Book

Transforming Multilateral Diplomacy: The Inside Story of the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors:

Abstract

Transforming Multilateral Diplomacy provides the inside view of the negotiations that produced the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Not only did this process mark a sea change in how the UN conducts multilateral diplomacy, it changed the way the UN does its business. This book tells the story of the people, issues, negotiations, and paradigm shifts that unfolded through the Open Working Group (OWG) on SDGs and the subsequent negotiations on the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, from the unique point of view of Ambassador Macharia Kamau, and other key participants from governments, the UN Secretariat, and civil society.
... Esto permitió que las autoridades se replantearan el modelo de desarrollo implementado y la cooperación internacional, para abrir paso a nuevas conversaciones con el fin de dilucidar cuáles eran realmente las necesidades y cómo se debía llevar a cabo el trabajo internacional para lograr el desarrollo sostenible (Sanahuja & Tezanos, 2017). Estas discusiones incluyeron ahora no solo a las autoridades de los Estados, sino que también contempló a la sociedad civil, el sector privado y a la academia, para conformar una nueva hoja de ruta que fuese lo más integral y democrática posible, atacando los problemas reales de las personas y trabajando esta vez en conjunto para que todos pudiesen beneficiarse de estos esfuerzos (UNICEF, 2015;Sanahuja, 2016;Kamau et al., 2018). ...
... Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible 10: Reducir la desigualdad en y entre los países La Agenda 2030 consideró un proceso consultivo para su creación entre las autoridades de los 193 países, sociedad civil, academia y mundo privado, con el objetivo de generar una hoja de ruta que fuese lo más completa posible y que pudiese considerar un gran número de perspectivas, para resolver los grandes problemas que se presentaban a nivel internacional y que limitaban el desarrollo sostenible de todos los países (Sanahuja, 2016;Kamau et al., 2018). Esto generó que su elaboración no fuera fácil, al haber un gran número de voces que escuchar, con diferentes ideas, intenciones y prioridades (Martínez & Martínez, 2015;Tassara & Cecchini, 2016). ...
... Esto generó que su elaboración no fuera fácil, al haber un gran número de voces que escuchar, con diferentes ideas, intenciones y prioridades (Martínez & Martínez, 2015;Tassara & Cecchini, 2016). Sin embargo, la mayoría coincidía en la urgencia que proponía el escenario de aquel entonces sobre trabajar en pro de un modelo de desarrollo sostenible, ya que las diferentes crisis que se vivieron por esos años, como la crisis financiera de 2008, por ejemplo, evidenciaban la vulnerabilidad del sistema internacional, la globalización e interconexión entre los Estados (Sachs, 2015;Kamau et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
En Chile, el tema de la desigualdad es de larga data y se ve reflejado en la vida cotidiana de sus habitantes en diversas áreas. Esto ha traído consigo un aumento del descontento social, lo que se ha visto reflejado en una variedad de movilizaciones sociales, las cuales detonaron el año 2019 con el “Estallido Social”, lo que demostró, entre otras cosas, la urgencia que requiere enfrentar este problema en el país. La desigualdad económica es multidimensional, y contempla dimensiones ex-ante y ex-post. Así, la reducción de esta debe responder a ambas dimensiones si estas se quieren disminuir efectivamente. En el año 2015, Chile adoptó la Agenda 2030, la cual busca guiar a los países en la implementación del desarrollo sostenible. Dentro de esta agenda, se encuentra el Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible 10 sobre “Reducir la desigualdad en y entre los países”, el cual contempla diez metas. Así, para este artículo, se analizaron las acciones públicas, presentadas por el Consejo Nacional para la implementación de la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible, con el fin de determinar si la estrategia chilena, llevada a cabo entre el 2015 y 2018, considera un concepto multidimensional de las disparidades económicas o no.
... The process through which the SDGs were developed, articulated and agreed by Member States of the UN is unique within the multilateral system. It was informed by an unprecedented consultation effort (Fukuda-Parr, 2019;Kamau et al., 2018); however, there has been no systematic evaluation of the extent to which the evidence collected and synthesised throughout these consultations, or provided through other chan-nels, helped to shape the goals as a whole. Furthermore, although the importance of scientific evidence for global policy development has received strong endorsement and recognition from different arms of the UN 1 , it has a confusing place within its various structures and institutional mechanisms. ...
... The process of deciding upon these goals was also very different. While the MDGs were essentially devised by a small group of UN committees, the UN Secretary General called for an unprecedented global consultative effort to define the SDGs, including regional thematic consultations, public opinion surveys, formal and informal presentations to deliberators and so on (Fukuda-Parr, 2019; Kamau et al., 2018). The UN Development Group (UNDG) (the UN's policy coordination body made up of representatives from 32 UN agencies) called it an attempt to have a 'global conversation' iii). ...
... This auspices of the UNGA. While the MDGs were essentially devised by a small group of UN committees, the UN Secretary General (2013) called for something radically different with the post-2015 agenda; an unprecedented global consultative effort to define the SDGs, including regional thematic consultations, public opini-on surveys, formal and informal presentations to deliberators, and so on (Fukuda-Parr, 2019; Kamau et al., 2018). The UN Development Group called it an attempt to have a 'global conversation' iii). ...
Chapter
In Part II of this book, I theorised that the influence of science on multilateral negotiation could be understood through 4 criteria: representation and access, the organisation of epistemic communities, framing and temporal dynamics. The empirical analysis presented above reveals several theoretical and practical insights that augment these criteria, which are here explored in order to better explain the influence of scientific evidence in multilateral policy development, for example, under representation and access the space afforded by new institutional arrangements was a recurrent theme of the interviews. Meanwhile each epistemic community demonstrated highly diverse influencing and engagement approaches, suggesting that the modalities of engagement for non-state actors are wholly contingent on the structure and coherence of their community.KeywordsRepresentationPoliticsFramingAccessInformal negotiationEpistemic communitiesSocialisation of ideas
... This process was more inclusive with multiple venues for interventions of civil society and nongovernmental organizations and inputs of over a million people through an online polling and commenting system. Even though these novel options for interventions by 'stakeholders' were less inclusive than it first seemed and many groups were still excluded (Sénit 2020;Sénit, Biermann and Kalfagianni 2017), the relative openness and transparency of the negotiations of the Sustainable Development Goals, despite all shortcomings, may have opened a new page in global diplomacy (Kamau, Chasek and O'Connor 2018;Rosche 2016). ...
... To provide for global oversight and guidance, governments created a new global forum, the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, which meets annually to review the implementation of the global goals and the national reports that countries are requested to submit (Abbott and Bernstein 2015;Beisheim 2015;Bernstein 2017). In short, the Sustainable Development Goals were to launch a new era of 'global partnership'as announced under Goal 17that would exceed the often weak global governance mechanisms of the past (Andonova 2017;Kamau, Chasek and O'Connor 2018). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Written by an international team of over sixty experts and drawing on over three thousand scientific studies, this is the first comprehensive global assessment of the political impact of the Sustainable Development Goals, which were launched by the United Nations in 2015. It explores in detail the political steering effects of the Sustainable Development Goals on the UN system and the policies of countries in the Global North and Global South; on institutional integration and policy coherence; and on the ecological integrity and inclusiveness of sustainability policies worldwide. This book is a key resource for scholars, policymakers and activists concerned with the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, and those working in political science, international relations and environmental studies. It is one of a series of publications associated with the Earth System Governance Project. For more publications, see www.cambridge.org/earth-system-governance. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
... In this formal context, the Major Groups and other stakeholders had only a few limited opportunities to speak directly to member state representatives; their position statements were made mostly without their ever having entered into real dialogue with the actual decision and policy makers. However, the morning meetings were set up to mirror the real negotiations: The same documents were discussed, and the Major Groups were permitted to make specific comments on them, which were also posted on the OWG website (Kamau et al. 2018). So although the Major Groups were not directly engaged in negotiations, they were able indirectly to voice their representative claims. ...
... In many cases, the claims maker could not be identified. This finding contributes to the broader research on the recognition struggles of CSOs in intergovernmental forums like the SDG process (see Kamau et al. 2018) by illustrating more precisely the fundamental obstacles faced by CSOs. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) process aimed to be more inclusive, transparent, and participatory than prior United Nations processes. This article traces the practices of representation that were performed by civil society actors during the SDG process. In doing so, we advance a performative approach in which the very process of making representation is examined. Its aim is to conceptualize and study representation as an aesthetic and political practice. This leads to the two central research questions of this article: How do civil society organizations in global environmental politics make representative claims by picturing their envisioned future? How are future representations (that is, the representation of futures or future beings) related to actor positions during the SDG process? Special emphasis is given to representations of “the future” as an ever-present frame of reference in environmental politics. Based on a systematic content analysis of the statements of two Major Groups—Children, and Youth and Farmers—we discuss the variety of future representations between the Major Groups and how especially more radical future representations are connected to rather precarious actor positions in representative claims.
... While many different actors articulated their concerns in different formats, these nation-states ultimately decided upon implementation. In this setting, the traditional blocks of "developing countries" (G77 + China) and the "developed" countries (OECD countries) were again visible (Kamau, Chasek, and O'Connor 2018). The underlying logics of a have/have-not binary pervade extant discourses from non-state actors and state governments within the framework of sustainable development (Bexell and Jönsson 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study covers visual analyses of digital media to explore issues of inequality in development discourse. Using web-based articles presented by the United Nations Development Programme as our central object of research, we show the extent to which discourses on sustainable development represent ethnicity, gender, and race. This paper argues that representations can be interpreted as an integral part of systemic inequality. We demonstrate that the discursive formation reflects and encourages a specific approach to sustainable development, especially regarding inequality reduction. This approach is based on the four analytical categories: absence, arrangement, essentialization, and obscuration. This work encourages further inter-disciplinary research and argues for a methodologically combined inequality analysis.
... They set detailed goals and targets for both developing and industrialised countries and call for change in all countries and in practically all domestic and foreign policies (Biermann et al., 2017;Le Blanc, 2015;Spinazzola & Cavalli, 2022). The SDGs also draw on a broader societal basis, with numerous stakeholders having participated in their formulation and in the framing of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Kamau et al., 2018). Unlike their precursor, the SDGs are supported by a periodic review mechanism and performance measures to be carried out under the auspices of the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (Abbott & Bernstein, 2015;Beisheim, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
The millennium development goals (MDGs) were an important precursor to the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Hence, identifying the conditions that made the MDGs successful enhances our understanding of global goal‐setting and informs the global endeavour to achieve the SDGs. Drawing on a comprehensive review of 316 articles published between 2009 and 2018, we identify six factors that have enabled or hindered MDG implementation. Our analysis stresses the importance of path dependencies and shows that the MDGs catalysed changes only for those countries with sufficient resource availability, administrative capacity and economic development, as well as adequate support from external donors. National ownership and NGO pressure bolstered efforts to implement the MDGs. These findings suggest that globally agreed goals do not easily trickle down from the global to the national level. Thus, this article adopts a forward‐looking perspective and draws key lessons for the current implementation of the SDGs in developing countries.
... The OWG process and informal alliances managed to overcome some of the North/South division with cross-regional and cross-topical dialogue with novel global alliances among over 70 participating countries [9,13]. The OWG process also broke down traditional negotiating blocks and forced countries not used to working together to develop joint statements [30]. In addition, reflection upon different views was fostered by the possibility for non-state actors to give presentations on the focal issue areas, which were followed by deliberative interaction with governments and observers [60]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We analyse how ambitiously the underlying targets for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations Agenda 2030 are set in terms of their semantic formulation and discuss the implications of this for policy making. Our analysis is based on classifying ambitiousness into three types: semantic, relative and absolute ambitiousness; in this paper, we mainly analyse semantic ambitiousness . We establish an evaluation framework that shows clear differences in semantic ambitiousness levels between SDG targets. Awareness of these differences is essential, as semantic ambitiousness also lays the foundation for evaluating other types of ambitiousness of the SDGs in international cross-country comparisons and national policy making processes. We also analyse how progress towards the targets has been reported in the Sustainable Development Report of the SDG Index and in the SDGs Progress Chart of the United Nations. Finally, we discuss possible reasons for the differences in the level of ambitiousness and provide recommendations for operationalising the targets. Our aim is to provide a better understanding of the variability of interpretations that can occur in the evaluation of different SDGs, and to improve the coherence between the goals in developing any future development goal frameworks beyond Agenda 2030.
... The UN High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) and the 2030 Agenda constitute a well-established framework for 'global governance by goals' (Biermann et al. 2017), i.e., achieving the SDGs on environment, development, and health by leaving implementation up to nation states. The adoption of the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs have opened up a new chapter in political efforts to tackle interlinked developmental and environmental crises (Kamau et al. 2017, Dodds et al. 2016Kanie and Biermann 2017). Unlike the more technocratic and top-down Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the SDGs represent an integrative, bottom-up, and systemic approach to global governance, capturing the connection between economic, social, and environmental policies through partnerships (Horan, 2019); Marx 2019; Weiland et al. 2021;Sachs 2012). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The 2030 Agenda highlights the crucial role of multi-stakeholder partnerships in global governance for the achievement of seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Partnerships, it is argued, could potentially solve implementation gaps and address democratic deficits in sustainability governance, particularly by including various stakeholders. Previous research demonstrates that successful and legitimate partnerships depend on a set of factors, such as organizational resources, transparency, and inclusion of stakeholders. What type of partnerships have been developed and implemented in the context of the SDGs? What are the conditions for success? We address these questions by using a unique and novel dataset on partnerships related to seven environmental SDGs. We map and compare over 1600 multi-stakeholder partnerships and their specific characteristics to examine how they fare on institutional capacity, inclusion, and transparency, which have been highlighted as important factors of partnership performance. The findings have important implications for the success of SDG partnerships in fulfilling their promise to be transformative, effective, and inclusive in implementing the 2030 Agenda.KeywordsMulti-stakeholder partnershipsSDGsEffectivenessLegitimacy2030 Agenda
... State actors are representatives of member governments at the UN, while non-state actors are not. Non-state actors include intergovernmental bodies such as the UN Secretary-General, the UN Secretariat, UN funds, programs, and specialized agencies; other international organizations such as transnational hybrid organizations and global private-public partnerships such as Global Compact, and civil society in the form of accredited NGOs and MGoS that include the business sector and other stakeholders (Kamau et al., 2018;Missoni & Alesani, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Advocating at the United Nations is a daunting task for many social workers. The United Nations (UN) is so extensive, its system of agencies and relationships is complex and overlaid by politics, and there is no clear entry point for affecting change at the United Nations. However, as more of the social and human rights issues social workers confront in their practices have global roots and international implications, it becomes imperative that social workers seeking justice learn how to shape policies and decisions made at the UN. Advocating for policy changes beyond national boundaries is known as transnational advocacy. This paper guides the reader through the UN structure, and the roles of member states and non-state workers are discussed. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are a common vehicle for social workers to advocate at the UN. This paper introduces readers to the types of status NGOs hold at the UN, how NGOs advocate at the UN, and how social workers are currently represented at the UN. Two case examples of advocacy efforts are shared. One takes place at the High-level Political Forum, and the other involves the intersection of the UN General Assembly’s Third Committee and the Human Rights Council.
... Governments decided that the High-level Political Forum should have a 'central role in overseeing a network of follow-up and review processes at the global level' (UNGA 2015b: paragraph 82). Some negotiators of the 2030 Agenda strongly contested establishing these followup and review procedures (Beisheim 2014;Dodds, Donoghue and Roesch 2016;Kamau, Chasek and O'Connor 2018). As a result of many governments resisting more 'prescriptive' reviews, the review procedures ended up being designed to promote merely voluntary peer-learning. ...
Chapter
Written by an international team of over sixty experts and drawing on over three thousand scientific studies, this is the first comprehensive global assessment of the political impact of the Sustainable Development Goals, which were launched by the United Nations in 2015. It explores in detail the political steering effects of the Sustainable Development Goals on the UN system and the policies of countries in the Global North and Global South; on institutional integration and policy coherence; and on the ecological integrity and inclusiveness of sustainability policies worldwide. This book is a key resource for scholars, policymakers and activists concerned with the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, and those working in political science, international relations and environmental studies. It is one of a series of publications associated with the Earth System Governance Project. For more publications, see www.cambridge.org/earth-system-governance. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
... The distinction between these three dimensions of sustainable development is not made explicit in the goal framework itself but regularly done in practice (Breuer et al., 2019). No SDG, however, is framed exclusively as being social, economic, or environmental, which reflects a conscious design choice by governments (Kamau et al., 2018). During the negotiations, for example, the UN Environment Programme did not lobby for a separate set of "environmental SDGs," but rather sought to embed environmental concerns in all goals (Griggs et al., 2014;UNEP, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Global sustainability governance is marked by a highly fragmented system of distinct clusters of international organizations, along with states and other actors. Enhancing inter-organizational coordination and cooperation is thus often recognized as an important reform challenge in global sustainability governance. The 17 Sustainable Development Goals, agreed by the United Nations in 2015, thus explicitly aim at advancing policy coherence and institutional integration among the myriad international institutions. Yet, have these goals been effective in this regard? We assess here the impact of the Sustainable Development Goals on the network structure of 276 international organizations in the period 2012–2019, that is, four years before and four years after the launch of the Sustainable Development Goals. The network structure was approximated by analyzing data from the websites of these 276 international organizations that were joined by more than 1.5 million hyperlinks, which we collected using a custom-made web crawler. Our findings are contrary to what is widely expected from the Sustainable Development Goals: we find that fragmentation has in fact increased after the Sustainable Development Goals came into effect. In addition, silos are increasing around the 17 SDGs as well as around the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development.
... The core of this programme is 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 169 specific targets, most of them to be achieved by 2030. Although the SDGs are not the first effort to set global goals (and they have been criticized earlier on, for example, ref. 1 ), they are still by far the most comprehensive and detailed attempt by the United Nations to advance sustainable development [2][3][4] . After six years of implementation, the question arises whether these 17 SDGs have had any political impact within national and global governance to address pressing challenges such as poverty eradication, social justice and environmental protection. ...
Article
Full-text available
In 2015, the United Nations agreed on 17 Sustainable Development Goals as the central normative framework for sustainable development worldwide. The effectiveness of governing by such broad global goals, however, remains uncertain, and we lack comprehensive meta-studies that assess the political impact of the goals across countries and globally. We present here condensed evidence from an analysis of over 3,000 scientific studies on the Sustainable Development Goals published between 2016 and April 2021. Our findings suggests that the goals have had some political impact on institutions and policies, from local to global governance. This impact has been largely discursive, affecting the way actors understand and communicate about sustainable development. More profound normative and institutional impact, from legislative action to changing resource allocation, remains rare. We conclude that the scientific evidence suggests only limited transformative political impact of the Sustainable Development Goals thus far. The Sustainable Development Goals were launched as a worldwide governance framework, but little is known about their actual political impacts. This study shows evidence that the Sustainable Development Goals have had largely a discursive influence and only limited transformative political impact.
... Por ser un documento adoptado por la Asamblea General, significó que todos los países lo aceptaron y se comprometieron a cumplir con las metas. Subsecuentemente, diferentes actores desde el sector privado, universidades, ong y gobiernos subnacionales también publicaron sus intenciones de adoptar los ods como línea para el establecimiento de sus actividades (Kamau et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
¿Cuál ha sido la trayectoria de la gobernanza ambiental global tras el marco establecido en 2015 por el Acuerdo Climático de París y los ODS? ¿Cuál ha sido el comportamiento de diversos actores sobre la cuestión? ¿A través de cuáles mecanismos? Y, finalmente, ¿han limitado estas acciones la velocidad de la crisis ambiental global? La respuesta que ofrece esta edición es tanto analítica como empírica. En este artículo, ofrecemos un marco para analizar la trayectoria de la gobernanza global analizando el papel de diferentes actores ubicados en diferentes sectores y áreas de gobernanza, al tiempo que ofrecemos un desarrollo empírico general sobre cada uno de ellos. En los tres artículos que forman parte de esta edición especial, se analizan de forma específica temas y actores particulares.
... Much of success is attributed to the leadership of Macharia Kamau (Kenya), who co-chaired the negotiations, supported in the UN Secretariat by David O'Connor. 28 Much has been written about the SDGs and their historic negotiation. 29 The finish line for the race to attain the SDGs is 2030, one decade away. ...
Article
Earth, and its human societies, are seized with the triple crises of climate change, biodiversity loss, and pervasive and escalating levels of pollution. In the 50 years since the 1972 UN Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHE), States and UN Environment Program (UNEP) have created an entirely new body of international environmental law, and agreed on the UN Sustainable Development Goals for further socio-economic developments to help the 7.9 billion people on Earth today, and the 1.5 more billion expected soon. The article highlights the accomplishments of the past five decades, launched in Stockholm. However, beyond depleting the resources of Earth’s natural and physical environment, humanity has also depleted time itself. There is not enough time left to permit the pace of environmental law-making to lead to success. Political will has eroded too, leaving “business as usual” to continue to harm the environment. Fortunately, most nations have recognized the right to the environment, and the UN General Assembly is asked to do so in 2022. At the same time, courts around the world are increasingly enforcing environmental rights. If courts world-wide begin to enforce the right to the environment, pathways to attaining sustainable development can be developed beyond Stockholm+50 (2022).
... However, the first part of the agendawhyreceived less academic attention. Many scholars analysed the negotiations for the elaboration of the 2030 Agenda: for example, Chasek et al. (2016) analyse the different negotiating tracks that resulted in the 2030 Agenda; Briant Carant (2017) analyses the influence of dominant economic discourses in the construction of some important concepts in the agenda; Macharia et al. (2018) explain how the process of negotiating the SDGs changed the way the UN conducts multilateral diplomacy; and Fukuda-Parr and McNeil (2019) edited a special issue of Global Policy entitled 'Knowledge and Politics in Setting and Measuring the SDGs' where the political nature of allegedly technical decisions is exposed. These analyses focus on the negotiations, conflicts, political tensions and technical debates for the definition of the what and the how of the agenda. ...
Article
This article analyses the marginal position cultural diversity is granted in the United Nations Agenda for Sustainable Development. Drawing on the work of Martin Heidegger and Jacques Derrida, it analyses and deconstructs the ontological assumptions of the UN's discourse. The inquiry shows that the ontological structure of the UN's agenda creates an essentialist and teleological understanding of history that privileges universality – unity – at the expense of diversity. In this way, the UN's plan of action reproduces what Ernesto Laclau defined as hegemony – a particularity assuming the representation of the totality. The 2030 Agenda naturalises the international power structure designed after World War II and presents it as beneficial for everyone. The article concludes that the 2030 Agenda's ontological assumptions create an inherently ethnocentric understanding of global issues.
... Keywords: sustainable development goals-SDG, stakeholder, conceptual modeling approach, workshops, compliance, qualitative study INTRODUCTION In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly formulated the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Kamau et al., 2018). Global aspirations, however, must inevitably meet the realities of stakeholders and policy makers charged with implementing global aspirations. ...
... Keywords: sustainable development goals-SDG, stakeholder, conceptual modeling approach, workshops, compliance, qualitative study INTRODUCTION In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly formulated the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Kamau et al., 2018). Global aspirations, however, must inevitably meet the realities of stakeholders and policy makers charged with implementing global aspirations. ...
... Keywords: sustainable development goals-SDG, stakeholder, conceptual modeling approach, workshops, compliance, qualitative study INTRODUCTION In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly formulated the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Kamau et al., 2018). Global aspirations, however, must inevitably meet the realities of stakeholders and policy makers charged with implementing global aspirations. ...
Article
Full-text available
To reach the global aspiration of 17 ambitious SDGs, local realities must be integrated. Often, models are developed based on quantitative statistical data sources from databases on environmental indicators or economics to assess how a given SDG can be achieved. This process however removes the local realities from the equation. How can you best include stakeholders in this mathematical modelling processes distanced from their local realities, though, and ensure higher probability of future compliance with top-down global decisions that may have local consequences once implemented? When researching stakeholder involvement and their ability to form public policy, their opinions often get reported as a single assessment, like counting the fish in the ocean once and stating that as a permanent result. Too seldom do stakeholders get invited back and given the opportunity to validate results and allow researchers to adjust their models based on on-the-ground validation or change requests. We tested the full integration of stakeholders in the modelling process of environmental topics in six different case areas across Europe, with each area holding six sectoral and one inter-sectoral workshops. In these workshops, the scope of the issues relevant to the stakeholders was driven by first the sectoral priorities of the given sector, followed by a merging of issues. In this process, we were able to identify what the commonalities between different sectors were and where synergies lay in terms of governance paths. These results were then returned to the stakeholders in a mixed session where they were able to come with feedback and advice on the results researchers presented, so that the models reflected more closely the perceptions of the regional actors. We present these methods and reflect on the challenges and opportunities of using this deep-integration method to integrate qualitative data from stakeholder inclusion in a quantitative model.
... There is an interesting literature analyzing the political and conflictual nature of the process of elaboration of the documents that conform the 2030 GDA -e.g., Macharia et al. (2018), Caballero (2016), Denk (2016). However, as explained above, our analysis focuses on the documents resulting from these negotiations -not on the process -for two reasons. ...
Article
The article offers a critical analysis of the United Nations 2030 Global Development Agenda, whose stated aim is to "transform the world" in such a way that no one is left behind. Drawing on post-Marxist theory, we argue that the 2030 Global Development Agenda is a fantasmatic narrative seeking to conceal the conflictual causes and the antagonistic origins of global development and sustainability issues. Within this fantasmatic narrative, ‘sustainable development’ is the empty signifier that articulates and sustains the agenda’s discourse. Our analysis of the ontological assumptions underpinning the documents that frame the agenda shows that, rather than transforming, the agenda naturalizes and consolidates the existing status quo: a status quo that has created (and continues to perpetuate) the global problems that the agenda aims to solve.
... In general, respondents ascribed UNDOALOS a significant role, namely, maintaining links with delegations and preparing for the resumption of negotiations-a role that UNDOALOS has assumed since the launch of intersessional work. Multilateral negotiations inherently depend on a chair who orchestrates the discussion among delegates, collects the statements made, and translates the different preferences and proposed amendments into new negotiation text (Kamau et al. 2018). How leadership in the online setting might look is not yet clear and depends on the digital arrangement in question. ...
Article
Full-text available
Measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic have indefinitely postponed in-person formal international negotiations for a new legally binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ). As a result, online initiatives have emerged to keep informal dialogue ongoing among both state and nonstate actors. To continue our research on the BBNJ process, we adapted our methodology and conducted a survey in May 2020 exploring the impact of COVID-19 on respondents’ BBNJ-related work and communication. This research note identifies online initiatives and communication channels set up to maintain negotiation momentum and examines the challenges and opportunities of digital diplomacy for multilateral environmental agreement making, as well as the study thereof. We discuss future avenues for global environmental politics research and conclude that digital ethnographies provide an entry point to study some of these dynamics but need to be adapted to the study of negotiation settings and the specific context of multilateral environmental diplomacy.
... Tatsächlich darf die "ownership" Kenias für die SDGs schon deshalb als hoch gelten, da Kenia in Macharia Kamau einen der beiden für die Aushandlung der SDGs zuständigen Co-Chairs der entsprechenden Open Working Group der Vereinten Nationen stellte und das Land sich stark in den Aushandlungsprozess eingebracht hatte (vgl. Kamau et al., 2018). Entsprechend groß ist das Interesse Kenias, die SDGs als Erfolgsgeschichte zu sehen und damit auch international zu reüssieren. ...
... While negotiators in certain countries were reluctant to include references to democracy, they still agreed on an understanding of participation that seemed to go beyond the established notion of stakeholder participation characteristic of the post-Rio sustainability debate (Langford, 2016). Both the process of formulating the 2030 Agenda, with its attempts to consult individual world citizens (Kamau, Chasek, & O'Connor, 2018), and the emphatic reference to the 'people' in the preamble suggest that the stakeholder participation model is opening up to the broader civil society, including all kinds of organized and nonorganized collective and individual actors (Fukuda-Parr, 2016). This poses new challenges and requirements with regard to broad involvement by social actors in sustainability governance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Governments and administrations at all levels play a central role in shaping sustainable development. Over the past 30 years, many have developed differentiated sustainability governance arrangements (SGAs) to incorporate sustainability into their governing practice. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which the UN adopted in 2015, brings with it some significant conceptual shifts in sustainability thinking that, in turn, entail new governance requirements. Starting from practical calls for improved understanding of the requirements and conditions of 2030 Agenda implementation ‘on the ground,’ this article examines existing SGAs’ potential to deal with the generational shift that the 2030 Agenda implies. To this end, four ideal-typical SGAs representing an early generation of sustainability governance at the subnational level in Switzerland are related to five specific governance requirements emerging from the 2030 Agenda. The analysis highlights different possibilities and limitations of the four SGAs to meet 2030 Agenda requirements and points to the need for context-specific reforms of first-generation sustainability governance in the wake of the new Agenda.
... While negotiators in certain countries were reluctant to include references to democracy, they still agreed on an understanding of participation that seemed to go beyond the established notion of stakeholder participation characteristic of the post-Rio sustainability debate (Langford, 2016). Both the process of formulating the 2030 Agenda, with its attempts to consult individual world citizens (Kamau, Chasek, & O'Connor, 2018), and the emphatic reference to the 'people' in the preamble suggest that the stakeholder participation model is opening up to the broader civil society, including all kinds of organized and nonorganized collective and individual actors (Fukuda-Parr, 2016). This poses new challenges and requirements with regard to broad involvement by social actors in sustainability governance. ...
Article
Full-text available
The 2030 Agenda of the United Nations comprises 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 sub-targets which serve as a global reference point for the transition to sustainability. The agenda acknowledges that different issues such as poverty, hunger, health, education, gender equality, environmental degradation, among others, are intertwined and can therefore only be addressed together. Implementing the SDGs as an ‘indivisible whole’ represents the actual litmus test for the success of the 2030 Agenda. The main challenge is accomplishing a more integrated approach to sustainable development that encompasses new governance frameworks for enabling and managing systemic transformations. This thematic issue addresses the question whether and how the SDGs set off processes of societal transformation, for which cooperation between state and non-state actors at all political levels (global, regional, national, sub-national), in different societal spheres (politics, society, and economy), and across various sectors (energy, transportation, food, etc.) are indispensable. In this editorial, we first introduce the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs by providing an overview of the architecture of the agenda and the key challenges of the current implementation phase. In a second step, we present the eleven contributions that make up the thematic issue clustering them around three themes: integration, governance challenges, and implementation.
... focus on sustainability 12,13 . An additional emphasis of the SDGs is the increased priority placed on accurately assessing progress 14 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Improving sustainability knowledge has long been central to international efforts to achieve sustainable development. In response to these efforts, which are formalized in Target 4.7 of the Sustainable Development Goals, a global group of scholars and practitioners, in cooperation with the United Nations, designed and fielded the ‘Sulitest’, a survey tool that assesses sustainability knowledge in a variety of contexts. The Sulitest has been taken by over 160,000 individuals across 63 countries. Despite its substantial use, there is little systematic analysis of the data or the test itself. We analyse the Sulitest using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, common techniques for identifying latent components within observed data. The Sulitest was designed to measure knowledge within four themes; however, this architecture is not supported by the data. Analysis suggests there is no coherent structure of sustainability knowledge. We urge caution to policymakers and educators when using the Sulitest as a diagnostic tool for assessing sustainability knowledge. The Sulitest, developed to gauge sustainability knowledge, has been given to thousands of people worldwide. This analysis evaluates the test and its role as a diagnostic tool for sustainability education.
... Recently, sustainable development goals were designed and every nation is working towards achieving the goals. The basic principle of this universal call is to eradicate poverty, protect the earth, and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity [1]. Goal six of the United Nation's sustainable development goals was designed to ensure water availability and sustainable management for water and sanitation for all. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the East African Rift Valley, groundwater is severely polluted with fluoride ion which causes a scarcity of water supplies and public health problems. This study is aimed at investigating the adsorption performance of activated carbon of avocado seeds (ACAS) in fluoride removal from aqueous solution and groundwater. The batch adsorption experiments were carried out by varying the contact time, solution pH, agitation speed, adsorbent dose, and initial fluoride concentration at constant room temperature using the fluoride ion–selective electrode method. Adsorption of fluoride onto ACAS reached its equilibrium condition at the contact time of 60 min under the stirring rate of 200 rpm, pH 6, and ACAS dose 1.9 g/100 mL with an initial fluoride concentration of 5.2 mg/L. Maximum adsorption efficiency was found to be 86%, whereas the fluoride removal from groundwater was 72% under the same experimental condition. The experimental data were well fitted with the Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 1.2 mg/g, whereas the kinetic model was well described by a pseudo-second-order model at R2 0.99. Generally, the research findings showed that activated carbon can be employed as an alternative adsorbent for fluoride remediation from domestic water supplies.
Chapter
The chapter's main objective is to study the city's rising role as a driver for implementing the 2030 SDGs and UNESCO Creative Cities Network's part as UNESCO's mechanism to support cities in the effort. The results show that there is a changing nature of authority in the policy cycle on a more holistic level, where alongside the nation-state, international organizations and cities play a vital role in the problem definition, decision-making, agenda-setting, transfer, and implementation of policies. The increasing importance of cities internationally stretches the municipal policy cycle from the local to regional, national, and international levels. Orchestration complemented with an inter-organizational relations framework is used to study the case of Idanha-a-Nova UNESCO Creative City of Music. The case study shows that Idanha-a-Nova drove the implementation of the SDGs locally with the Portuguese state's support. However, because it lacked expertise and mechanisms of implementing the goals, it reached out to private consultancy and individual experts.
Chapter
Scholarship from policy studies and political science provides insights into how different communities coalesce around issues, attempt to communicate their evidence and arguments, and the potential institutional aides and barriers to this. But applying this literature to a process as broad and diverse as the SDG negotiations, within an institutional setting as large as the UNGA, is very hard. Thousands of people provided input, in one way or another, to the post-2015 deliberations and each goal area (as well as the many topics that did not become goals) enjoyed lengthy debates both inside of and outside of the formal deliberation chambers, suggesting there is not one objective evidence to policy process which needs to be understood but instead a wide range of processes across different sectors and scales. To help focus this analysis and to provide an inter-sectoral perspective on these processes, Part 3 focuses on three very diverse themes of the debate; health, urban sustainability, and data. I trace the key conceptual issues that were under discussion within each, noting the topics under debate and the supporters and adversaries of each. This kind of detailed thematic analysis is essential to understand the nuances of negotiations and how broad issues are translated into given words, phrases and ideas eventually featured in outcome documents. It also helps identify what, if any, where the key entry points for scientists and academics to provide their evidence. Finally, mapping the transmission of ideas and concepts also enables the identification of consensus-building processes that helped actors in each epistemic community to coalesce around priority themes and to forge political consensus on the eventual wording.KeywordsArchival methodsTextual analysisKey informant interviewsConsultationsOpen Working GroupHigh-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 AgendaMajor groupsUniversal health coverageEquityUrban complexityGovernanceData revolutionData-based decision-makingAccountabilityQuantification
Chapter
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was devised to provide a framework for collective action on pressing global economic, social and environmental challenges. It was informed by an unprecedented consultation, with inputs from a wide range of actors including scientists and other experts. But what value was given to these inputs? How were they balanced against political interests? And what mechanisms and institutional arrangements were put in place to attract and support the inputs of knowledge actors? As climate change and ecological crisis intensify the necessity for science and other forms of systematic study is undoubtedly growing, but is this recognised in the institutions of global governance? This book takes a systematic look at the role of evidence, particularly scientific evidence, in international policy-making. It traces the processes that culminated in the 2030 Agenda, teasing out the role of expert actors within the deliberations and in doing so examines the role of science within the senior-most institution of global governance, the UN General Assembly.KeywordsPost-2015SDGsMultilateralismUN General AssemblyEvidence-informed policy
Article
The tensions between democracy and justice have long preoccupied political theorists. Institutions that are procedurally democratic do not necessarily make substantively just decisions. Democratizing Global Justice shows that democracy and justice can be mutually reinforcing in global governance - a domain where both are conspicuously lacking - and indeed that global justice requires global democratization. This novel reconceptualization of the problematic relationship between global democracy and global justice emphasises the role of inclusive deliberative processes. These processes can empower the agents necessary to determine what justice should mean and how it should be implemented in any given context. Key agents include citizens and the global poor; and not just the states but also international organizations and advocacy groups active in global governance. The argument is informed by and applied to the decision process leading to adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals, and climate governance inasmuch as it takes on questions of climate justice.
Article
As wildfires rage, pollution thickens, and species disappear, the world confronts environmental crisis with a set of global institutions in urgent need of reform. Yet, these institutions have proved frustratingly resistant to change. Introducing the concept of Temporal Focal Points, Manulak shows how change occurs in world politics. By re-envisioning the role of timing and temporality in social relations, his analysis presents a new approach to understanding transformative phases in international cooperation. We may now be entering such a phase, he argues, and global actors must be ready to realize the opportunities presented. Charting the often colorful and intensely political history of change in global environmental politics, this book sheds new light on the actors and institutions that shape humanity's response to planetary decline. It will be of interest to scholars and advanced students of international relations, international organization and environmental politics and history.
Chapter
Full-text available
TO DOWNLOAD THE FILE: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4235700 When we speak of “the environment,” people often think of the material world that is around humans, but not humans, as though environmental protection is a big nature reserve project. The relation between humans and non-humans is most often expressed as a matter of protection and force by the first over the latter and not in a way that strengthens coexistence of the different parts of the society. It is therefore more helpful to speak of “ecology,” because its root is the ancient Greek word “οἶκος“ (oikos), which simultaneously could mean the house, the family or the family’s property. Using our abstract concepts such as sustainable development, and our abstract tools, such as the law, our family is building and protecting our own house, not a nature reserve that is somewhere else. Seen this way, the remaining challenge is to see the house as the house of our family of humans; the common house of all of our family, not my house in the wealthy suburbs and yours in the impoverished city. While industrial environmental problems may have originally been seen as local water or air problems, solved by sending the waste or pollution to someone else’s house, global challenges like climate disruption have reminded us that we were really just sending the pollution and dumping the waste in another room of our own house all along. The example of emerging economies is noteworthy. The environmental crisis more severely affects what falls under the umbrella of the Global South. It is precisely here that we need to look at innovative answers to global challenges. The aim of this edited collection is to bring to the table a different perspective on environmental law and governance by including the voices of the countries that due to their location or to their status as emerging economies are, sadly, too often excluded from the discussion. International environmental law rose to prominence thanks to an effort of forward looking scholars and writers such as from a wide array of disciplines acknowledging an urgent need of developing a “consciousness that mankind might be imposing, by its growing population and industrial and technological developments, an intolerable burden on the capacity of its environment to sustain either its existing activities or their growth” . Still, a consciousness which limits economic growth and activities clashes with basic tenants of human development such as poverty alleviation efforts and jobs creation especially in countries object of economic exploitation. Global unity in the environmental realm and in other fields throughout history has been only reached when the very own survival of the humans and more recently also of the nonhumans one are at risk. We are again reminded of the weakness of this approach with COVID-19. Our handling of the pandemic clarifies that even if, as a consequence of environmental degradation, something happens in the Global South the connections with the Global North could not be put on hold. Physical borders are no longer able to contain environmental harms and this should push us to further reflect on the fact that we are part of a single family and single house. Our relationship to our material house may be informed by descriptive natural sciences, but to live with other persons in those material conditions of the home, we need to understand human social practices. Communication, history, customs, and religions are all social practices that must be understood in order to enable our successful co-habitation. So is law. Law in this sense is one set of human social practices, invented by ourselves to serve our needs, including our need to negotiate our relationship to the material nature of the family house in which we all live. And within the law, there are many different models for how we establish the rules and implement the rules. The fact that the rules are limited by the material of our common house does not mean the rules are determined by the material of the house. The rules are determined by its inhabitants. We establish the social practices in many ways, including through legal practices. However, these rules are established and implemented by the most unsustainable super-predator – humans - with no attention for other species’ habitat and sustainability adaptation strategies. Not all humans are the same some part of our material house is in fact able to respect and protect the ecosystem. Indigenous people, while representing a small share of global population, has a deep and intimate connection with the ecosystem which places at the centre non-humans. Rules of Indigenous people’s house mirrors the one of the nature and social rules are crafted based on the need of protecting habitat and biodiversity. Legal tools exist or are under shaping for strengthening the contribution of local communities to the protection of our common house. Heuristically and by analogy, we can borrow, as in the case of indigenous people, some ideas for our social rules from the material rules of nature that we observe. For example, We define an indicator in biology as an organism that the presence, or lack thereof, provides a clear signal about the environmental conditions. Depending on the organism, its appearance can signal both a healthy ecosystem or an unhealthy one. These indicators can reveal information about many factors in an environment, including pollution levels, salinity, temperature and nutrient or food availability. There are many examples of indicator species. Indicator species can be anything from bacteria to more complex organisms such as plants and animals. While everything has evolved to live within certain thresholds, so all organisms are indicators of something; many are considered particularly sensitive and provide a good indication of the initial changes in environmental conditions. TO DOWNLOAD THE FILE: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4235700
Chapter
Full-text available
TO DOWNLOAD THE FILE: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4235698 “Globalization” is a word with many meanings. Some people say globalization is responsible for having lifted millions of people out of poverty over the past decades. Other people say that globalization is neocolonialism. All will agree that the processes that accompany globalization have had tremendous impacts on the environment. Commodification of the environment along with environmental degradation have led to an almost universal awareness of the negative effects of such crises as disrupted climate. The conservation and restoration of the environment, as well as the protection of biodiversity are essential for human life, including its economic components. The international community has responded to the challenge by shifting away from the Brundtland Commission’s intergenerational concept of “development which meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” to equating “development” with economic development under the New York Convention. and reserving a third and separate pillar for economics over and against social concern and the environment. However promising the concepts “sustainable development” and “sustainability” may have been, they have become overused and meaningless. Like worn-out coins, they became just placeholders. To re-inscribe meaning in the metal of sustainable development, the authors in this book examine environmental problems caused, facilitated or exacerbated by globalization, as seen from the perspectives of the Global South and emerging economies. Investments, trade and technological advances are key driving forces of transition in these countries. The economic development component (also known as “green-growth” policies) may be preferred by globalizing forces, which also regard it as most suitable to cope with climate disruption, for example. With the globalization of economics comes some aspects of the globalization of law. The globalization of environmental law that is currently under formation in the Global South addresses the integration of the ecological and economic components by analyzing the contribution of emerging and developing economies. Sometimes, environmental law is part of the solutions; sometimes environmental law is part of the problems. In this book, the terms “Global South” and “emerging economies” are included as alternative conceptualizations to the “developed” and “developing” countries. But this alternative conceptualization itself is a divide that enables globalization. The Global South is no longer a passive actor in the environmental global discourse, but is proactively and assertively shaping, advancing and furthering environmental law. In these countries, environmental degradation is a new form of “poverty” that curtails and undermines the right to development and, in extreme cases, the right to life. Therefore, in these countries we must look for innovative strategies and approaches to mitigate environmental crises. By the year 2100, the Global South will be 82.2% of global population with tremendous effects on the perception and framing of the priorities of the international community. Not only because of population but also due to economic, social and cultural development, the Global South merits attention. In the chapters of this book, the perspectives of the Global South and emerging economies are presented by lawyers from Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Mongolia, Nigeria, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines, as well as from the European states of France, Georgia, Germany and Slovakia. The authors are natives of either emerging economies or of the Global South, or work extensively in those regions. All of the book’s themes are mentioned in the title: globalization, environmental law, sustainable development, the Global South, implementation and challenges. Within the term “sustainable development” we find the word “development.” As regards globalization, this word indicates that the world is still divided between developing and developed countries. If one allows this differentiation, then the implication is that the world is described only in terms of economy. However, the exclusive focus on the economy is too shortsighted, because without a healthy environment, an economy can hardly thrive. Moreover, as Indian public interest environmental lawyer M.C. Mehta has insisted, “Only when the environment is degraded or the people ripped from their connection with the Earth, can they truly be considered poor.” Consequently, the concept of development must be expanded to include topics other than the economy, and to feature these other topics and thus answer questions such as how a system can function if responsible states are not required to carry the burdens of degradation. Topics include investment in clean industries, trade in green goods and agricultural products, intellectual property rights, traditional knowledge, technology transfer, emerging technologies such as big data, climate disruption, energy security, food security, conservation of biodiversity, environmental restoration, development aid and trade facilitation. As a political, economic, social and legal organizing strategy, globalization tends toward a one-world system. Important questions to answer are: Whose world will that one world system resemble? Will it look like the Global South, the Global North, or a third way? If the one world is to be the Global North, what is the carrying capacity of the planet for the necessarily greater demand on limited resources that the Northern lifestyle will require upon achieving globalization? Proponents of globalization would credit it with “lifting” people out of poverty. One must ask whether that can be true for the short term or the long term. Even within the northern economy of the United States, the divide between the wealthy and the poor grows at an increasing rate. The processes that accompany globalization have undeniably taken a tremendous toll on the environment. As an economic strategy, the commodification of the environment has caused degradation resulting in such unintended results as global climate disruption. This, in turn, has an inevitable impact on people’s health and thus on the value of a country’s development. Environmental degradation is a new form of “poverty” that curtails and undermines the right to development and, in some cases, even the right to life. The pressure on developing countries and emerging economies to conserve resources and support sustainable development is therefore evident. Although they are no longer passive actors, and are proactively and assertively shaping the environmental law that is part of the global fabric, the rationale for doing so widely differs from that of the Global North. So far, the approach of multilateral development banks is to use and transplant institutions from the Global North in order to strengthen market forces, which continues a dependency relationship that smacks of neocolonialism. More recently, those banks have considered environmental protection. Too little attention is paid to local circumstances and to the different ethical underpinnings of development in these countries. The main question that this book attempts to answer is how to include the contributions of the Global South in the sustainable development paradigm that proved to be so far ineffective. Reaching a balance between the Global North and South in globalized environmental law is of utmost priority for the international community. If environmental law is to be globalized, will it just be a tool of enablement for a globalized Northern economy until, in the not too distant future, all of earth’s resources are exhausted? If not, then globalized environmental law requires a different path than that taken by previous globalized environmental exploitation. For a globalized environmental law to be just and to sustain life in a truly global sense, it must benefit the developing and emerging economies, and benefit from those economies. Otherwise, states and cultures of the Global North are only attempting to fix environmental problems with the same rationale and instruments that in fact created the very same problems. Implementation is another theme of the book. Experience demonstrates many times over that if “environmental law” is presented in the context of how it is experienced in the Northern Hemisphere, a student of law from the Global South is likely to say “we have constitutional provisions, legislation and regulations too, but they are not implemented.” Thus it is that we present this book. This edited collection reviews first the difficulties in transplanting and implementing legal norms aimed at the management of environmental risks in the Global South. The methods of the authors span from pure theory to original data collection in the field, with most contributions falling somewhere between. The book is organized into three parts. Each part’s theme is presented by the authors largely through the concrete context of a representative country. In addition, a theme that is woven through every chapter is to ask how law can enable sustainable development, given the limited carrying capacity of the earth. Although it might otherwise be just, we know that it would be unsustainable if the Global South were to repeat the industrial economic practices that cause the environmental degradation. The book first covers the effects and impacts of the Global North on the Global South. It then moves the analysis to how the Global North shapes international law and the reactions and criticisms that have arisen from Global South countries. The final part addresses the proposed alternatives from the Global South to environmental law globalized from the North. TO DOWNLOAD THE FILE: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4235698
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses the disregarded notion of the ius legationis (right of legation), revisiting historical debates in diplomatic theory and law over who possesses or ought to have this right. By examining how the ius legationis manifested into a volitional or subjectional or natural right, we argue that this renders it not merely a legal issue, but a highly political and ethical question that is of direct relevance to contemporary international relations. In an era where inclusivity is rhetorically promoted at the United Nations, we suggest that a rekindled right to diplomacy (R2D) – conceiving diplomacy as a right that is claimed but also contested – can shed light onto inequalities of representation and the role international law can play in remedying asymmetries and ethicizing the practice of diplomacy. Beyond its primary normative contribution, we argue that the R2D can also provide an analytical framework to understand UN's efforts at institutionalizing diplomatic pluralism, its logics of inclusion and exclusion, as well as the struggles of diverse groups to obtain accreditation, consultative status, and negotiation ability within multilateral diplomacy.
Chapter
This chapter provides a considered reflection on the current state of knowledge for SDG partnerships. It does so within the context of the evidence presented in this book and thereafter reflects upon the potential role of global and multi-stakeholder partnerships in implementing the SDGs. In addition, it also critically considers the future of partnerships for the SDGs, noting the fact that the overwhelming majority of UN nations are not on track to achieve the Goals by 2030. In doing so, it outlines possibilities for altering governance systems to support SDG implementation as well as key avenues for future research on SDG partnerships.KeywordsMulti-stakeholder partnerships2030 AgendaSustainable development goalsSDG governance
Chapter
Full-text available
Indigenous knowledge refers to the understandings, skills and philosophies developed by societies with long histories of interaction with their natural surroundings (UNESCO, 2018; IPCC, 2019a). Local knowledge refers to the understandings and skills developed by individuals and populations, specific to the places where they live (UNESCO, 2018; IPCC, 2019a). Indigenous knowledge and local knowledge are inherently valuable but have only recently begun to be appreciated and in western scientific assessment processes in their own right (Ford et al., 2016). In the past these often endangered ways of knowing have been suppressed or attacked (Mustonen, 2014). Yet these knowledge systems represent a range of cultural practices, wisdom, traditions and ways of knowing the world that provide accurate and useful climate change information, observations and solutions (very high confidence) (Table Cross-Chapter Box INDIG.1). Rooted in their own contextual and relative embedded locations, some of these knowledges represent unbroken engagement with the earth, nature and weather for many tens of thousands of years, with an understanding of the ecosystem and climatic changes over longer-term timescales that is held both as knowledge by Indigenous Peoples and local peoples, as well as in the archaeological record (Barnhardt and Angayuqaq, 2005; UNESCO, 2018).
Chapter
Full-text available
This Cross-Chapter Box highlights the intersecting issues of gender, climate change adaptation, climate justice and transformative pathways. A gender perspective does not centre only on women or men but examines structures, processes and relationships of power between and among groups of men and women and how gender, particularly in its non-binary form, intersects with other social categories such as race, class, socioeconomic status, nationality or education to create multi-dimensional inequalities
Article
The UN High‐level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF) is at the heart of the UN's follow‐up and review of the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Analysing the first full cycle of the HLPF (2016–19), we ask what and how the HLPF delivers. In the early debates on its mandate, experts suggested that the HLPF could be an orchestrator, arguing that it would likely have to rely upon indirect and non‐hierarchical forms of governance. Others asked for more or expected less. For the analysis of the HLPF's (orchestration) qualities, we study the proceedings of the HLPF and specifically the HLPF's review of SDG 16 on peace, justice and strong institutions, one of the most contested goals and therefore an interesting hard case. Taken together, DESA as the secretariat of the HLPF does indeed use orchestration to make the most out of the forum's mandate, both through convening and shaping third actors' activities. Political conflicts and limited resources, however, negatively impact what they can do and what the HLPF can deliver. The results of the UN's recent negotiations on the review of the HLPF's ‘format and organizational aspects’ (2020–21) did not change that.
Article
Partnerships between governments, private companies, and non‐government organizations (NGOs) are increasingly popular tools for policy implementation. Much research attention has been paid to the formation and design of partnerships and how they can improve their development impact but little on how partnerships translate into local development policies. This article explores how partnerships as a policy idea, embedded in the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 17, changes as it is translated into local development policies. It traces how such translation processes change the problems that development partnerships set out to solve, and how they aim to solve them. The article presents a case study of a translation of SDG 17 that took place in interaction between the Danish International Development Agency (Danida) and a policy network. The data set consists of documents and in‐depth interviews with policy network actors. From the UN perspective, SDG 17 set out to mobilize private sector resources to achieve the SDGs. However, SDG 17 became a solution to partially global, but mostly local issues when it was translated into a Danish development policy, and consequently, a partnership programme. Some discursive alliances between policy network actors were more effective than others in advancing their discourses in the translation process, which affected this outcome. These findings contribute to research on development partnerships by showing how partnership as a policy idea, embedded in SDG 17, changes through policy translation. Findings from the study highlight the importance of discursive alliances in policy networks when policy ideas are localized into development policies. Moreover, the findings imply that when studying the translation of ideas into development policies, it is important to first disentangle the local conditions under which such processes take place to fully understand how they determine the translation outcome.
Book
Full-text available
O texto analisa as origens e evolução do debate sobre desenvolvimento na América Latina; os imaginários sobre desenvolvimento na região; as perspectivas decoloniais e de pós-desenvolvimento e os debates sobre gênero, feminismos e desenvolvimento, em perspectiva Sul-Sul. Outras questões abordadas são também os debates sobre economia, comércio internacional e desenvolvimento; economia social dos conhecimentos e capitalismo infocognitivo; as perspectivas sobre educação, comunicação e desenvolvimento; os debates sobre migrações e desenvolvimento; as discussões sobre meio ambiente e desenvolvimento e os vínculos entre saúde, desenvolvimento e soberania sanitária.
Article
The year 2020 started much like any other on the United Nations multilateral calendar. But then the COVID-19 pandemic forced the UN and the world to shut down. After the initial shock wore off, secretariats and governments began to contemplate how to conduct multilateral negotiations during a pandemic. As they created new virtual working methods, they also had to figure out how to maintain trust among delegations and in the process itself to ensure the outcomes of these meetings would be respected. To understand how UN meetings adapted to a virtual environment and maintained trust, this article analyzes a sample of 18 meetings of UN environmental and sustainable development bodies that took place in the 12 months between April 2020 and March 2021. The research examines these cases to see how these meetings were conducted, how they built the necessary trust, and what can be learned from this experience.
Article
Interconnected bureaucracies. Comparing online and offline networks during global climate negotiations Measuring the influence of international public administrations has traditionally been conducted with ‘offline’ data, using interviews, surveys or official documents. However, an emerging strand of the literature argues that influence can also be observed ‘online’, with data based on online social networks, such as Twitter. Our contribution aims at bringing these two strands closer together. We triangulate offline data from a large-N survey with online data from Twitter to examine to what extent they provide distinct theoretical and methodological insights into the role of international public administrations in global governance. As a case study, we use the policy area of global climate governance, an issue area where the influence of international public administrations has raised increasing scholarly interest. Our findings show that international public administrations occupy potentially influential positions in both ‘offline’ and ‘online’ networks. They are more often central actors in the survey network than in Twitter network, but in both networks, they constitute the primary source of issue-specific information. Points for practitioners First, online social networks provide practitioners with opportunities to connect and interact with other political actors and help shape public discourse through communication. Second, online social networks provide important forums for societal actors who aim to protect global public goods. Third, online social networks offer actors the opportunity to shape values and norms, and to persuade persons or organizations beyond one’s own circle. Therefore, it is particularly important that online communication strategies are carefully designed and implemented in view of their potential power.
Article
Motivation Localization is an elusive target of international development, aimed at strengthening local ownership through equitable partnerships and redistribution of resources and decision-making. While this is a long-standing objective, it remains unachieved. In light of these limitations in global governance, the transformative potential of Agenda 2030 is questioned. Purpose This article observes policy shifts triggered by Agenda 2030 by analysing its domestication in institutional and national contexts in Kenya, Rwanda, and Uganda. By asking “Can Agenda 2030 bring about localization?” the article examines the policy potential of Agenda 2030 to transform the traditional international development paradigm, as David Slater theorized in 1993. Methods and approach The article offers interpretive policy analysis and presents insights drawn from 172 interviews and 11 focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted with international and national civil servants, civil society actors, and academics in Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda, as well as headquarters and regional offices of selected United Nations and donor agencies. Findings Agenda 2030 emerges as a legitimate framework that creates new policy avenues of national agenda-setting and multi-stakeholder co-ordination. Across all three national contexts, Agenda 2030 was integrated into national agendas, considered to be central development anchors that, however, largely depend on change-resistant donor structures. This is intensifying critiques of development paradigms among development practitioners, particularly from historically disadvantaged countries. Policy implications While triggering meaningful shifts in development agenda-setting, Agenda 2030 has not resulted in political commitments to transform inequitable global development mechanisms that would enable its achievement. Key bottlenecks, in fact, are found not in the insufficient implementation of low- and middle-income countries (L&MICs), but in the lack of institutional reforms to donor and global governance mechanisms. Political, rather than policy, solutions are required.
Article
Full-text available
Measuring the influence of international public administrations has traditionally been conducted with ‘offline’ data, using interviews, surveys or official documents. However, an emerging strand of the literature argues that influence can also be observed ‘online’, with data based on online social networks, such as Twitter. Our contribution aims at bringing these two strands closer together. We triangulate offline data from a large-N survey with online data from Twitter to examine to what extent they provide distinct theoretical and methodological insights into the role of international public administrations in global governance. As a case study, we use the policy area of global climate governance, an issue area where the influence of international public administrations has raised increasing scholarly interest. Our findings show that international public administrations occupy potentially influential positions in both ‘offline’ and ‘online’ networks. They are more often central actors in the survey network than in Twitter network, but in both networks, they constitute the primary source of issue-specific information. Points for practitioners First, online social networks provide practitioners with opportunities to connect and interact with other political actors and help shape public discourse through communication. Second, online social networks provide important forums for societal actors who aim to protect global public goods. Third, online social networks offer actors the opportunity to shape values and norms, and to persuade persons or organizations beyond one’s own circle. Therefore, it is particularly important that online communication strategies are carefully designed and implemented in view of their potential power.
Thesis
Full-text available
The paper examines the nexus among the concepts of democracy, globalisation and technology, arguably the three most interdependent notions affecting the way and speed in which global dynamics and diplomatic practises were transformed. It analyses the evolution of non-state actors' engagement in multilateral processes between the Stockholm Conference in 1972 and the Rio+20 Conference in 2012. The experience of the Major Group for Children and Youth (MGCY) at the Rio+20 Conference is introduced as a case study to illustrate the practical application of the nexus and its impact on stakeholder engagement. The analysis recognises that the nexus offers a real opportunity to improve diplomacy means and practices and encourage further exploration into the nexus’ full potential.
Book
Full-text available
Cover, Table of Contents, Forewords, Introduction and Acknowledgements can be downloaded at the following website: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3997259 Kirk W. Junker and Paolo Davide Farah, GLOBALIZATION, ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE GLOBAL SOUTH: CHALLENGES FOR IMPLEMENTATION, Routledge Publishing (London/New-York), Routledge Explorations in Environmental Studies, ISBN 9780367749132, November 2021, pp. 348. Cover, Table of Contents, Forewords, Introduction and Acknowledgements can be downloaded at the following website: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3997259 This volume examines the impact of globalization on international environmental law and the implementation of sustainable development in the Global South. Comprising contributions from lawyers from the Global South or who have experience in the Global South, this volume is organized into three parts, with a thematic inquiry woven through every chapter to ask how law can enable economies that can be sustained, given the limited carrying capacity of the earth. Part I describes and characterizes the status quo of environmental and economic problems in the Global South during the process of globalization. Some of those problems include redistribution of environmental burden on the public through over-reliance on the state in emerging economies and the transition to public-private partnerships, as well as extreme uncontrolled economic expansion. Building on Part I, Part II takes an international perspective by presenting some tools that are in place during the process of globalization that lead to friction and interfaces between developed and developing economies in environmental law. Recognizing the impossibility of a globalized Northern economy, the authors in Part III present some alternatives through framework ideas of human and civil rights, environmental rights, and indigenous persons’ rights, as well as concrete and specific legal tools to strengthen justice and rule of law institutions. The book gives new perspectives to familiar approaches through concrete examples by professional practitioners and theoretical discourse by academic researchers, and can thereby form the basis for changes in practices, as well as further discussions and comparisons. This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of environmental law, sustainable development, and globalization and international relations, as well as legal professionals and practitioners. Keywords: Globalization, Global South, Environment, Energy, Sustainable Development, Paris Agreement, Environmental Risks, Litigation Remedies, Governance, Extractive Industries, Mongolia, Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, East Africa, South Africa, India, China, Brazil, European Union, Caribbean Small Islands Kirk W. Junker and Paolo Davide Farah, GLOBALIZATION, ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE GLOBAL SOUTH: CHALLENGES FOR IMPLEMENTATION, Routledge Publishing (London/New-York), Routledge Explorations in Environmental Studies, ISBN 9780367749132, November 2021, pp. 348. Cover, Table of Contents, Forewords, Introduction and Acknowledgements can be downloaded at the following website: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3997259
Thesis
Full-text available
Predkladaná práca má za cieľ prispieť k debate o vonkajšej legitimite Európskej únie na príklade témy trvalo udržateľného rozvoja, ktorá je riešená na pôde OSN prostredníctvom Agendy 2030 a jej cieľov. Hlavným cieľom práce je získať odpoveď na výskumnú otázku: akú podobu má vonkajšia legitimita Európskej únie v procese príprav a schvaľovania Agendy 2030. Výskumné otázky sú riešené kvalitatívnou analýzou teoretických informácií a konceptov týkajúcich sa aktérstva a legitimity. V rámci kvalitatívnej analýzy bolo realizované mapovanie postojov, hodnôt a priorít EÚ počas vystúpení predstaviteľov EÚ. Pre lepšie pochopenie akceptácie a vonkajšej legitimity EÚ bola realizovaná komparácia základných kultúrnych charakteristík európskej a čínskej kultúry, ktoré sa odrážali v prístupe obidvoch aktérov v procese zostavovanie Agendy 2030. Akceptácia EÚ ako relevantného aktéra v zahraničnej politike na pôde OSN je problematická, napriek tomu si EÚ dokázala výrazne presadiť svoje hodnoty a do Agendy začleniť svoje priority. Na základe analýzy vystúpení zástupcov EÚ počas rokovaní v období prípravy Agendy je možné skonštatovať, že požiadavky a odporúčania EÚ boli vo výraznej miere zohľadnené, zároveň princípy, ktoré boli EÚ presadzované, priamo vyplývali z hodnotových čŕt európskej kultúry. EÚ počas rokovaní taktiež preukázala, že má dostatočnú kapacitu zapojiť sa nielen do tvorby, ale aj implementácie Agendy 2030. Vonkajšia legitimita EÚ je v prípade procesu tvorby a schvaľovania rozvojových cieľov Agendy 2030 dostatočná.
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable Development Goal 16 commits to ‘promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels’. While the concerns of SDG16 with violence reduction, rule of law, and governance are relevant to all societies, this paper focuses on fragile and conflict-affected countries, many of which have the hardest task in achieving SDG16. It analyses how higher education can contribute towards—or detract from—SDG16 through teaching, research, governance, and external leadership. It then analyses four dynamics influencing the agency of universities in fragile and conflict-affected contexts in engaging with SDG16: resource mobilisation and the public good; securitisation; academic freedom, insecurity, and politicisation; and tensions between demands for localisation and the universalising logics of liberal peacebuilding models and the SDGs.
Chapter
Full-text available
Author version (pre-publication) of the conclusions chapter by Andrew Crabtree and Des Gasper of an edited volume on "Sustainability, Capabilities and Human Security", edited by Andrew Crabtree (2020, Palgrave Macmillan). DOI - 10.1007/978-3-030-38905-5.
Article
Full-text available
Although not for the reason most climate watchers anticipated, the 15th Conference of Parties (COP) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the fifth Meeting of the Parties (CMP-5) to the Kyoto Protocol at Copenhagen marked an important moment in the history of the climate negotiations. Despite considerable political pressure, a much-anticipated legally binding instrument did not emerge from Copenhagen. But Copenhagen was remarkable nevertheless. Never before had an international negotiation attracted 125 heads of state and government, and expended as much political capital, yet failed to deliver in quite so spectacular a fashion. And never before had outcomes been this dramatically misaligned with popular expectations. There are many lessons to be learned from the Copenhagen experience, both substantively and in terms of process.
Article
Full-text available
This article explores the hypothesis that global inequality may be a central impediment to interstate cooperation on climate change policy. Conventional wisdom suggests that outcomes in international environmental politics are primarily attributable to material self-interest, bargaining power, coercion, domestic environmental values, exogenous shocks and crises, the existence of salient policy solutions, the strength of political leadership and the influence of nonstate actors. Yet none of these approaches offers a completely satisfactory explanation for the long-standing north-south divide on climate change. Drawing on social inequality literature and international relations theory, we argue that inequality dampens cooperative efforts by reinforcing ‘structuralist’ world-views and causal beliefs, polarizing policy preferences, promoting particularistic notions of fairness, generating divergent and unstable expectations about future behaviour, eroding conditions of mutual trust and creating incentives for zero-sum and negative-sum behaviour. In effect, inequality undermines the establishment of mutually acceptable ‘rules of the game’ which could mitigate these obstacles.
Book
Full-text available
Global environmental problems pose importance diplomatic and legal challenges to the international community. The nature of these problems requires an unprecedented degree of international cooperation both in terms of scientific research and the harmonization of regulations that is achieved through negotiation, scientific uncertainty, the complexity of the issues, and the wide range of actors have shapted a complicated negotiating proces Earth Negotiations develops a phased-process model that can enable greater understanding of the process by which international environmental agreements are negotiated. By breaking down the negotiating process into a series of phases and turning points, it is easier to analyze the roles of the different actors, the management of issues, the formation of groups and coalitions, and the art of consensus building. The overall goal is to determine what lessons can be learned from past cases of multilateral environmental negotiation to help both practitioners and scholars strengthen the negotiating process and the quality of its results.
Book
Matthew J. Hoffmann explores the fundamental question of who should participate in the global response to ozone depletion and climate change. Blending social constructivist theory with insights from the study of complex adaptive systems, Hoffmann develops a unique framework for understanding the emergence and evolution of participation norms, which define the appropriate global response and shape how states have perceived the problems, defined their interests and strategies, and pursued governance. The explanation is rigorously developed through an innovative combination of formal analysis and in-depth empirical case studies. Agent-based computer simulation modeling is employed to explore essential norm dynamics, analysis that is complemented and extended by process-tracing case studies that examine governance activities from 1986 through 2003. The result provides the understanding necessary for improving global responses to environmental problems.
Article
This article elaborates on the place of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD, also known as Rio+20) in a forty-year trajectory of international sustainable development negotiations, particularly through the processes placed in motion during the 1992 Rio Earth Summit event. The negotiation of the final UNCSD document also can be evaluated in its own right, and the article examines this process in the second section, keeping in mind the negotiating system in which the talks took place. The final section focuses on the process as a post-agreement negotiation and considers the role of the twenty-year milestone negotiations in shaping the sustainable development regime. The paper explores in particular the role that consensus negotiated agreements have played as the regime’s decision-making procedure, and how this procedure has faltered as the complexity – including the number of issues, actors and obligations incorporated into the regime – has increased. Two elements from the Rio+20 outcome – a “take-it-or-change-it” facilitation approach of the Brazilian hosts and the adoption of a process to create “sustainable development goals” as a different means to focus international expectations – are presented as new directions for decision making in the regime’s next rounds of regime governance and regime adjustment negotiations.
Book
At the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit, the world’s leaders constructed a new “sustainable development” paradigm that promised to enhance environmentally sound economic and social development. Twenty years later, the proliferation of multilateral environmental agreements points to an unprecedented achievement, but is worth examining for its accomplishments and shortcomings. This book provides a review of twenty years of multilateral environmental negotiations (1992-2012). The authors have participated in most of these negotiating processes and use their first-hand knowledge as writers for the International Institute for Sustainable Development’s Earth Negotiations Bulletin as they illustrate the changes that have taken place over the past twenty years. The chapters examine the proliferation of meetings, the changes in the actors and their roles (governments, nongovernmental organizations, secretariats), the interlinkages of issues, the impact of scientific advice, and the challenges of implementation across negotiating processes, including the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention to Combat Desertification, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Commission on Sustainable Development, the UN Forum on Forests, the chemicals conventions (Stockholm, Basel and Rotterdam), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, the Convention on Migratory Species and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.
Article
Multilateral negotiations can be understood through the metaphor of coalitions- deliberately constructed networks of actors having differing interests or values, priorities and goals, yet showing general or limited common objectives. Coalition building highlights the commonality of interests among parties and reduces the complexity of multilateral transactions, thus offering a powerful parallel to international negotiation processes. In coalitions, as in multilateral negotiations in general, members assume certain roles that may drive or defend the process, exercise differentiated behaviors to manage power struggles and mutual dependence relationships, and develop strategies that move them closer to shared goals while protecting them from destabilizing counterstrategies. Minority coalitions, resembling weak negotiating parties, can still be effective actors in the process of achieving common objectives. Coalition building sheds valuable light on all types of negotiations, especially those in an international setting. Indeed, close similarities in concepts and language, variety of approaches, identification of major forms, determinants, and process and outcome variables are found in both activities.
Book
The global response to climate change has reached a critical juncture. Since the 1992 signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the nations of the world have attempted to address climate change through large-scale multilateral treaty-making. These efforts have been heroic, but disappointing. As evidence for the quickening pace of climate change mounts, the treaty-making process has sputtered, and many are now skeptical about the prospect of an effective global response. Yet global treaty-making is not the only way that climate change can be addressed or, indeed, is being addressed. In the last decade myriad initiatives have emerged across the globe independently from, or only loosely connected to, the "official" UN-sponsored negotiations and treaties. In the face of stalemate in the formal negotiations, the world is experimenting with alternate means of responding to climate change. Climate Governance at the Crossroads chronicles these innovations--how cities, provinces and states, citizen groups, and corporations around the globe are addressing the causes and symptoms of global warming. The center of gravity in the global response to climate change is shifting from the multilateral treaty-making process to the diverse activities found beyond the negotiating halls. These innovations are pushing the envelope of climate action and demonstrating what is possible, and they provide hope that the world will respond effectively to the climate crisis. In introducing climate governance "experiments" and examining the development and functioning of this new world of climate policy-making, this book provides an exciting new perspective on the politics of climate change and the means to understand and influence how the global response to climate change will unfold in the coming years.
Article
Domestic politics and international relations are often inextricably entangled, but existing theories (particularly “state-centric” theories) do not adequately account for these linkages. When national leaders must win ratification (formal or informal) from their constituents for an international agreement, their negotiating behavior reflects the simultaneous imperatives of both a domestic political game and an international game. Using illustrations from Western economic summitry, the Panama Canal and Versailles Treaty negotiations, IMF stabilization programs, the European Community, and many other diplomatic contexts, this article offers a theory of ratification. It addresses the role of domestic preferences and coalitions, domestic political institutions and practices, the strategies and tactics of negotiators, uncertainty, the domestic reverberation of international pressures, and the interests of the chief negotiator. This theory of “two-level games” may also be applicable to many other political phenomena, such as dependency, legislative committees, and multiparty coalitions.
After Copenhagen: Climate governance and the road ahead
  • J W Busby
Busby, J. W. (2010). After Copenhagen: Climate governance and the road ahead. Working Paper. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
Rio?20: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): A proposal from the Governments of Colombia and Guatemala
  • Guatemala Colombia
Colombia and Guatemala. (2011). Rio?20: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): A proposal from the Governments of Colombia and Guatemala. http://www.uncsd2012.org/content/documents/ colombiasdgs.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2016.
The roads from Rio: Lessons learned from twenty years of multilateral environmental negotiations
  • J Depledge
  • P S Chasek
Depledge, J., & Chasek, P. S. (2012). Raising the tempo: The escalating pace and intensity of environmental negotiations. In P. S. Chasek & L. M. Wagner (Eds.), The roads from Rio: Lessons learned from twenty years of multilateral environmental negotiations (pp. 19-38). New York: RFF Press/Routledge.
The PGA handbook: A practical guide to the United Nations General Assembly. New York: Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations
  • S Frankel
  • M Regan
Frankel, S., & Regan, M. (2011). The PGA handbook: A practical guide to the United Nations General Assembly. New York: Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations. http://www.unitar.org/ ny/sites/unitar.org.ny/files/UN_PGA_Handbook.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2016.
Summary of the UNCSD Informal Informal Consultations
  • Iisd
IISD. (2012a). Summary of the Initial Discussions on the ''Zero Draft'' of the Outcome Document for the UN Conference on Sustainable Development: 25-27 January 2012. Earth Negotiations Bulletin 27(16) (30 January). http://www.iisd.ca/download/pdf/enb2716e.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2016. IISD. (2012b). Summary of the UNCSD Informal Informal Consultations: 23 April-4 May 2012. Earth Negotiations Bulletin 27(35) (7 May). http://www.iisd.ca/download/pdf/enb2735e.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2016.
Summary of the thirteenth session of the UN General Assembly Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals: 14-19
  • Iisd
IISD. (2012c). UNCSD informal consultations: Tuesday, 19 June 2012. Earth Negotiations Bulletin 27(48) (20 June). http://www.iisd.ca/download/pdf/enb2748e.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2016. IISD. (2014). Summary of the thirteenth session of the UN General Assembly Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals: 14-19 July 2014. Earth Negotiations Bulletin 32(13) (22 July). http:// www.iisd.ca/download/pdf/enb3213e.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2016.
Organization theory: The interface of structure, culture, procedures and negotiation processes
  • D M Kolb
  • G Faure
Kolb, D. M., & Faure, G. (1994). Organization theory: The interface of structure, culture, procedures and negotiation processes. In I. W. Zartman (Ed.), International multilateral negotiations: Approaches to the management of complexity. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
The runaway summit: The background story of the Danish presidency of COP15, the UN Climate Change Conference
  • P Meilstrup
Meilstrup, P. (2010). The runaway summit: The background story of the Danish presidency of COP15, the UN Climate Change Conference. In N. Hvidt, & H. Mouritzen (Eds.), Danish Foreign Policy Yearbook. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies, DIIS: pp. 113-135. http://subweb.diis.dk/ graphics/Publications/Books2010/YB2010/YB2010-Runaway-summit_WEB.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2016.
Focus areas document
  • Owg
OWG. (2014). Focus areas document. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/ 3276focusareas.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2016.
Agenda 21: The United Nations Programme of Action from Rio
UN. (1992). Agenda 21: The United Nations Programme of Action from Rio. New York: United Nations. UN General Assembly. (2012). The future we want. A/RES.66/288 (11 September). http://www.un.org/ga/ search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/66/288&Lang=E. Accessed March 11, 2016.
Report of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals established pursuant to General Assembly resolution 66/288
  • Un General Assembly
UN General Assembly. (2014). Report of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals established pursuant to General Assembly resolution 66/288. A/RES/68/309 (12 September 2014).
The roads from Rio: Lessons learned from twenty years of multilateral environmental negotiations
  • L M Wagner
  • R Hajjar
  • A Appleton
Wagner, L. M., Hajjar, R., & Appleton, A. (2012). Global alliances to strange bedfellows: The Ebb and flow of negotiating coalitions. In P. S. Chasek & L. M. Wagner (Eds.), The roads from Rio: Lessons learned from twenty years of multilateral environmental negotiations. New York: RFF Press/Routledge.
Breaking the mold: a new type of multilateral sustainable…
  • I W Zartman
  • M Berman
Zartman, I. W., & Berman, M. (1982). The practical negotiator. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Breaking the mold: a new type of multilateral sustainable…