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Towards a rational insight into the paradox of homeopathy.

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... J'ai débuté la recherche dans ce domaine en Résonance Magnétique Nucléaire (RMN), il y a plus de 30 ans en collaboration avec Bernard Poitevin ; les premières démonstrations d'une « trace physique » dans le solvant ont été acquises dès 1992 [2], et celles de superstructures nanométriques impliquant des nanobulles en 2009 [3]. Les publications qui ont suivi, échelonnées jusqu'en 2018, ont permis de prouver le rôle crucial de la dynamisation et de démontrer une nature physique différente entre basses et hautes dilutions, ceci pouvant expliquer les effets biologiques différentiels et paradoxaux observés en homéopathie (« Towards a rational insight into the paradox of homeopathy » [4]). Le présent article a pour objectif de résumer les argumentations de ce dernier, et d'apporter des confirmations intercurrentes. ...
... Les NBs sont entourées d'eau hautement structurée de type glace, et l'édifice serait stabilisé par la silice et/ou par des ions, notamment en cas de solvant ionique. À chaque étape successive, l'édifice grossirait par adjonction de couches périphériques de NBs, de silice et d'ions, et son transfert à la dilution subséquente résulterait d'interactions électrostatiques ou hydrophobiques avec la micropipette de prélèvement via les NBs et/ou les silicates périphériques ; le principe actif initial, ainsi piégé au sein de ces superstructures, serait véhiculé vers les dilutions extrêmes, possiblement ultramoléculaires [4,11]. Des études récentes de microscopie et de diffraction, décrites plus loin, fourniront des éléments complémentaires sur la présence de silice et de NBs et sur la possible rémanence du principe actif au sein de ces superstructures. ...
... Les considérations précédentes m'ont amené à proposer une explication des paradoxes de l'homéopathie [4]. ...
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Les hautes dilutions homéopathiques vues par la physique : arguments en faveur d'une nanomédecine Homeopathic high dilutions seen by physics argue for a nanomedicine Jean-Louis Demangeat (ancien chef de service de médecine nucléaire du Centre hospitalier de Haguenau et ancien maître de conférences en biophysique à la Faculté de médecine de Strasbourg) 13d, rue d'Oberhausbergen, RÉSUMÉ La critique de l'homéopathie repose sur l'absence théorique de l'ingrédient de départ dans les dilutions ultramoléculaires au-delà de 12 CH (limite d'Avogadro), et corrélativement sur l'absence de mécanisme d'action biologique. Or, la préparation spécifique par dilution/dynamisation implique des processus d'interaction itératifs avec l'atmosphère (nanobulles), les parois des contenants (silice et autres éléments chimiques), et avec la micropipette de prélèvement (adsorption). La RMN a montré depuis 2003 des nanostructures (NS) dans les dilutions ultramoléculaires, confirmées plus récem-ment par diverses techniques (filtration, diffusion laser, diffraction RX, microscopie électronique). Ces nanostructures/nanoparticules (NS/NPs) persistent et même s'accroissent avec la hauteur de dilution, et sont différenciables selon la substance de départ, à condition d'avoir été dynamisées. Plusieurs études montrent la présence inattendue de matériel dans les hautes dilutions, et souvent même la rémanence du matériel initial au-delà de 12 CH. Ces NS/NPs ne sont pas observées à basse dilution. La gamme 2-4 CH correspond à la transition entre l'état « moléculaire » et « nanoparticulaire » du principe actif qui pourrait expliquer les inversions d'effets observés en biologie. Compte tenu des propriétés particulières de biodisponibilité et réactivité des NPs, l'hypo-thèse des hautes dilutions agissant comme nanomédecine peut raisonnablement être avancée. © 2020 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés. SUMMARY The criticism of homeopathy is based on the theoretical absence of the starting ingredient in ultramolecular dilutions above 12 CH (Avogadro limit), and correlatively on the absence of a biological mechanism of action. However, the specific preparation by dilution/dynamisation involves iterative interaction processes with the atmosphere (nanobubbles), the walls of the containers (silica and other chemical elements), and with the sampling micropipette (adsorption). Since 2003, NMR has shown nanostructures (NS) in ultramolecular dilutions, confirmed more recently by various techniques (filtration, laser diffusion, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy). These nanostructures/nanoparticles (NS/NPs) persist and even increase with the dilution level, and can be distinguished according to the starting substance, provided they have been dynamized. Several studies show the unexpected presence of material in high dilutions, and even the persistence of the initial material beyond 12 CH. These NS/NPs are not observed at low dilution. The 2-4 CH range corresponds to the transition between the "molecular'' and the "nanoparticulate'' state of the solute, which could explain inversion effects observed in biology. Given the particular bioavailability and reactivity properties of NPs, the hypothesis of high dilutions acting as nanomedicine can reasonably be postulated.
... J'ai débuté la recherche dans ce domaine en Résonance Magnétique Nucléaire (RMN), il y a plus de 30 ans en collaboration avec Bernard Poitevin ; les premières démonstrations d'une « trace physique » dans le solvant ont été acquises dès 1992 [2], et celles de superstructures nanométriques impliquant des nanobulles en 2009 [3]. Les publications qui ont suivi, échelonnées jusqu'en 2018, ont permis de prouver le rôle crucial de la dynamisation et de démontrer une nature physique différente entre basses et hautes dilutions, ceci pouvant expliquer les effets biologiques différentiels et paradoxaux observés en homéopathie (« Towards a rational insight into the paradox of homeopathy » [4]). Le présent article a pour objectif de résumer les argumentations de ce dernier, et d'apporter des confirmations intercurrentes. ...
... Les NBs sont entourées d'eau hautement structurée de type glace, et l'édifice serait stabilisé par la silice et/ou par des ions, notamment en cas de solvant ionique. À chaque étape successive, l'édifice grossirait par adjonction de couches périphériques de NBs, de silice et d'ions, et son transfert à la dilution subséquente résulterait d'interactions électrostatiques ou hydrophobiques avec la micropipette de prélèvement via les NBs et/ou les silicates périphériques ; le principe actif initial, ainsi piégé au sein de ces superstructures, serait véhiculé vers les dilutions extrêmes, possiblement ultramoléculaires [4,11]. Des études récentes de microscopie et de diffraction, décrites plus loin, fourniront des éléments complémentaires sur la présence de silice et de NBs et sur la possible rémanence du principe actif au sein de ces superstructures. ...
... Les considérations précédentes m'ont amené à proposer une explication des paradoxes de l'homéopathie [4]. ...
Article
Résumé La critique de l’homéopathie repose sur l’absence théorique de l’ingrédient de départ dans les dilutions ultramoléculaires au-delà de 12 CH (limite d’Avogadro), et corrélativement sur l’absence de mécanisme d’action biologique. Or, la préparation spécifique par dilution/dynamisation implique des processus d’interaction itératifs avec l’atmosphère (nanobulles), les parois des contenants (silice et autres éléments chimiques), et avec la micropipette de prélèvement (adsorption). La RMN a montré depuis 2003 des nanostructures (NS) dans les dilutions ultramoléculaires, confirmées plus récemment par diverses techniques (filtration, diffusion laser, diffraction RX, microscopie électronique). Ces nanostructures/nanoparticules (NS/NPs) persistent et même s’accroissent avec la hauteur de dilution, et sont différenciables selon la substance de départ, à condition d’avoir été dynamisées. Plusieurs études montrent la présence inattendue de matériel dans les hautes dilutions, et souvent même la rémanence du matériel initial au-delà de 12 CH. Ces NS/NPs ne sont pas observées à basse dilution. La gamme 2-4 CH correspond à la transition entre l’état « moléculaire » et « nanoparticulaire » du principe actif qui pourrait expliquer les inversions d’effets observés en biologie. Compte tenu des propriétés particulières de biodisponibilité et réactivité des NPs, l’hypothèse des hautes dilutions agissant comme nanomédecine peut raisonnablement être avancée.
... Nous avions commencé de telles études en 1985 et montré aussi cette possibilité d'identification avec la silice [14], dont l'activité avait été montrée en biologie dans laboratoire du Dr Benveniste [20] et avec d'autres molécules (manganèse, histamine) en 1997 [15]. Selon Demangeat [21][22][23], la technique de fabrication des hautes dilutions utilisées en homéopathie aboutit, grâce en particulier au processus de dynamisation, à la formation de nanostructures associant des nanobulles dans des molécules en cage, ions, solutés dissous avec intervention d'autres composants tels la silice et l'oxygène et possibilité surprenante de persistance de présence moléculaires, y compris au-delà du nombre d'Avogadro. À partir de ce « noyau dur », plusieurs théories sont émises, allant d'hypothèses quantiques à la persistance de présence de molécules de la souche soumise au processus de dilution et dynamisation [23,24]. ...
Article
Résumé À partir de l’analyse de la littérature scientifique en homéopathie, des propositions sont faites en recherche fondamentale et clinique. La poursuite de ces études scientifiques est essentielle pour maintenir l’intégration de l’homéopathie dans notre système de santé.
... High levels of silicon in various kinds of ultramolecular dilutions, even at C30, were confirmed later by other teams [11,12] and likely results from a catalytic process due to the presence of solid silica particles in the first dilutions. The potential role of silica has led, according to Demangeat [13] to two interesting hypotheses on the mechanism of information transfer in the context of "Memory of water'': the "silica hypothesis'' [14], and "epitaxy'' [15] silica nanostructures formed during dilution/dynamization may acquire and convey information from the remedy source material into the high dilutions. According to this author, "the potential role of impurities or particles released by the materials used, such as silicates released by glass, is far from being ruled out'' [16]. ...
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The homeopathic medicine, Silicea has been used in biological, physico-chemical and clinical studies. In biology, Silicea increase the production of paf-acether by mouse peritoneal macrophages. The high dilutions of Silicea have been studied using nuclear magnetic resonance, with reproducible modifications of water proton relaxation times. It has been used in India for the treatment of tubercular lymphadenitis and could be included in the homeopathic treatment given in addition to the standard care in multi drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis.
... This use of high dilutions is not systematic and many medicines are used in relatively low dilutions, from 4c to 7c. The presence of molecules of the basic substance in the highest dilutions (9c and especially above 12c, theoretical barrier of molecular presence constituted by Avogadro's number) is discussed by authors [9,10]. HAS in studying dilutions from 2c to 30c did not pose a theoretical barrier, although the question of whether high dilutions were not studied more severely was raised in 1991 by Kleijnen [11]: "Are the results of double-blind randomised clinical trials convincing only if there is a plausible action mechanism'' and this was repeated in 2005 by Vandenbnroucke [12] in a commentary of Shang's meta-analysis [13]:"We know that the pharmacological action of high dilutions is highly implausible''. ...
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The recent evaluation of the efficacy of homeopathic medicines by the French High Authority for Health (HAS) mainly focused on the medicine, yet homeopathy is a therapy which should be evaluated as a whole. After having described the main characteristics of this therapy, the examination of the results obtained in different clinical situations examined by the HAS enables clinical evaluation proposals to be put forward, with observational studies and clinical trials adapted to the therapy's key singularity: the individualisation of the treatment. The continued integration of homeopathic medicine in the French health system and its reimbursement is an essential condition for ensuring the development of research and patient safety.
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The biological activity of ultrahigh dilutions (HDs) as used in homeopathy, especially those beyond Avogadro's limit, is still controversial and an intriguing problem for scientists. Homeopathic remedies are mostly prepared by iterative centesimal dilution under vigorous shaking, called dynamization. Cn corresponds to a dilution factor of 10⁻²ⁿ, and C12 (10⁻²⁴) to the theoretical limit of molecular presence. Since the 1990s, NMR relaxation of water protons has emerged as a potent tool for investigating HDs. This article reviews studies of high methodological quality by five independent teams over more than two decades. They demonstrate an increase in T1 and T1/T2, with a decrease in T2, although less constant, in dynamized aqueous HDs. No variation was observed in the similarly treated solvent controls. The phenomenon seems to be common, regardless of solute, dissolved oxygen, material used (glass or plastic), method of shaking, frequency from 0.02 to 600 MHz. Strikingly, the changes in relaxation times increased gradually with dilution, even in the C12-C30 ultramolecular range and they totally vanished after a heating-cooling cycle directly applied on the sealed NMR tubes. The results were interpreted in terms of increasing correlation times of water, greater than 10⁻⁸ s, resulting from the formation of growing solute-induced nanostructures involving nanobubbles and various elements coming from the medium, the atmosphere and the container. Another unexpected result was that HDs were able to enhance some leaching processes in glass containers.
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A homeopatia pode ser utilizada na pecuária leiteira como uma alternativa segura aos antibióticos, capaz de reduzir a expansão da resistência microbiana, ao passo que mantém a saúde dos rebanhos. No entanto, os compostos homeopáticos podem também ser usados como protetores do fígado, podendo atuar na modulação da função hepática. Os medicamentos homeopáticos a base de plantas podem ser utilizados como agentes hepatoprotetores, uma vez que possuem a capacidade de prevenir e reparar desordens hepáticas que comumente acometem vacas em lactação. Assim, o conhecimento das propriedades terapêuticas de plantas permite a elaboração de preparos homeopáticos, capazes de preservar a saúde dos animais de produção. Baseado nisso, objetivou-se com esta revisão discorrer sobre compostos vegetais utilizados na homeopatia como hepatoprotetores e seus efeitos no metabolismo hepático e na resposta produtiva de animais ruminantes em lactação.
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Background: The objective of the study was to characterize homoeopathic nanomedicine Aurum metallicum and evaluate its biocompatibility, to explore its possible application as injectables. Metal-based homoeopathic medicine, Aurum metallicum, was chosen as a model drug and the haemocompatibility of the drug at three different potencies 6C, 30C, and 200C were studied to find the justification of the drug as an injectable candidate for clinical application. Methods: The model drug Aurum metallicum at the three potencies was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Hemocompatibility of the homoeopathic medicine was performed by haemolysis assay. Red blood cell obtained from fresh human blood by centrifugation was incubated with Aurum metallicum. Haemoglobin release was measured using UV-vis spectrophotometer at 540 nm. Results: The DLS and FESEM studies show a decrease of particle size with increasing potency. The zeta potential values show a fairly constant value measured at an interval of 10 days. The haemolysis percentage for 6C, 30C, and 200C was 9.73%, 8.16%, and 0.73%, respectively. Conclusion: The nanomedicine Aurum metallicum was nontoxic at all doses of 6C, 30C, and 200C. The haemolytic percentage also shows that 200C is nonhemolytic, showing haemolysis
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Background NMR proton relaxation is sensitive to the dynamics of the water molecule H2O, through the interaction of the spin of the proton (¹H) with external magnetic and electromagnetic fields. Methods We measured dilution and potentization processes through measurements of ¹H spin-lattice T1 and spin–spin T2 relaxation times. In order to interpret the recorded fluctuations in T1- or T2-values, experimental data were linearized by investigating how the area under a fluctuating time = f(dilution) curve (dilution integral or DI) changes with dilution. Two kinds of fitting procedures were considered: chi-square fitting with a goodness-of-fit probability, and least absolute deviations criterion with Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. Results We showed that fluctuations are not attributable to random noise and/or experimental errors, evidencing a memory effect quantifiable by the slope of the DI = f(dilution) straight line. For all experiments, correlation coefficients were found to lie above 0.9999, against 0.999 for random noise. The discrimination between experimental slopes and slopes associated with random noise data was very good at a five-sigma level of confidence (i.e. probability 3 × 10⁻⁷). Discrimination between experimental slopes at a five-sigma level was possible in most cases, with three exceptions: gelsemium aqua pura v gelsemium dilution (four-sigma); copper aqua pura v gelsemium aqua pura (four-sigma) and copper simple dilution v gelsemium simple dilution (three-sigma). All potentized samples show very good discrimination (at least nine-sigma level) against aqua pura, lactose or simple dilution. It was possible to transform the associated relaxation times into a molecular rotational correlation time τc and an average spin–spin distance d. Our experiments thus point to a considerable slowing down of molecular movements (τc > 1300 ps or T = 224–225 K) around water molecules up to a distance of 3.7 Å, values. It was also possible to rule out other possible mechanisms of relaxation (diffusive motion, ¹⁷O-¹H relaxation or coupling with the electronic spin, S = 1, of dissolved dioxygen molecules). Conclusion There is clear evidence that homeopathic solutions cannot be considered as pure water as commonly assumed. Instead, we have evidenced a clear memory effect upon dilution/potentization of a substance (water, lactose, copper, gelsemium) reflected by different rotational correlation times and average H⋯H distances. A possible explanation for such a memory effect may lie in the formation of mesoscopic water structures around nanoparticles and/or nanobubbles mediated by zero-point fluctuations of the vacuum electromagnetic field as suggested by quantum field theories. The existence of an Avogadro's ‘wall’ for homeopathically-prepared medicines is not supported by our data. Rather it appears that all dilutions have a specific material configuration determined by the potentized substance, also by the chemical nature of the containers, and dissolved gases and the electromagnetic environment. This sensitivity of homeopathically-prepared medicines to electromagnetic fields may be amplified by the highly non-linear processing routinely applied in the preparation of homeopathic medicines. Future work is needed in such directions. The time is now ripe for a demystification of the preparation of homeopathic remedies.
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