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Design Reviews on a Multipurpose Power Sockets for Different Applications



The current work is to conduct a design review on a multipurpose power socket for home application with the latest state of art features. Reviews are done in the areas of standard and codings, material selections, universal adapters, sensors and lighting technology. The standards for fabrication of BS 546 and BS 1363 plugs and sockets are essential for safety purposes. Together with selection of suitable material in production of plug and sockets, the occurrence of accidents can be averted. The invention of universal adapters was first coined by Rumble in year 1982 marks an evolution in the history of plugs and sockets. The main focus was to cater the different plug fixtures in various countries. Coupled to this, review works on the various types of sensors and lighting technologies is provided since it could be fused to the universal plug adapters for various applications. This paper then go on in proposing future works which could open new research pathways among worldwide researchers. © 2018, © 2018 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
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Design reviews on a multipurpose power sockets
for different applications
Chin jie Wong, Umar Nirmal & Sharmeeni Murugan |
To cite this article: Chin jie Wong, Umar Nirmal & Sharmeeni Murugan | (2018) Design reviews on
a multipurpose power sockets for different applications, Cogent Engineering, 5:1, 1470889, DOI:
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Design reviews on a multipurpose power sockets
for different applications
Chin jie Wong
, Umar Nirmal
*and Sharmeeni Murugan
Abstract: The current work is to conduct a design review on a multipurpose power
socket for home application with the latest state of art features. Reviews are done
in the areas of standard and codings, material selections, universal adapters,
sensors and lighting technology. The standards for fabrication of BS 546 and BS
1363 plugs and sockets are essential for safety purposes. Together with selection of
suitable material in production of plug and sockets, the occurrence of accidents can
be averted. The invention of universal adapters was first coined by Rumble in year
1982 marks an evolution in the history of plugs and sockets. The main focus was to
cater the different plug fixtures in various countries. Coupled to this, review works
on the various types of sensors and lighting technologies is provided since it could
be fused to the universal plug adapters for various applications. This paper then go
on in proposing future works which could open new research pathways among
worldwide researchers.
Subjects: Mechanical Engineering Design; Intelligent Systems; Technology; Life-Long
Design; Universal Design
Keywords: standards and codings; material selections; universal adaptors; PIR sensors;
lighting technology
Chin jie Wong
Chin Jie Wong studies Bachelor of Engineering
(Honours) Mechanical at the Faculty of
Engineering and Technology, Multimedia
University, Melaka Campus, Malaysia. His
research interests are in the field of Mechanical
Mechanisms, Electrical and Electronics. Together
with his mentor, Umar Nirmal, they worked
extensively on the design and development of
smart multipurpose power socket for home
application. The prototype consists of a type G
240V power socket that consist a sensor for
smart lighting system. The prototype is build
based on a plug and playconcept and its tar-
geted for home applications. With this invention,
energy wastage can be minimized while hazar-
dous and low level of illumination can be
Novel home power socket applications are
becoming consumerschoices in selecting an
energy efficient product. In recent years, power
sockets have been invented in such a way where
additional functions and features have been
added to it. This article illustrates the standards
and codings and material selections in fabricat-
ing power sockets. Besides, the evolutions of
universal adapters, sensors and lighting technol-
ogies are also reviewed in this article. The idea of
SnapPower© socket technology is discussed here
too. The plug and playmechanism from the
universal adapter can be applied in producing a
brand new socket type. By incorporating both
light emitting diode and sensors, the socket itself
can be further developed into a smart socket
which features a sensor lighting system. By con-
ducting further research and studies, the multi-
purpose power socket may undergoes further
evolution and modification which will impact our
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
© 2018 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons
Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
Received: 25 January 2018
Accepted: 26 April 2018
First Published: 24 May 2018
*Corresponding author: Umar Nirmal,
Centre of Advanced Mechanical and
Green Technology, Faculty of
Engineering and Technology,
Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer
Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka, Malaysia
Reviewing editor:
Jun Liu, Dalian University of
Technology, China
Additional information is available at
the end of the article
Page 1 of 34
1. Introduction
Light is an important element in humans daily activities as it provides brightness in the dark. There are
varieties of light source that are being adopted in today daily life such as fire, halogen lamp, fluorescent
lamp and light emitting diode (LED) lamp. LED has been chosen as one of the most common lighting
systems due to the advantage in energy saving, better luminous and it can be used for a longer period
of time. Sensors is also focused in current lighting technology. Sensors will act as a switch and only be
functioned as it detects the gesture related to its specification such as motion or darkness. The usage
of sensor in lighting system will further improve the efficiency of the system and provides an alter-
natives for energy saving. Figure 1shows the research interest on passive infrared ray (PIR) sensor in
20072016. Figure 2illustrates the research interest on LED bulbs from year 2007 to 2016.
Both Figures 1and 2demonstrate a gradual increment in the number of research done. This shows
that the market interest in PIR sensors and LED lights are increasing with the number of years.
Therefore, based on the statistics from Figures 1and 2, the authors decided to dedicate a review work
on different types of electrical power sockets coupled with state of the art design which incorporate
different types of lighting and sensors technology for home applications. The review works will start
Figure 2. Research works on
LED bulb from 2007 to 2016.
+bulb. Keyword used: Light
Emitting Diode Bulb
Figure 1. Research works on PIR
sensor from 2007 to 2016.
sor&hl=en&as. Keyword used:
PIR sensor.
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
Page 2 of 34
with a brief overview on the standards and codings implemented, followed by the types of material
used on the development of universal adapters and their applications. On the other hand, different
types of sensors and lighting technology will be discussed in this work. Last but not least, proposed
future works will be presented which could help to open new research pathways in the future.
2. Standards and codings
Standards are the regulations developed by International Standards Organizations (ISO). These stan-
dards act as the benchmark to be referred and used worldwide. Standards are documented to over-
come differences among standards and technical regulations developed independently and separately
by each nation or national standard organization. Codings is a set of rules that specify the standards
that need to be followed to fabricate an object mentioned under the standard and codings.
Plugs and wall sockets are the electrical components that connect together to allow the flow of
electricity and thus complete the circuit. Plug and sockets are invented in Britain in the beginning
of 1880s and designed to have only 2 pins at that time. The official standards then come in when
the idea of interchangeable compatible devices were proposed. BS 1363 is the British standards
that is used in United Kingdom and mostly the Commonwealth countries. It is a type of single-
phase AC power plugs and sockets that can support a voltage up to 250V and a variety of ampere
such as 2A, 5A, 13A and 15A.
By referring to 13 A plugs, socket-outlets, adaptors and connection units, there are standards
that need to be follow strictly in order to produce a marketable wall sockets with inspection on
safety purposes. The sockets shall have marking the necessary information on the parts where it
can be read and will not be easily spoiled. This includes:
name, trademark of the responsible vendor,
the codes of British Standards, BS 1363,
on rewirable adaptors, the terminals for connection of the various conductors shall be identi-
fied by symbols (I. British Standard, 1995),
the word FUSEor FUSEDor the symbol need to be marked on the surface of the adaptor for
fused adaptors (I. British Standard, 1995)
adaptors other than shavers shall marked with the maximum allowable amperes for electrical
load, such as MAX 13 A(I. British Standard, 1995),
adaptors shall be marked with the allowable voltage and nature of supply for suitable
electrical loads (I. British Standard, 1995),
the colour codes for wire to connects needs to be marked referring to the matching below (I.
British Standard, 1995),
Green/Yellow Earth (if any)
Blue Neutral
Brown Live
Table 1illustrates common types of symbol marked on adaptors.
There are specific safety requirements to be followed for BS 1363 wall adaptor. These can be
divided according to 3 types of sockets which are 5A 3-round-pin adaptor, 12A 3-rectangulat-pin
adaptor and 15A 3-round-pin adaptor.
5A 3-round-pin adaptors are referred to BS 546 as international standard. To design and
manufacture BS 546, it must have protection from fuse-link conforming to BS 1362 together.
Only an allowable current of not exceeding 5A is permitted for the operation of this adaptor. A
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
Page 3 of 34
5A adaptor with not more than three 5A sockets protected by one 5A main fuse-link confirming to
BS 646 or BS 1362 is permitted (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 2007).
For 12A 3-rectangular-pin adaptor, the fabricating and designing process should be based on the
BS 1363 Part 3 standard. The 13A adaptor that has one or two sockets for 13A plugs conforming to BS
1363 Part 1 need not be fused. For multiway 13A adaptor that has more than two sockets for 13A
plug conforming to BS 1363 Part 1, it should have a 13A fuse-link conforming to BS 1363 as
protection. For multiway 13A adaptor that has one socket for 12A plug and another socket for 5A
plug conforming to both BS 1363 Part 1 and BS 546, respectively, an appropriate fuse-link complying
with BS 546 and BS 1362 should be used to protect the outgoing circuits through 5A sockets (ISO,
While 15A 3-round-pin adaptor is manufactured and designed to BS 546 standard. A 15A
adaptor is protected by fuse-link matching to BS 1362. Table 2shows the number ratings and
the current ratings of the socket configuration of 15A adaptor (ISO, 2007).
The safety features of BS 1363 adaptor or wall socket is further enhanced with the usage of
safety shutters. The safety shutters is used as such that when a plug is withdrawn from it, the
sockets contacts or the socket holes which carry current supply will be automatically closed. The
shutters should be operated by mating the earth pin to the earth hole. The shutter for a particular
socket aperture should not be able to closed the shutter for another socket aperture independently
(ISO, 2007).
Figure 3illustrates the standard dimension used in fabricating a BS 1362 type wall socket (Saudi
Standards, Metrology and Quality Org [SASO], 2010). The dimension of the sockets must be strictly
Table 1. Symbol marked on adaptors
Symbol Meaning
A Amperes
V Voltages
N Neutral
G/E/ Earth
L Line(Adapter plug)
Table 2. Number and current rating of sockets
Number and Current Rating of sockets
Non-fused Socket Sockets each with Separate
Fuse of Rating not greater
than 5A
Sockets with One Common 5A
Number Current
Rating (A)
Number Current
Rating (A)
Number Current
Rating (A)
One 15 One 5 - -
One 15 - - Two 5
One 13 One 5 - -
One 13 - - Two 5
- - Three 5 - -
- - - - Not more than 3 5
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
Page 4 of 34
followed to ensure that the plug will fit firmly to the socket when using it to avoid accidents to be
In Malaysia, the fabrication and manufacturing of wall sockets must follow the information
booklet of Approval of Electrical Equipment (Electricity Regulation 1994).This regulation is estab-
lished by Energy Commission Malaysia under the Energy Commission Act 2001 [Act 610]. Under
this regulation, a socket outlet is described as an electrical device that is fixed at a point at which
wiring terminates. It provides a detachable connection with the pins of a plug and it has two or
three contacts with a maximum current rating of 15A. Table 3shows the standard codes of wall
socket used in Malaysia.
Figure 3. The dimension of wall
sockets BS 1362.
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
Page 5 of 34
The abbreviation of MS in Table 3refers to Malaysia Standard, IEC refers to International
Electrotechnical Commission and BS refers to British Standard. By ensuing the procedure of
these standards, the respective vendor can apply for certification of approval for electrical equip-
ment with SIRIM Berhard. Upon obtaining the certifications, the vendorsproduct is labelled as
approved regulated electrical equipment and can be sold in Malaysias market.
3. Material selection
Material selection is important in the fabrication works of a power socket. This is to ensure that the
socket produced is durable and safe for its user. The main components of power socket are made
up of plastics and brass. Plastics are used as the casing and inner structure for the socket. Brass is
used as connectors to hold the plug pin to allow the flow of electricity to the electrical appliances.
Plastics can be divided into two type of categories which are synthetic or semi-synthetic organic
compounds and this type of plastics are mostly derived from petrochemical. It is made by building
up from simple chemical substances. To ensure the plastics bonding are tougher, safer, and
cleaner, polymers that build up plastics are added with complex blend of materials known as
additives(Talbot, 1941). These include biodegradable plasticisers, flame retardants, and heat
stabilizers. The grade of plastics used in socket manufacturing is mainly thermoplastics or thermo-
setting polymers. Thermoplastics are plastics that will not undergo physical or chemical change in
their composition upon heated (Gilleo, 2004). Thermosetting polymers, on the other hand can melt
and take shape only once. They remains in solid once they have solidified. There are few common
plastics grade that are used in fabricating power socket.
Phenolic is one of the plastics used in manufacturing process. It act as a good electrical
insulators and able to withstand resistance against water, acid and most solvents. It has low
thermal conductivity and rigid at room temperature. The normal operating temperature limit for
phenolic molding is 150°C, but grades are available which will operate at up to 200°C for limited
periods. These properties allow it to be used in electric appliances industry (Black, 2010). There are
two main production methods. One reacts phenol and formaldehyde directly to produce a thermo-
setting network polymer, while the other restricts the formaldehyde to produce a prepolymer
known as novolac which can be molded and then cured with the addition of more formaldehyde
and heat (Gardziella, Pilato, & Knop, 2000; Hesse, 2004).
Melamine formaldehyde, or melamine is another type of plastics that is used due to its strong
and glossy properties. Melamine shows good resistance to heat, chemicals, moisture, electricity
and scratching which makes it to have excellent molding properties in producing power sockets
Table 3. Wall socket standards codes used in Malaysia (Energy Commission Malaysia, 2009)
Product Domestic Standards Relevant International
Electric Shaver Socket Outlet MS IEC 615581:2005
MS IEC 615582-5:2005
IEC 615581:1998
IEC 615582-5:1997
Electronic Isolating Transformer MS IEC 615582-6:2006
MS IEC 613472-2:2003
IEC 615582-6:1997
IEC 613472-2:2000
AC-AC Adapter/AC-DC Adaptor MS IEC 615582-6:2005 IEC 615582-6:1997
AC-DC Converter/Adaptor
(for audio-video equipment)
MS IEC 60065:2003 IEC 60065:2001
13A Socket-Outlet MS 589:PT.2:1997 BS 1363:PT 2:1995
13A Portable Socket-Outlet MS 589:PT.2:1997 BS 1363:PT 2:1995
15A Socket Outlet MS 1577:2003 BS 546:1950
Portable two-pin socket-outlet MS 1579:2003 SS 448:2001
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
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and plugs (Black, 2010). Melamine formaldehyde was discovered by William F. Talbot and patent
was applied on 12 December 1936 (Talbot, 1941).
Another type of plastics that is widely used is polyimide. Thermosetting polyimide is one of the
highest performing engineering plastics, with superior performance in applications under severe
conditions. The properties of polyimide materials include:
high temperature resistance that have operating temperature of 315°C,
high wear resistance,
low thermal expansion,
good thermal and electrical insulation,
relatively easy to machine,
With this properties, thermosetting polyimides are used in various types of manufacturing indus-
tries including automotive, electrical appliances, aircraft and aerospace (Black, 2010). These
materials tend to be insoluble and have high softening temperatures, arising from charge-transfer
interactions between the planar subunits (Liaw et al., 2012).
Brass is the material used as the electrical conductor inside the wall socket. Brass is a material
that is made of copper and zinc. Copper-zinc solid solution alloy or brass retains good corrosion
resistance and formability of copper but are relatively stronger (Fungal & Brody, 1996). Brass is
used widely in the socket manufacturing due to its properties and it is a cheaper material compare
to gold. Brass is generally soft which means that it can be machined without the use of cutting
fluid, though there are exceptions to this (Faraday, 1832). Brass is used in situations where it is
important that sparks are not struck, for example use as a fittings and tools that near flammable
or explosive materials. CL 15000 99.85Cu-0.15Zr or zirconium-copper is one of the brass used in
fabrication process. It has elastic modulus of 129 GPa and fatigue strength of 180 MPa. The density
of CL 15000 is 8.89 g/cm
and it has a liquidus temperature of 1080°C. The electrical conductivity
of 93% IACS at 20°C. CL 15000 can withstand a temperature up to 1080°C before it melts 93% IACS
shows that it is a good electrical conductor. Another similar brass or copper alloy, CL 15100 shows
a similar properties as in CL 15000. This alloy is called ZHC copper and the elastic modulus is
slightly smaller (121 GPa), the density is larger (8.94 g/cm
) and the liquidus temperature is the
same at 1080°C. However, CL 15100 is a better conductor of electricity with 95% IACS if it is
annealed and 90% if it is rolled with volumetric at 20°C (Fungal & Brody, 1996).
The material used for doing the conductors inside wall socket but be able to withstand over-
heating. If the holders are getting hotter relative to time, there will be a risk of fire. The heating
comes from the current which is drawn by the appliance and the resistance of the conductor. The
plug pin will be inserted to or removed from the socket when using it. If the material wears too
much, the holder may not be able to hold the plug pins firmly. Besides, the material used must be
in low cost to keep the material and processing costs down.
The material used to fabricate an electrical wall socket is crucial in safety purposes. Failure of the
material used may possess danger like electrical sparking. Types of plastics used must be a good
electrical insulator to avoid the electricity to be channelled into area other than the socket holes
that fit in electrical plug. Types of brass used must have good ductility to ensure that the holder of
the socket will always mate with the plug pin tightly and allow electricity to flows through
By selecting the right material in fabrication, problems like electrical sparking can be avoided.
Electric sparking is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field
creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally insulating medium, often air
or other gases or gas mixtures. Faraday described this phenomenon as beautiful flash of light
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
Page 7 of 34
attending the discharge of common electricity (Faraday, 1832). By rapid transitioning of electric
field from a non-conducting to a conductive stats, it will produce a brief emission of light and a
sharp crack or snapping sound.
Fire is one of the major disasters around the world and electrical fire is the leading type of fire in
terms of occurrence rate. An analysis is done in China and the leading type of fault resulting in
major electrical fires is short circuit (43.89%) while the second leading fault is loose contact
accounting for 8.89%. The second type of faulty is more difficult to discover as it is always covered
by some illusions including short circuits. A study to such fires also known as sparking was
conducted by Zi-Bo, Man, Chang-Zheng, and Ming (2011). First, two different types of loose contact
fault, contact area reduction and contact vibrations are simulated tested and the temperature and
some electrical parameters of contact resistance are tabulated during the testing. With this
results, the characteristic identification criterion for loose contact is proposed (Zi-Bo et al., 2011).
In the experiment, plugs and sockets of rated current 10A are used under conditions of reduc-
tion and contact areas and contact vibrations. External heating temperature of 100°C, 200°C, 300°
C, 400°C, 500°C, 600°C and 700°C are used to determine the characteristic law of samples.
Apparently the plastics insulations of shells are melted and deformed while the metal parts are
carbonized but there is no sign of melting and deformation. From the analysis results, it can be
concluded that under fault over a small contact area, the plugs terminal could reach a tempera-
ture of 300400°C and the contact area between plug and socket can reach a temperature of 200
300°C. The major problem in sparking is after melting and carbonizing of insulation material of wall
socket, secondary fault including combustion and short circuit may happen directly (Techakittiroj,
The inductance of the wall sockets will result in creating sparks. When the outlet is unplugged,
the inductance in the distributed system resists the change in the current. The path for the current
has to be created and it is only active when the socket is unplugged. The rising voltage appears
mainly at the outlet terminal and the major concern is to reduce the voltage at the socket. By
reducing the voltage, the electrical sparks on the contact surface can be eliminated and this
improves the socket lifetime. A capacitor is used to absorb energy from the inductance where
the voltage will be regulated by the capacitor. By combining a capacitor with an inductor will result
an oscillation at the voltage terminal and prolongs the durations of high voltage at the terminal. A
resistor is used to damp the oscillation (Techakittiroj, 2008). Figure 4shows the PSpice circuit for
analysing a socket outlet.
The simulations is done by adding a capacitor of 0.22 μF and a resistor of 5Ώto the outlet side.
The simulations runs on three different value of inductance: 0.01mH, 0.1mH and 1mH
Figure 4. PSpice circuit for ana-
lysing a socket outlet.
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
Page 8 of 34
(Techakittiroj, 2008). Figure 5illustrates simulation results by adding inductance into the socket
outlet circuit.
The effect of load on the protection circuit is simulated. The power consumption varies on
different values, from a very small amount such as mobile phone charger to a very large amount
such s air-conditioner. The loads used in simulation are 8Ώ(25A), 20Ώ(10A), 200Ώ(1A) and 2k Ώ
(0.1A) (Techakittiroj, 2008). Figure 6shows the simulation result by adding resistance into the
From the simulation result it can be seen that larger load will produce larger maximum over-
shoot. The resistance and capacitance value is increasing as to reduce the maximum overshoot. By
adding resistor and capacitor to the circuit on the wall socket, the probability of electric sparks to
occur can be minimized.
4. Universal adapters
The applications of universal adapters will aid in designing the multipurpose power socket.
Universal adapter was first invented by Clive S. Rumble in 1982 and patented in 1985. He picked
up the idea of inventing such adapter as it was convenience for a user to use his or her particular
Figure 6. Simulation result
when the resistance is added
into socket outlet circuit.
Green line indicates induc-
tance; Red line indicates capa-
citance; Blue line indicates the
power supply; Yellow line indi-
cates the added resistance
Figure 5. Simulation result
when the inductance is added
into socket outlet circuit.
Blue line indicates the variation
of inductance; Red line indi-
cates the resistance; Green line
indicates the capacitance
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
Page 9 of 34
plug pin in another foreign country. Universal adapter is a type of adapter used mostly during
travelling as not all country are using the same type of plug and socket as in BS 1362 or Type G
standard. The universal adapter has built in transformer and rectifier to step down the voltage
supply to 120V and to change the AC voltage into DC voltage to meet the countrys voltage and
current supply.
A universal adapter with patent no. US 5159545 was invented by Lee. This adaptor has different
types and shape of plug pins located at one end of the adapter. These plug pins is matched with
different types of wall socket across the world. The adaptor has a convertor which consists of a
transformer and a rectifier for transforming or rectifying an input power. The socket for the plug
pins to fit in is located on the other side of the adaptor which is made to be a universal sockets for
different types of plug. The selected plug pins of the adaptor is pushed out from the other side and
a slidable locking members used to lock the plug pin used. When the adapter is not used, the
locking members is pulled to the opposite direction and the pins can be pushed back into the
adaptor (Lee, 1992). Figure 7shows the exploded view of universal adapter US 5159545.
Another universal adapter patent no. US 5791921 was invented by Lee. The working mechanism
is similar to the previous adaptor but there are some differences. The plug pins are located at one
side while the sockets are located in the other side. The rectangular pins and the flat blades pins
are located at both ends of the adaptor. It can be extended or retracted using the seesaw buttons
located at the sides of it. When extending the rectangular pins, the ground pin will be simulta-
neously biased for its forward extending to form triple rectangular shaped pins (Lee, 1998). The
third pins consists of a pair of round pins and it can be horizontally extended when in used. Figure
8illustrates the isometric view of universal adapter US 5791921.
In the third universal adapter patent no. US 4543624, the working principle is similar to the
previous 2 adapter on how the plug pins is pulled out and pushed back. However, this adapter
features a louvres on the position of L1, L2 and L3 to allow any heat generated therein to be
readily dissipated (Rumble, 1985). Figure 9illustrates the isometric view of this universal adapter
where Figure 9(a) shows the bottom view of the adapter while Figure 9(b) shows the top view of
the adapter.
Figure 7. The universal adapter
of patent no. US 5159545.
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
Page 10 of 34
An adapter Patent No. US 4626052 was invented by Rumble. It features a universal adapter
which is wider instead of taller in the previous 3 design. The whole adapter is in a cylindrical shape.
The adapter contains a stack of sliding pin carriers. The pin array can be extended or retracted by
operating lugs L protruding from the side of the casing. Releasable detents associated with the
lugs locate the sliding carriers in the forward and retracted conditions.(Rumble, 1986) Figure 10
shows the isometric view of the respective universal adapter.
Figure 8. The universal adapter
of patent no. US 5791921.
Figure 9. The universal adaptor
of patent no. US 4543624.
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
Page 11 of 34
The fifth universal adapter patent no. US 5474464 was invented by Drewnicki. This device
comprises of a carrier member that is mounted on the housing. There are also different types of
selectable pin arrays disposed on the carrier member which can be operated one at a time by
rotation of the carrier relative to the housing. A plurality of socket arrays are also rotatable are
mounted on the aperture member on the other side of the housing. By rotating the members of
the housing, the socket arrays is selected and it can be operated only one at a time too. The plug
pins of the selected pin arrays are pivotally mounted on the carrier member so that they can be
extended outwardly to be connected to wall socket and moved to a retracted inoperative position
when not in use (Drewnicki, 1995). Figure 11 illustrates the exploded view of the patented universal
In the next 3 universal adapter inventions, the working mechanisms are similar that are chan-
ging the plug pins of the adaptor to a suitable type when using it. In Wongs invention patent no.
US 6942508, there is a bayonet fitting at the base. The bayonet fitting of the base is created to
secure the body to the base in a desire orientations. There are electrical contacts configure on the
body to engage with the terminals of the base when the body and base are secured to one another
(Wong, 2005). The pins piece is rotated to body in clockwise direction to lock it and vice versa to
remove it. Figure 12 shows the isometric view of the bayonet fittings of adapter US 6942508. While
in an invention of Philips, Fischer, and Fyke (2013) patent no. US 6845023, there are different types
of adaptor plug configured to mate with the socket. The adapter has a locking mechanism
operative to lock the adaptor plug into the socket. A detent button is located on the sides of the
adapter and it is pressed to either lock or release the adaptor plug to or from the socket (Philips
et al., 2013). Figure 13 shows isometric view of this patented adapter. In an invention of Lee and Li
(2001) (patent no. US 6328591), the pins can be switched according to the type of sockets used.
The face panel may be equipped with a safety cover. The peripheral mounting stripes are attached
to the periphery of face panel, the inwardly extended hooked portion of each mounting strip is
hooked on the back side wall of the face panel to let the safety cover be rotated on the face panel.
When in use, the safety cover is rotated on the face panel to move the insertion holes into
alignment with the plugholes for installation of any variety of electric plugs (Lee & Li, 2001).
Figure 14 shows the isometric view of this invention.
There is no product available in the market today regarding the multipurpose power socket.
However, there is a similar product which combining a socket with the sensor lighting system,
SnapPower© Guidelight. SnapPower© launched The SnapPower© Guidelight in March 2014. It is a
replacement for the standard electrical outlet cover at home. The guide light will have LED lighting
Figure 10. The universal adap-
tor patent no. US 4626052.
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
Page 12 of 34
system on the lower part to provide illumination at night. The LED lighting system will be auto-
matically switched on or off with the aid of a build in light sensor.
An invention was proposed by Smith (Patent No. US 8912442) in 2014. The cover plate includes
electrical receptacle and two conductor strips. The first conductor strip on the left and the other
conductor strip on the right. The conductor strips are located at the middle rearward direction of
Figure 11. The universal adap-
ter of patent no. US 5474464.
Figure 12. The bayonet fitting
of adapter patent no. US
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the plate. When the plate is snug into the socket, the first conductor strip is contacted to the
electrical receptacle that is connected to a power source. Similar procedure will done on the
second conductor strip is snug into the socket. The cover plate also includes an insulating material
to prevent both conducting strip from contacting with other conducting materials. The lower front
part of the cover plate has a photocell that can detects photons either in visible range or infrared
range. The photocell acts as a switch to turn the LED bulb at the lower base of the cover plate on or
off (Smith, 2014). Figure 15(a) illustrates the front view of the patented active cover plate and
Figure 15(b) illustrates the back view of the patented active cover plate.
The improvement of the active cover plate was done by Smith et al. (2015). In this invention, the
conductor strips are replaced with spring clip. The spring clip is adjustable in both horizontal
direction and vertical direction with respect to the faceplate to reach screw terminals with
different depth. The spring clip has an electrical conductive portion that is connected to the
faceplate and a non-conductive portion connected to the opposite end of the conductive portion.
Figure 13. The universal adap-
ter patent no. US 6845023.
Figure 14. The universal of
adapter patent no. US 6328591.
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The active cover plate is designed to have adjustability in order to connect to a wide range of
outlet bodies. It can be adjusted in X direction to accommodate different heights, in Y direction to
accommodate screw terminals that have different depth and in Z direction to accommodate
different width. The lower side of the cover plate has an externally accessible power supply for
universal serial bus (USB) charger or other circuitry. There are two USB ports to allow the user to
charge two devices at the same time. The lower part of the cover plate can be also accommodated
with guidelight mechanism. This mechanism includes a light sensor aperture on the front face and
few light emission apertures on the bottom. The light emission aperture id available in different
shape and size to fulfil the desire product look (Smith et al., 2015). Figure 16 illustrates back view of
the active cover plate with (a) the spring clip in elevated position; (b) the spring clip in its original
5. Sensors
By introducing the applications of sensor into the socket, it will only be switched on whenever a
certain gesture or condition is detected. A sensor is an electronic components that detect any
a) b)
Figure 15. Design of active
cover plate US 8912442.
a) b)
Figure 16. Spring clip design of
active cover plate US 2015/
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changes or differences in a particular environment and send the related information to other
electronic devices, usually a computer processor. The sensor is often used together with other
electronic devices to perform an operation whether as simple as a light or as complex as a
computer. In todays lighting technology, the use of sensor in the lighting system is very common
as this helps in saving the cost of operating the system, increasing the efficiency of the system and
providing automatic control. The types of sensor that will be focusing in this part are motion
detector sensor and light sensor.
A motion detector sensor is a device that detects the objects that are in motion, particularly
human. The appliance is used to together with an integrated system to automatically perform an
order or command when the motion of user is detected. Passive infrared sensor and occupancy
sensor are examples of motion detector sensor. A passive infrared sensor (PIR sensor) is an
electronic device that measures the infrared ray (IR) that is radiating from the particular object
that is either in motion or in stand still position. When an object passes through a certain
compound, said a wall, the temperature at that point in the sensors viewpoint will rise from
room temperature to body temperature. The temperature falls back to room temperature when
the object passes by the area. The sensor converts the resulting change in the incoming IR into
output voltage which will trigger the detection. The PIR sensor can also detect objects with similar
temperature but different surface characteristics as the surface may have different IR emission
pattern. While occupancy sensor consists of various indoor motion detecting devices used to
notice the presence of a person in a room or space.
5.1. Passive infrared sensor (PIR) sensor
In an invention of Noguchi (patent no. US 7196330), the PIR sensor consists of an infrared sensing
element, a pair of lenses that are set at angle of 180° opposing to each other to maximize the
detection areas of the infrared sensing element. The infrared light from side detection areas can
enter the infrared sensing element with a pair of mirrors set in opposite position. An infrared light
incident surface is disposed facing the opposite direction from an attachment surface where the
passive infrared sensor is located. A lens is set on the outer circumference for plural front detection
in that area. A slit is formed by the previous pair of mirrors to allow infrared light ray enter the
infrared sensing element from the front detection areas(Noguchi, 2007b). Figure 17 illustrates the
sectional view of the respective sensor.
Figure 17. Passive infrared sen-
sor patent no. US 7196330 B2.
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In another invention of Noguchi (patent no. US 7170060), this PIR sensor includes an infrared
sensing element, a pair of lenses, a pair of main mirrors and a pair of submirrors. The submirror on
the right is disposed on the right side main mirror. The orientation of the submirror is changed by a
first predetermined angle to the horizontal direction in a direction away from the attachment
surface. The orientation of the submirror is also changed by a second predetermined angle to the
vertical direction in a downward direction. The submirror on the left side is oriented in a similar
method on the right side (Noguchi, 2007a). With the presence of the submirror, the infrared light
can be further focused into the infrared sensing element located in the middle of PIR sensor
embodiment. Figure 18 shows the patented PIR sensor.
In an invention of Batko and Eckel (1998) (patent no. US 6772326), the module consists of a
temperature and passive infrared sensor. The module has air flow vents at the top and bottom and
both sides to allow the circulation of air. The temperature sensor is mounted in the position which
exposed to air circulation of sensor module housing. The passive infrared sensor is mounted in
which it is not exposed to air circulating which will cause the sensor to be operated. A foam block is
placed around the case to isolate the passive infrared sensor (Batko & Eckel, 1998). In the
improvement of Batko and Baldwin (2000) invention (patent no. US 6082894), the temperature
sensor is mounted in such a way that it will not be affected by heat generated by electrical
components. The embodiment is in semi-cylindrical shape. The top section of the embodiment has
a front curved sensor where the passive infrared sensor and an ambient light sensor are posi-
tioned. The bottom part of the embodiment is formed by a removable clip-in door to allow air flow
ventilation. The passive infrared sensor together with the temperature sensor are mounted on the
front electrical-lead side of the vertically positioned PC board, the heat generating electrical
components are mounted opposite to the sensors, the back component side of the PC board
(Batko & Baldwin, 2000). Figure 19 illustrates the orthographic view of the temperature and PIR
sensor module.
Tomooka and Sugimoto (1997) invented a type of PIR sensor in 1997 (Patent No. US 5703368). It
is a passive infrared sensor system which consists of two sensor units. Each of the sensor units is
made up of a light receiving element and an optical system. The first sensor unit is used to scan an
area oriented to upper half of a human body. The second sensor unit is used to scan an area
directed diagonally downward towards a point on the ground surface. The second sensor unit is
used to define a second predetermined watch area that is below the first watch area. The passive
Figure 18. Passive infrared sen-
sor patent no. US 7170060 B2.
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infrared sensor system each will have the respective detecting circuits. They will only be function-
ing when the level of electric output signal from the associated first or second sensor unit exceeds
a predetermined reference level (Tomooka & Sugimoto, 1997). The sensor system can detect the
motion on animal and human body. Figure 20 shows the flow chart on how the sensor detects a
moving object.
Suzuki et al. (Kondo, Mikio, Morimoto, & Kayanoki, 1987) invented a PIR sensor with different
working mechanism patent no. US 4672206. The detector has an optical collector that is attached
to the base where PIR sensor is located in the middle of the base. The collector functions as
gathering the incident infrared radiation from the space and focused the radiation to the sensor.
The sensor is held by joint member which is pivotally supported on the base. The optical collector is
also attached to this joint member. With this jointing method, the optical collector together with
the joint member can be rotated up to 360 degree. The joint member also forms an electrically
shielded case on which the sensor is received together with electric components forming an
amplifier to amplifying the output signal from the sensor (Kondo et al., 1987). Figure 21 shows
the sectional view of the particular detector.
Muller and Allemann (2003) invented a passive infrared detector patent no. US 6559448 which
consists of a heat-sensitive sensor and a focusing device. The focusing device will focus thermal
ray or infrared light ray from the area under surveillance onto the sensor. The focusing device of
the detector consists focusing element of different surveillance regions or position to enhance the
detection of the passive infrared sensor. Each focusing element has a number of sub elements
where the surveillance regions can be divided into several areas which are having different height
measured from the bottom surface of the detector. The motion of either human or animals can be
identified based on the amplitude of sensor signal which is proportional to the number of subzones
Figure 19. Temperature and PIR
sensor module in US 6772326
and US 6082894.
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that identify the presence of the object in the vision under surveillance. The subzones are arrange
in layers on top of one another such that a sequence of dense curtains is produced and the
sensitivity of each subzone are equal. The detector has four sensor elements and they are used in
pairs that form two independent channels (Muller & Allemann, 2003). Figure 22 shows the side
view of the respective detector.
Another type of passive infrared detector was invented by Tom in 1992 (patent no. US 5107120).
This detector consists of a pyroelectric sensor. The sensor has three pairs of active elements which
are placed in different plane for juxtaposing each optical centre to the plane. The active elements
consists of three pairs of active elements which are made up of six passive infrared sensors. One
pair of active elements is placed on a plane that is parallel to the surface of the detector substrate
while the other two pairs are placed on each side of the parallel plane depending on the degree
angle needed. The detector is covered by a Fresnel lens which has numbers of segments. Each
segments has their own optical centre and an equivalent focal length from the centre base of the
detector (Tom, 1992). Figure 23 shows the sectional view of the patented detector.
5.2. Occupancy sensor
Myron and Konradi (2001) invented an occupancy sensor (Patent No. US6222191 B1) in year 2001.
This occupancy sensor has multiple sensor including a unique sensor case assembly and sensor
mounting scheme. With the unique casing, the sensor can be adjusted to provide broader ultra-
sonic pattern coverage and focus infrared light ray from various directions. The occupancy sensor
consists of a passive infrared lens to focus infrared light ray from various directions. A changeable
PIR sensor masking scheme is used to allow customization of PIR sensor sensitivity pattern. The
mask of this sensor consists of an oblong pattern mask, masks with 180 degree, 270 degree and
Figure 20. Passive-type infrared
sensor system in US 5703368.
Figure 21. Passive infrared
detector US4672206.
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360 degree and they can be twisted up to 30 degree. The mounting scheme is also designed in
such a way to allow the sensor to be mounted on walls and ceilings with different condition (Myron
& Konradi, 2001). Figure 24 illustrated the exploded view of the particular occupancy sensor.
The usage of PIR sensor brings few advantages to the users. This includes improving the
security systems. The devices is able to detect when someone is around the properties as his
or her motion was detected. The signal is then send to the security systems control panel to
stay alert and wake alarms up when necessary. The signal can also be send to a local
security stations to dial a sequence of phone numbers in order to provide a verbal alarms
(Glidewell, Fun, & Witham, 1994). The usage of PIR sensor in lighting system can aids in
saving a considerable amount of energy. The light will only be turned on whenever there is a
motion detected. It has been estimated that for every 2.3 units of power produced, approxi-
mately a single unit of energy can be saved (Yavuz, Taşbaşi, Evirgen, & Kara, 1996).
The disadvantages of the sensor is related to its sensitivity and delay time. Sensitivity is the
range that needs to be seenor detect by the sensor. The sensitivity need to be adjust according
to the requirement by its user. If the sensitivity is large, the sensor may send a fake signal which
will triggers a false alarm to the system. The sensitivity can be adjusted by adjusting an optical
Figure 22. Passive Infrared
Detector Patent No. US
Figure 23. Passive infrared
detector Patent No. US
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gain, pulse count, or electrical or optical sensitivity of the PIR sensor (Zakrewski, 2005). For the
delay time, it is the period allowed for the sensor to keep the output high. Different sensor will
have different delay time for the operations. Therefore, the delay time needs to be set precisely so
that the sensor will be able to perform in the optimum condition and to be fully utilized.
A light sensor contains a major component, a photoresistor or light-dependent resistor (LDR).
Photoresistor or LDR is a resistor that is sensitive to light and can be used as switch with based on
the intensity of light. The resistance of the resistor willbe increased ifthe light intensity that it received
is decreasing. This features is known as photoconductivity. The characteristics of light dependent
resistor allows it to be used in light-sensitive detector circuits or light and dark activated switching
circuits. Photosensor or photodetector is another type of sensor that operated with the presence of
light or other electromagnetic energy (Haugan et al., 2008). P-N junction inside the photodetectors will
convert the light photons into current. With the absorbed photons, the photosensors are able to make
electron-hole pairs in the depletion region. Temperature compensated solar light sensor, infrared light
sensor and ambient light sensor are the types of light sensor that will be discussed.
5.3. Temperature compensated solar light sensor
Mandalakas invented a temperature compensated solar light sensor patent no. US 3480781. In
this product, two solar cells that have the same features are mounted on a thermal equalizing
Figure 24. Occupancy sensor of
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plate. A temperature resistor is also mounted on the plate. The cells and the resistor are able to
receive the same intensity of light and same temperature as they have the same physical location
and construction. The use of two solar cells can ensure that the output variations of one cell cause
by temperature difference is cancelled out by another solar cell. Both solar cells are operated
under short-circuit conditions for good linearity of output with intensity. The short circuit consists
of an emitter follower configuration controlled by an operational amplifier (Mandalakas, 1969).
Figure 25 shows the isometric view and the circuit symbol of the solar light sensor.
5.4. Infrared light sensor
Watabe, Honda, Aizawa, and Ichihara (2001) invented an infrared sensor patent no. US 6236046 in
2001. According to this invention, 2 infrared detecting elements are used. The first infrared element is
mounted in a container through a supporting substrate while the second infrared element is also
mounted in the container for the compensation of temperature difference. The second infrared
element is shielded by the supporting substrate of the first infrared element from the incident
infrared within the container. Any deterioration in the detecting various ambient temperature can
be restrained by this arrangement without causing any hindrance to the compensation for the
ambient temperature. This arrangement will also improve the sensitivity of the sensor to keeping it
at high precision and the cost of building it is inexpensive Watabe et al. (2001). Figure 26 illustrates
the sectional view of the respective infrared sensor.
5.5. Ambient light sensor
An ambient light sensor patent no. US6396040 was invented in 2002 by Hill. In this invention, the light
sensor is improved where it is able to distinguish between a natural light and an artificial ambient
light. This technology is used in a vehicle system controller where it uses photo sensors that will
responds differently towards the peak frequencies of natural light and artificial ambient light. There
are two photodiode where the first one responds to the peak frequencies inthe visible spectrum while
the second sensor responds to peak frequencies in the infrared spectrum (Hill, 2002). By gathering the
information of the light ray received, the control system will identify whether to turn on the lights or
not. Figure 27 shows the sectional view of the patented ambient light sensor.
Figure 25. Temperature com-
pensated solar light sensor US
Figure 26. Infrared sensor of US
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The light sensor has its advantages and disadvantages to its user. The sensor is relatively
cheaper as compare to the PIR sensor. The circuit for setting the light sensor into a system is
simpler compare to PIR sensor. Light sensor is suitable to be used in lighting system where it focus
on turning the lights on during night time. The sensitivity of the sensor is therefore critical in
applying it in this application. This will helps in saving the energy as the light is switched on only
when it is necessary.
By measuring the light rays and identify whether it is necessary to switch on the circuit, the light
sensor is only be able to function in a dark place or dark atmosphere. It is important to determine
the environment for a particular environment and identify which type of sensor to be used. Failure
in determining the condition may results in choosing a not suitable sensor to be used.
6. Lighting technology
Selecting a bright luminous and energy saving light sources will aid in producing an energy efficient
power socket. Artificial lighting technology began to develop since nineteenth century. In 1809, Sir
Humphrey Davey demonstrates an electrical discharge lighting using an open arc between two
carbon rods which emits pure white and intense light. This idea was enhanced by Thomas Edison in
patenting a carbon filament incandescent lamp in 1880. The first fluorescent lamp was on commer-
cial sale by Artcraft Fluorescent Lighting Corperation in 1938. First quartz halogen lamp or tungsten
halogen lamp was invented in 1957 and this was followed by the invention of first LED in 1962. In the
latest invention, Ushio Lighting demonstrates the first LED filament light bulb in 2008.
6.1. Tungsten halogen lamp
A halogen lamp, or in other terms as tungsten halogen lamp, is an incandescent lamp. It consists
of a tungsten filament sealed into a compact transparent envelope that is filled with a mixture of
inert gas and little amount of halogens. The halogen gas inside the bulb will produce halogen cycle
chemical reaction by combining with tungsten filament that are heated. A carbon filament lamp
was created using chlorine as halogen gas inside the lamp in 1882 and chorine-filled NoVak
lamps were created in 1892 (Wallace, 2001). The use of iodine as halogen gas inside the lamp was
proposed in 1993 and patented by General Electric in 1959 (Kane & Sell, 2001). In conventional
tungsten lamps, the filament metal slowly evaporates and condenses on the glass envelope,
Figure 27. Ambient light sensor
of US6396040.
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leaving a black stain. The halogen then removes the deposited tungsten and puts it back on the
A tungsten halogen lamp was invented by Westlund, Palmer, Audesse, and Huston (1974). This
halogen lamp has an aluminosillicate glass envelope with wedge base. The coil of wire used is
molybdenum wires that passing through a pinch seal. The unstabilized tungsten coil filament are
supported by clamp at each end. The lamp is filled with an inert gas, such as argon, nitrogen,
krypton, or a mixture of halogen additive such as bromine, for example, in the form of hydrogen
bromide. The lamp can also include a getter made from tantalum wire to be secure in the base
pinch seal (Westlund et al., 1974). Figure 28 shows the sectional view of this tungsten halogen
In an invention of James P. Keenan (patent no. US 4049988), the gaseous filled inside the tungsten
halogen lamp is helium to prevent deposits forming on the wall surface of the tungsten lamp
(Keenan, 1977).
A linear tungsten halogen lamp (patent no. US 4027189) was invented by Coaton in 1977. The
linear tungsten halogen lamp is able to burn at any desired angle. The gas fillings selected are
halogen or halogen-containing compound which require mathematically expression to satisfy this
condition. If the mathematical proving part is accepted, the angles of the lamp when burning at
the inclined angle is reduced to an acceptable level. The maximum degree of separation of the
halogen can be calculated from the lamp parameters as a function of the thermal diffusion
coefficient of halogen in the filling (Coaton, 1977). Figure 29 illustrates the front view of the
respective lamp.
Figure 28. Tungsten halogen
lamp patent no. US 3829729.
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Another type of tungsten halogen lamp (patent no. 3641386) was invented by Audesse, Griffin,
Tartakoff, and Gutta (1972). The lamps envelope is made up of hard glass which the upper part of it
has a temperature gradient of approximately 200°C. When the lamp is heated, the halogen will
react with the impurities in the tungsten to condense the halogen out non-regeneratively on the
top of the envelope. The supporting conductors of the lamp are made to be small enough to
operate at incandescence at the designed current compare to the larger diameter of supporting
conductors used in normal incandescent lamp. The voltage drop due to the smaller diameter of
supporting conductors is compensated by creating the filament coil that is able to operate at the
desired temperature with lower voltage in a circumference occupy with bromine and krypton
(Audesse et al., 1972). Figure 30 shows the side view of the patented tungsten halogen lamp.
A glass halogen lamp (patent no. 5910707) was invented by Bell in 1999. Aluminisilicate glasses
are used as glass envelope where they exhibit short wavelength transmission. These glasses
exhibits up to 65% of light transmission at 340 nm for a thickness of 1mm. The transmission of
light rays can be increased up to 83% at 340 nm for a thickness of 1 mm by reducing the iron level
to 100ppm or less. By utilizing a thinner wall thickness at appropriate sections of the envelope
together with reducing in the iron level, the short wavelength transmission can be improved and
Figure 29. Tungsten halogen
lamp patent no. US 4027189.
Figure 30. Tungsten halogen
lamp patent no. US 3641386.
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higher level of light output can be achieved (Bell, 1999). Figure 31 shows the sectional view of the
patented halogen lamp.
An electrical ballast is required in the circuit for tungsten halogen lamp to limit the amount of
current flows. The device is placed in line with the load of the circuit. There is a variety types of
ballast. It can be a simple combination of a resistor, inductor or capacitor to a complex combina-
tion that is widely used in compact fluorescent lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps. Ballast
in used mainly when a load has its terminal voltage decline when current through the load
Figure 31. Glass halogen lamp
patent no. US 5910707.
Figure 32. The circuit diagram
of an electrical ballast in light-
ing system.
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increases. This continuous increasing of current will damage the power supply and caused it to fail
(Ofer, 2012). Ballast is used to provide a positive resistance or reactance that will limit the current.
Ballast is mainly used in a fluorescent lamp, a device with negative differential resistance (Nihal,
1998). A lighting source ballast utilizes switching and control technology to convert an alternating
current (AC) phase modulated dimmer input voltage into an approximately constant driver current
to illuminate the bulb (Melanson, 2010). Figure 32 demonstrates the circuit diagram of a ballast in
a lighting system.
6.2. Light emitting diode (LED)
LED or light emitting diode is a two-lead semiconductor device which will emits light when it is
activated. When a desire voltage is supplied to the leads, electrons will recombine with electron
holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. The earliest LED was designed by
Holonyak in 1962 which only emitted low-intensity infrared light (Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, 2004; Okan & Baird, 2015) . The current LED design and product are more efficient
than the incandescent lamp in terms of energy consumption and lifetime.
In Sakai and Kawamura (1987) invention patent no. US 4698730, the light-emitting element of a
LED is mounted on a lead frame, stem or substrate. The lens is made by resin through molding. A
cap with peripheral surface with a hollow portion in the middle is made with light-transparent
resin. It is mounted on the lens portion of the LED to form a parabolic surface. With this features,
the LED can reflect the emitted light forwardly from the light emitting element. The light emitted
from the side of light emitted element can be reflected forward as a parallel light with the
peripheral shape of the cap. These emissions of light will increase the luminance of the LED
(Sakai & Kawamura, 1987). Figure 33 shows the sectional view of the respective LED.
An LED patent no. US6914267 was created by Fukasawa, Miyasshita, and Tsuchiya (2005). This
LED shows a different line up of components. The light emitting element of LED is mounted on a
glass epoxy substrate. There is a resin seal member applied on the light emitting element to
protect the surface side. Gallium nitride type compound semiconductor is used as the light
Figure 33. Light emitting diode
US 4698730.
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emitting element and this will emit blue luminescence. A layer containing fluorescent material in
placed on the back side of the LED. With this arrangement, the blue light emitted from the light
emitted element is converted into a wavelength which white luminescence of high luminescent
intensity is obtained (Fukasawa et al., 2005). Figure 34(a) shows the sectional view of the patented
LED whereas Figure 34(b) illustrates the exploded view on the how the light emitting element is
placed on the base plate.
Nakada, Aoki, Oba, and Kagiwada (1972) invented another type of LED (Patent No. US6774401)
in 2004. This invention aims in improving the intensity of the light emitted from LED using a simple
configuration. An electrode terminals, a LED chip, a reflector, an enclosing resin and a wavelength
conversion material are used in the configuration. The reflector is in a bowl shape to reflect the
light emitted from LED chip to the opening. A LED chip is connected to the electrode terminal. The
density of the wavelength conversion material mixed into the enclosing resin is larger at the
bottom of the junction surface of the LED chip than at the top. The wavelength conversion material
contains enclosing resin which absorbs the light emitted from LED and emits the light with longer
Figure 34. Light emitting diode
patent no. US6914267.
Figure 35. Light emitting diode
patent no. US6774401.
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wavelength as compare to the light it absorbed (Nakada et al., 1972). Figure 35 shows the
sectional view of the LED where the electrode terminal is placed on the centre of the LED.
An LED was invented by Takekuma (patent no. US 6850001) in 2005. This LED has no fluctuations
in optical properties and has good sealing properties. Thus, it is relatively simple to produce this
LED. The LED has a cup shape base where the light emitting element is place in the centre of the
base. A resin material is also used to fill into the cup part. A transparent lens member is placed on
the top of the cup shape base to focus the light emitted from the LED. A layer of fluorescent
material is applied to the convex surface of the cup shape base which convert the wavelength of
some of the light emitted. By attaching the lens member to the cup shape base, the inner convex
face will deform the resin material and excess resin material can be pushed to the outside
(Takekuma, 2005). Figure 36 shows the sectional view of the respective LED.
The following LED was invented Takahashi et al. (2004) . The LED contains a layer of scattering
materials with light guiding to receive the light emitted from light emitting material. The scattering
layers with irregular light guiding will reflects and scatters the emitted light. The scattered light will
lead to a fluorescence emitting layer which form a transparent binder that contains phosphor
material. The refracted light has high optical density and it can be radiated from the whole
fluorescence emitting layer. With this properties, uniform light with desired colour can be radiated
Figure 36. Light emitting diode
patent no. US 6850001.
Figure 37. Light emitting diode
patent no. US6791116.
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with high efficiency from LED (Takahashi, 2004). Figure 37 shows the sectional view of the
patented LED.
The comparisons between LED light bulb and tungsten halogen light bulb are shown in Table 4.
From Table 4, LED bulbs shows a longer life spans which is 10 to 50 times longer compare to
tungsten halogen bulbs. Besides that, the consumption of electricity for LED bulb is comparatively
low compare to Tungsten halogen bulb.
Table 5shows that both bulbs does not contain toxic material such as mercury. However, both
bulbs are under Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) compliant which means they contains
restricted substances in this case is lead. Therefore, these bulbs need to be disposed carefully to
avoid pollutions. Table 5also shows that the carbon dioxide emissions from LED bulbs is lower
compare to tungsten halogen bulbs.
Table 6shows that both bulbs are insensitive to temperature and their function will not be
affected by any changes in temperature. These bulbs are sensitive to humidity as the humidity
environment may affect their performance. The durability of LED bulbs is better as compare to
tungsten halogen bulbs. Tungsten halogen lamp will fail and spoiled more frequently than LED
bulbs. LED will emit more heat than tungsten halogen bulb.
Table 7shows that the higher the light output, the more energy input is required. However, LED
bulb consumed the electrical power in a lower scale compare to tungsten halogen bulb.
Table 4. Energy efficiency comparison of bulbs (Ayan, 2017)
Energy Efficiency Type of bulbs
Tungsten Halogen Bulbs LED Bulbs
Life Span (hours) 10001200 1500050,000
Watts of Electricity used (hours) 60 68
Table 6. Specific features of bulbs (Ayan, 2017)
Features Types of Bulbs
Tungsten Halogen Bulbs LED Bulbs
Sensitivity to Temperatures No No
Sensitivity to Humidity Yes Yes
Durability Not Very Durable Very Durable
Heat Emitted Very Little(3 btus/hour) High (85 btus/hour)
Failure Modes Some Not Typical
Switching On/Off Quickly Some No Effect
Table 5. Environmental impact comparison of bulbs (Ayan, 2017)
Environmental Types of bulbs
Impact Tungsten Halogen Bulbs LED Bulbs
Contains the Toxic Mercury No No
RoHS Compliant Yes Yes
Emissions (30 bulbs per year) 4500 pounds/year 451 pounds/year
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7. Summary of review works
From the literature review analysed, a few important points can be highlighted which is as
Standards and codings must be strictly followed in order to fabricate a safe product for the
Material selection is crucial to avoid accidents such as short circuit and material breakdown;
It was found that universal adapter was invented in 1982 by Rumble to cater the fixtures of
plugs in various country;
Sensors is used as a switch that will only switch certain appliances on when the particular
gesture is detected;
LED is a better choice for lighting system as it has higher luminescence and more energy
SnapPower© is a new revolution of sockets which combines a wall socket together with a
sensor lighting system.
Through literature survey and through the best of knowledge, it is understood that there are
numerous ways one may design an adapter fusing other sensors and lighting technology into a
single product. This is namely to incorporate the multi-feature concept within a single product
which benefits the user. Hence, the following section proposes new research pathways which may
be carried out to tackle this.
8. Proposed future works
Based on the design review works conducted on multipurpose power socket for home application,
we can clarify the fact that the idea of smart multipurpose power socket is novel and new research
pathways can be achieved. As such, certain research questions worthy of exploration may include
(but are not limited to) the following:
In what way does the safety features of the sockets regarding BS 546 and BS 1362 such as
fuse-link be applied into the future design work?
Is there any green material that can be used to substitute the current material used without
overlooking the required properties at the same time provide further enhancement to the
future work?
Can the concept of using SnapPower© be implemented according to BS 546 and BS 1362 standard?
How can one improve energy efficiency effectively by fusing different types of sensors and
lighting technology into a single home adapter socket?
How can the safety features of an electrical adapter for home application be enhanced
without compromising its features?
Table 7. Power and lumen comparison of bulbs (Ayan, 2017)
Light Output (Lumens) Type of Bulbs
Tungsten Halogen Bulbs LED Bulbs
450 40 W 45W
750900 60 W 68W
11001300 75100 W 913 W
16001800 100 W 1620 W
26002800 150 W 2528 Watt
Wong et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1470889
Page 31 of 34
List of abbreviations
Abbreviations Descriptions
BS British Standard
LED Light Emitting Diode
PIR Passive Infrared Resistor
ISO International Standard Organization
AC Alternating Current
MS Malaysia Standard
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
SIRIM Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia
IACS International Association of Classification Societies
DC Direct Current
USB Universal Serial Bus
IR Infrared Ray
PC Printed Circuit
LDR Light Emitting Diode
RoHS Restriction of Hazardous Substances
Carbon Dioxide
The authors received no direct funding for this research.
Author details
Chin jie Wong
Umar Nirmal
Sharmeeni Murugan
Centre of Advanced Mechanical and Green Technology,
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia
University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka,
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Full-text available
This book describes a new concept in analyzing circuits, which includes optoisolation elements. The analysis is based on nonlinear dynamics and chaos models and shows comprehensive benefits and results. All conceptual optoisolation circuits are innovative and can be broadly implemented in engineering applications. The dynamics of optoisolation circuits provides several ways to use them in a variety of applications covering wide areas. The presentation fills the gap of analytical methods for optoisolation circuits analysis, concrete examples, and geometric examples. The optoisolation circuits analysis is developed systematically, starting with basic optoisolation circuits differential equations and their bifurcations, followed by Fixed points analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations. Optoisolation circuits can be characterized as Lorenz equations, chaos, iterated maps, period doubling and attractors. This book is aimed at electrical and electronic engineers, students and researchers in physics as well. A unique features of the book are its emphasis on practical and innovative engineering applications. These include optocouplers in a variety topological structures, passive components, conservative elements, dissipative elements, active devices, etc., In each chapter, the concept is developed from the basic assumptions up to the final engineering outcomes. The scientific background is explained at basic and advance levels and closely integrated with mathematical theory. Many examples are presented in this book and it is also ideal for an intermediate level courses at graduate level studies. It is also ideal for engineer who has not had formal instruction in nonlinear dynamics, but who now desires to fill the gap between innovative optoisolation circuits and advance mathematical analysis methods. © 2012 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.
Polyimides rank among the most heat-resistant polymers and are widely used in high temperature plastics, adhesives, dielectrics, photoresists, nonlinear optical materials, membrane materials for separation, and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films, among others. Additionally, polyimides are used in a diverse range of applications, including the fields of aerospace, defense, and opto-electronics; they are also used in liquid crystal alignments, composites, electroluminescent devices, electrochromic materials, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, polymer memories, fiber optics, etc. Polyimides derived from monomers with noncoplanar (kink, spiro, and cardo structures), cyclic aliphatic, bulky, fluorinated, hetero, carbazole, perylene, chiral, non-linear optical and unsymmetrical structures have been described. The syntheses of various monomers, including diamines and dianhydrides that have been used to make novel polyimides with unique properties, are reported in this review. Polyimides, with tailored functional groups and dendritic structures have allowed researchers to tune the properties and applications of this important family of high-temperature polymers. The synthesis, physical properties and applications of advanced polyimide materials are described.