this concern by revisiting the philosophy of art and education (Arnheim, 1969;Dewey, 1934;Eisner, 2002;Langer, 1951), which is often used to argue the value of ABIs, in the light of research findings from the field of embodied cognition (Barsalou, 2008;Niedenthal, Barsalou, Winkielman, Krauth-Gruber, & Ric, 2005;Rohrer, 2007;Wilson, 2002). ...
Article
Although art-based methods are increasingly used in management learning interventions (Taylor & Ladkin, 2009) there is little understanding about the means by which these methods foster particular learning outcomes. This conceptually- based paper addresses this concern through revisiting the philosophy of art and education (Arnheim, 1969; Dewey, 1934; Eisner, 2002; Langer, 1951) in light of recent theoretical developments in neuroscience known as embodied cognition (Niedenthal, Barsalou, Winkielman, Krauth-Gruber, & Ric, 2005; Rohrer, 2007; Wilson, 2002). We propose that embodied cognition’s recognition of the central role played by ‘simulation’ (Barsalou 1999, 2008) in learning processes offers unique insights into the mechanisms through which arts-based methods work and how they differ from (other) experiential learning interventions. This exploration leads to two propositions, a) stimulating new activation patterns in the way the brain engages with a phenomenon enables new possibilities for dealing with that phenomenon; and b) making art is a means by which those new activation patterns can be created. The paper concludes by demonstrating the power of this understanding by re-interpreting three scholarly accounts of the use of art-based methods within manager development, and suggesting implications for how such interventions can more fully realise their developmental potential.
... Although art-based interventions are increasingly being used in management learning interventions (Darsø, 2004;Mack, 2012;Page, Grisoni, & Turner, 2014;Schiuma, 2009Schiuma, , 2011Springborg, 2015Springborg, , 2018Sutherland, 2013;Taylor & Ladkin, 2009) there is little understanding about the mechanisms through which various ABIs foster particular learning outcomes. This theoretical paper addresses this concern by revisiting the philosophy of art and education (Arnheim, 1969;Dewey, 1934;Eisner, 2002;Langer, 1951), which is often used to argue the value of ABIs, in the light of research findings from the field of embodied cognition ( Barsalou, 2008;Niedenthal, Barsalou, Winkielman, Krauth-Gruber, & Ric, 2005;Rohrer, 2007;Wilson, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
This conceptual paper examines reasons why analytically educated learners may be reluctant to engage in sensory-based learning. Sensing is indispensable for constructing knowledge and should be employed on par with the intellect, particularly in today's complex and uncertain context. Yet, we have observed learners' reluctance to engage with sensing and attempted to understand the reasons for it. Our theoretical contribution illuminates the underlying causes of this phenomenon, thus furthering the study of sensing in the fields of individual learning and management learning. Our practical contribution prompts researchers, learners, educators, and managers to think more systematically about ways to overcome this reluctance and openly bring sensing into management learning practice on par with intellectual processing. With the help of phenomenal theorizing, the presented exploratory study identifies the following common barriers to sensory-based learning for analytically educated learners: corporate social norms against sensory-based evidence, discomfort of learning outside of one's comfort zone, inadequate vocabulary for sensory experiences, lack of sensory awareness, preference for sequential reasoning, mistrust in sensory-based evidence, dismissive attitude, and denying (or not admitting to) the use of sensing.
Article
Full-text available
Adopting expansive (vs. contractive) body postures may influence psychological states associated with power. The current experiment sought to replicate and extend research on the power pose effect by adding another manipulation that embodies power—eye gaze. Participants (N = 305) adopted expansive (high power) or contractive (low power) poses while gazing ahead (i.e., dominantly) or down at the ground (i.e., submissively). Afterward, participants played a hypothetical ultimatum game, made a gambling decision, and reported how powerful and in charge they felt. Neither body posture nor eye gaze influenced the gambling decision, and contrary to the predictions, adopting an expansive pose reduced feelings of power. We also found that holding a direct gaze increased the probability of rejecting a low offer on the ultimatum game. We consider why power posing did not have the predicted effects.
Article
Full-text available
This research is an attempt to understand and measure mythological roles in attributional processes. Drawing upon Carl Jung’s work on the archetype we, first, argue how role archetypes from fantasy dramas and worldwide fairy tales populate organizational life, and further, contend that they have extensive influence on how group members sort their judgments of each other. In the second part of the article, our understanding of role archetypes is aided by quantitative measurements: participants in 31 consecutive leadership development classes are asked which fellow classmates they spontaneously associate with each of seven good and seven bad fairy tale roles (deep roles), if any. Our main question is to evaluate the magnitude of agreement on the assignment of roles. Results give strong support to the assumption that group members quite easily categorize fellow members into stereotypes identified by fairy tale roles. Given the evidence in the present analysis, we posit that the role imagoes most frequently assigned (The Big Five of Fairy Tales) are isomorphic with core family roles, and further, that broad personality traits have their roots in archetypal imaginations. To more effectively secure that mythological mechanisms will not triumph over more rational, complex and balanced ways of judgments, we suggest that organizational research should acknowledge the subtle and hidden world of deep role archetypes.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we explore how leadership and followership are relational, mutually constructed and mutually enabled. Using dancesport as metaphor and medium, we focus on the embodied, corporeal aspects and dynamics of leading and following, relating them to lead/follow roles and tasks of people in organizations. In a mainly autoethnographic exploration of the lived experiences of people in leader-follower-relationships, we use the concept of embodied cognition as a basis and argue that dance can provide a vehicle for immediate, implicit “insights” and even “aha effects” through sensory, bodily experiences.
Article
Full-text available
Recent criticisms of management education have raised the need for a critical pedagogy in management studies but have rarely evaluated the possible implications for management learning and practice. Drawing from critical and social constructionist perspectives, I propose we need to ground critique by incorporating reflexive dialogical practice in management learning as a way of developing more critical and responsive practitioners. Specifically, I reconstruct learning as reflective/reflexive dialogue in which participants connect tacit knowing and explicit knowledge. From this perspective, both educators and learners need to take a critical view of their dialogical practices and what may constitute `good' learning conversations. I include examples from my attempts to incorporate this approach in my own teaching practices.
Article
Full-text available
With the rising use of arts-based methods in organizational development and change, scholars have started to inquire into how and why these methods work. We identify four processes that are particular to the way in which arts-based methods contribute to the development of individual organization managers and leaders: through the transference of artistic skills, through projective techniques, through the evocation of "essence," and through creating artifacts such as masks, collages, or sculpture, a process we call "making." We illustrate these processes in detail with two case examples and then discuss the implications for designing the use of arts-based methods for managerial and leadership development.
Article
Full-text available
Experiential learning theory (ELT) has been widely used in management learning research and practice for over thirty-five years. Building on the foundational works of Kurt Lewin, John Dewey and others, experiential learning theory offers a dynamic theory based on a learning cycle driven by the resolution of the dual dialectics of action/reflection and experience/abstraction. These two dimensions define a holistic learning space wherein learning transactions take place between individuals and the environment. The learning space is multi-level and can describe learning and development in commensurate ways at the level of the individual, the group, and the organization. This approach is illustrated by reviewing current research on individual learning styles and managerial problem solving/decision making, the process of team learning and organizational learning. We describe how ELT can serve as a useful framework to design and implement management education programs in higher education and management training and development.
Article
Full-text available
When one considers the role that spirituality plays in management practice and pedagogy, a more fundamental issue begs to be investigated: What is spirituality? The impact spirituality has depends on how one conceives it. The authors present a two-dimensional framework that differentiates between various worldview perspectives based on divergent metaphysical and epistemological assumptions. They show how each worldview has a different conception of spirituality. Implications of worldview for management practice and pedagogy are developed. Emphasis is given to how spirituality rooted in the Christian tradition can influence management education, and examples from a private, Christian university are provided.
Book
The now-classic Metaphors We Live By changed our understanding of metaphor and its role in language and the mind. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Because such metaphors structure our most basic understandings of our experience, they are "metaphors we live by"--metaphors that can shape our perceptions and actions without our ever noticing them. In this updated edition of Lakoff and Johnson's influential book, the authors supply an afterword surveying how their theory of metaphor has developed within the cognitive sciences to become central to the contemporary understanding of how we think and how we express our thoughts in language.
Article
The literature on the impact of expansive poses on biological and psychological variables is characterized by discrepant findings. These discrepant findings may, in part, be a function of differences in how data were analyzed. In this article, we use multiverse analysis to examine whether the findings reported in the original paper by Carney, Cuddy, and Yap are robust to plausible alternative data analytic specifications: outlier identification strategy, the specification of the dependent variable, and the use of control variables. Our findings indicate that the inferences regarding the presence and size of an effect on testosterone and cortisol are highly sensitive to data analytic specifications. We encourage researchers to routinely explore the influence of data analytic choices on statistical inferences and also encourage editors and reviewers to require explicit examinations of the influence of alternative data analytic specifications on the inferences that are drawn from data.
Article
Presents excerpts from I. P. Pavlov's The Work of the Digestive Glands (1897/1902). In his own words, Pavlov discusses his methodology, purposes, and conclusions in his study of digestive processes. It is suggested that one can see in this book Pavlov beginning to embark on the path that would lead him to a position of influence in psychology, recognition of the role of psychological factors in digestive function. It was his study of the functioning of saliva that was the first step in this complex process and that thus may have been especially closely linked to psychological factors.
Article
Why Decisions Fail critiques 15 infamously bad decisions that became public debacles. The author examines how these mistakes could have been avoided and explains how any organization's decision-making process can be improved to prevent such failures. Author Paul Nutt began by looking at 400 decisions made by top managers involving such topics as products and services, pricing and markets, personnel policy, technology acquisition, and strategic reorganization. Analyzing how each decision was made, he determined that two out of three decisions were based on failureprone or questionable tactics. He identifies these key errors and suggests alternatives that have proven successful.
Article
Organizational culture is considered by several scholars to have a significant impact on the organization's capacity for innovation. However, there is little known about the specific aspects of organizational culture that facilitates radical innovation. This article investigates in what ways contemporary dancers´ creative practice may contribute to our understanding as well as to the development of radical innovation in business. By interviewing twenty contemporary dancers and choreographers from different countries, we found five key elements that support their creative processes from idea to performance. These elements or categories are improvisation, reflection, personal involvement, diversity, and emergent supportive structures. An interesting finding is the dancers´ approach to work and their mindset, characterized by iteration between improvisation and reflection, rather than working with pre-planned goals and structures. We argue that this approach imprints their working environment and the culture for radical innovation emerges through their way of thinking, acting and relating. This study presents a systematic framework that will provide the basis for longterm strategic artistic interventions in business in order to enable cultural transformation towards radical innovation.
Article
This Meet the Person article presents a synthesis of two interviews with André Delbecq, senior fellow at the Ignatian Center for Jesuit Education and professor of management at the Leavey School of Business at Santa Clara University. André was a pioneering researcher in a number of areas of management scholarship such as group decision-making (e.g., the Nominal Group Technique) and managing innovation and change, with a career extending over 58 years. He experienced a shift in his late career toward the study of executive leaders’ spirituality. In the interviews, André talked of that shift, providing an inspiring example of a successful career transition, as well as his personal insight on venturing into new areas of research. André’s career is an example of engaged scholarship, academic researcher development, and the decentered academic product.
Article
The Problem Given the unpredictable nature of organizational life, leadership development programs that rely primarily on cognitive processing and critical reflection are no longer sufficient. What is required is an integrated pedagogy that enables individuals to access and embody a “way of being,” an aligned presence and purpose that spans all contexts so that the individual and leader are not separate entities but rather a fully cohesive self. To develop this capacity, reputable organizations are experimenting with holistic learning methodologies, including mindfulness and somatics practices. However, these methodologies have yet to be fully grounded in adult learning and leadership best practices, empirical research, mind–body principles, and leadership performance. The Solution Through a critical review of relevant theory, practice, and empirical research, this article conceptualizes a constructive developmental learning methodology, which integrates mindfulness and somatics practices that transform a leader’s relationship with behavior from the automatic to the consciously chosen realm. The article presents a practical model of embodied leadership where individuals learn ways to deepen awareness to include both the mind and body as an interdependent system to remain open, grounded, and engaged in a way that builds resilience, and resourcefulness, and improves relationships in complex environments. The Stakeholders Human resource development professionals, executive coaches, and aspiring leaders seek a holistic and practical leadership development approach, which is conceptually and empirically linked to leadership and organizational performance.
Article
Crises force organizations to replace top managers, so top managers should try to avoid crises through continuous unlearning. The authors suggest ways in which top managers can help themselves unlearn.
Article
This paper arises from ongoing research undertaken by the Economics team of the ESRC/ TLRP Project 'Enhancing Teaching and Learning Environments' (ETL) 1 . This forms part of the large scale ESRC Teaching and Learning Research Programme Phase 2. ETL is seeking to identify factors leading to high quality learning environments within five disciplinary contexts across a range of HE institutions. Meyer's notion of a threshold concept was introduced into project discussions on learning outcomes as a particular basis for differentiating between core learning outcomes that represent 'seeing things in a new way' and those that do not. A threshold concept is thus seen as something distinct within what university teachers would typically describe as 'core concepts'. Furthermore, threshold concepts may represent, or lead to, what Perkins (1999) describes as 'troublesome knowledge' — knowledge that is conceptually difficult, counter-intuitive or 'alien'. The paper attempts to define characteristics of threshold concepts and, in the light of Perkins' work, to indicate correspondences between the notion of threshold concepts and that of 'troublesome knowledge.'
Book
George Lakoff and Mark Johnson take on the daunting task of rebuilding Western philosophy in alignment with three fundamental lessons from cognitive science: The mind is inherently embodied, thought is mostly unconscious, and abstract concepts are largely metaphorical. Why so daunting? "Cognitive science--the empirical study of the mind--calls upon us to create a new, empirically responsible philosophy, a philosophy consistent with empirical discoveries about the nature of mind," they write. "A serious appreciation of cognitive science requires us to rethink philosophy from the beginning, in a way that would put it more in touch with the reality of how we think." In other words, no Platonic forms, no Cartesian mind-body duality, no Kantian pure logic. Even Noam Chomsky's generative linguistics is revealed under scrutiny to have substantial problems. Parts of Philosophy in the Flesh retrace the ground covered in the authors' earlier Metaphors We Live By , which revealed how we deal with abstract concepts through metaphor. (The previous sentence, for example, relies on the metaphors "Knowledge is a place" and "Knowing is seeing" to make its point.) Here they reveal the metaphorical underpinnings of basic philosophical concepts like time, causality--even morality--demonstrating how these metaphors are rooted in our embodied experiences. They repropose philosophy as an attempt to perfect such conceptual metaphors so that we can understand how our thought processes shape our experience; they even make a tentative effort toward rescuing spirituality from the heavy blows dealt by the disproving of the disembodied mind or "soul" by reimagining "transcendence" as "imaginative empathetic projection." Their source list is helpfully arranged by subject matter, making it easier to follow up on their citations. If you enjoyed the mental workout from Steven Pinker's How the Mind Works , Lakoff and Johnson will, to pursue the "Learning is exercise" metaphor, take you to the next level of training. --Ron Hogan Two leading thinkers offer a blueprint for a new philosophy. "Their ambition is massive, their argument important.…The authors engage in a sort of metaphorical genome project, attempting to delineate the genetic code of human thought." -The New York Times Book Review "This book will be an instant academic best-seller." -Mark Turner, University of Maryland This is philosophy as it has never been seen before. Lakoff and Johnson show that a philosophy responsible to the science of the mind offers a radically new and detailed understandings of what a person is. After first describing the philosophical stance that must follow from taking cognitive science seriously, they re-examine the basic concepts of the mind, time, causation, morality, and the self; then they rethink a host of philosophical traditions, from the classical Greeks through Kantian morality through modern analytical philosophy.
Article
Purpose – In the present study an art-based leadership intervention has been evaluated in comparison to a conventional leadership development program. The purpose of this paper is to explore effects on two aspects of personality, namely Sense of Coherence and Agreeableness, as well as on two aspects of leadership behaviors evaluated by subordinates – Laissez-faire and Capacity to Cope with stress. Design/methodology/approach – Participating leaders were randomized to two-year-long leadership programs, with follow-up at 12 and 18 months. The art-based program built on an experimental theater form, a collage of literary text and music, followed by discussions. The comparison program utilized more conventional pedagogical methods. Findings – Leaders in the art-based group, compared to the leaders in the conventional group, showed a significant improvement in Sense of Coherence (stress resilience) and Agreeableness (pro-social behavior). Likewise, the leaders receiving art-based intervention showed a significant improvement in leadership behavior evaluated by subordinates; Laissez-faire decreased (increased responsibility) and Capacity to Cope with stress increased, while the opposite was found in the leaders in the conventional group. Originality/value – This study represents a new, cross-disciplinary approach. To the knowledge, previous research has not attempted a comparison between art-based leadership approach and a more conventional education. The art-based intervention seems to be more effective in stimulating long-term favorable changes in leaders’ behavior than the conventional program. These positive findings are consistent with earlier findings from this research regarding improved neurobiological resilience and mental health in subordinates of the leaders receiving art-based intervention.
Article
Although the concept of mindfulness has attracted scholarly attention across multiple disciplines, research on mindfulness in the field of management remains limited. In particular, little research in this field has examined the nature of mindfulness and whether it relates to task performance in organizational and occupational settings. Filling these gaps, the present article delineates mindfulness by (a) defining it as a state of consciousness in which attention is focused on present-moment phenomena occurring both externally and internally, (b) comparing it to a range of other attention-related concepts, and (c) developing theory concerning the factors that determine when mindfulness is beneficial versus costly from a task performance standpoint.
Article
Although an increasing number of cognitive scientists are convinced that cognition is embodied, there still is relatively little agreement on what exactly that means. Notions of what it actually means for a cognizer to be embodied range from simplistic ones such as ' being physical' or 'interacting with an environment' to more demanding ones that consider a particular morphology or a living body prerequisites for embodied cognition. Based on experimental evidence from a range of disc iplines, we argue that one of the keys to understanding the embodiment of cognition is the sharing of neural mechanisms between sensorimotor processes and higher-level cognitive processes. The latter are argued to be embodied in the sense that they make use of (partial) simulations or emulations of sensorimotor processes through the re-activation of neural circuitry also active in bodily perception and action.
Article
The philosophical tradition mistakenly asks how th e inside (i.e. thoughts, ideas, concepts) can represent the outside (i.e., the world). This trap is a consequence of the view that mind and body must be two ontologically different entities. On this view the problem of meaning is to explain how disembodied "internal" ideas can repres ent "external" physical objects and events. Several centuries have shown that given a radical m ind-body dichotomy, there is no way to bridge the gap between the inner and the outer. Wh en "mind" and "body" are regarded as two fundamentally different kinds , no third mediating thing can exist that possesses both the metaphysical character of inner, mental things and simultaneously possesses the character of the outer, physical things. Embodied Realism, in contrast to Representationali st theories, rejects the notion that mind and body are two ontologically distinct kinds, and it therefore rejects the attendant view that cognition and language are based on symbolic r epresentations inside the mind of an organism that refer to some physical thing in an ou tside world. Instead, the terms "body" and "mind" are simply convenient shorthand ways of identifying aspects of ongoing organism- environment interactions—and so cognition and language must be understood as arising from organic processes. We trace the rejection of this mind-body dualism from the philosopher- psychologists known as the early American pragmatists (James and Dewey) forward through recent cognitive science (such as Varela, Maturana, Edelman, Hutchins, Lakoff, Johnson, Brooks). We argue that embodied realism requires a radical reevaluation of the classical dualistic metaphysics and epistemology—especially the classical Representationalist theory of mind —and we conclude by investigating the implications f or future investigations for a new, pragmatically-centered cognitive science.
Article
After presenting what the concept of spirituality in the workplace entails, this article presents a review of a list of books, articles, and other resource materials that offer more in-depth knowledge about spirituality in the workplace. The article concludes with five spiritual principles that may be useful in management education.
Article
This article reflects on an arts-based action inquiry process involving students on an MSc in Management Learning and Change. Following Dewey’s (1934/2005) contention that art is grounded in experience, we adopt a purposefully non-aggrandizing perspective on ‘leadership as art’, arguing that this prompts greater critical attention to possibilities for inclusiveness in these realms of human endeavour. We propose the present inquiry, in which participants were invited to create leadership touchstones, or dolls, as a way of learning about leadership and themselves as leaders. Drawing from therapeutic and psychoanalytic perspectives, we explore dolls’ power to provoke, unsettle and evoke strong reactions on the part of their makers, and demonstrate how these dynamics played out in our inquiry. We highlight the conditions that enabled participants to engage with the tensions and ambiguities raised in ways which held open possibilities for reflexivity. We conclude that leadership, like art, can most constructively engage with the human condition when it is able to hold, not collapse, our experience of the uncanny, the abject, and the other — including the ‘other’ within the ‘self ’ — within the complexities of organizational life.