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HEALTH BENEFITS OF OLIVE OIL

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Abstract

This research deals with the health effects of olive oil. What is the history of olive oil? What is its composition? The mechanisms of its action? What is the Mediterranean diet? What are its health effects? Can olive oil be recommended for use by humans? The Biblical texts related to olive oil were examined from a contemporary viewpoint.
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... A lot of archeological evidence has witnessed that inhabitants in this region consumed olives since the copper age. Over the millennia, olive oil has been used not only as a dietary ingredient, but also as lamp fuel, for cosmetics and pharmacological uses, for special rituals such as anointing royalty, warriors, etc. Greek philosophers have showed interest to examine its nutritional and medicinal benefits, while Aristotle and Hippocrates have recommended the olive oil for treatment of many diseases, such as dermatitis, stomach and intestine problems, as well as sun protection and burnt skin [1][2][3][4]. ...
... In addition to the antioxidant effect, i.e. the direct scavenging of reactive species, the EVOO polyphenols' modulation of gene expression plays a key role in their anti-inflammatory properties. A strong scientific evidence supports the association of phenolic compounds with the prevention or reduced risk of diseases caused and characterized by oxidative stress or inflammation, such as cancers, digestive disorders, metabolic syndrome, obesity, atherosclerosis and CVDs [19,24,27,31,[49][50][51]. Beside antioxidant and anti-inflammation effects, polyphenols are also responsible for antihepatotoxic, antidiarrheal, anti-ulcerous in the digestive system, anti-allergic, anthelmintic, anti-osteoporosis effects, but also have anti-bacterial and antiviral effects [3,4]. ...
... CVD is a group of disorders such as chronic heart disease, stroke, rheumatic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, congenital heart disease, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis and most of them proliferate in general by the accumulation of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the blood vessels causing a blockage of blood circulation to the arms, legs, brain, or heart [7,17]. There is an evidence that EVOO's fatty acids play an essential role in the management of CVDs and do not cause deposits and blockage in the blood vessels [3,4,17,82]. Current recommendations for primary prevention of CVD highlight the importance of dietary patterns including dietary sources of healthy fats, such as those high in unsaturated fat and low in saturated fat. ...
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Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), also called the”Elixir of the youth and health” by the Ancient Greeks, is a cornerstone in the Mediterranean diet, which has been recognized as one of the healthiest and most sustainable dietary pattern and lifestyle. In this chapter, a brief overview of the major and minor components of EVOO is given followed by a review of their health benefits. In particular, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and cardiovascular protective effects of EVOO are emphasized. At the end of this chapter, the reader would benefit by realizing that EVOO, as a functional food, proves the Hippocrates’s quote “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food”.
... Jumah, Elgebaly, & Mahmoud, 2019; Capurso, Crepaldi, & Capurso, 2018a;Ichihashi et al., 2018;Kabaran, 2018;Wani et al., 2018), may contribute to olive oil's overall therapeutic characteristics by activating epigenetic gene expression pathways (ALHaithloul et al., 2019;Arpón et al., 2017;Ben-Nun, 2018;Capurso, Crepaldi, & Capurso, 2018b;Caramia et al., 2012;Ichihashi et al., 2018;Kabaran, 2018;Kouka et al., 2018;Nanda, Mahmood, Bhatia, Mahmood, & Dhawan, 2018;Rigacci & Stefani, 2016). As alluded to above, the use of olive oil formulations and (other plant oils and extracts) (Das & Satyaprakash, 2018;Vaughn, Clark, Sivamani, & Shi, 2017) to treat skin disorders traces back to antiquity (Hippocrates, 460BCE;Ali, Fox, & Finlayson, 2013;Das & Satyaprakash, 2018;Gorini et al., 2019;Tsoucalas et al., 2018). ...
... Nrf2-activating compounds are becoming staple ingredients in topically applied skin-conditioning creams and other formulations that mitigate skin damage(Ahmed, 2019;Ben-Nun, 2018;Braidy et al., 2019;Burke, 2018;Davinelli, Nielsen, & Scapagnini, 2018;Gorini et al., 2019;Huang, Wang, Yang, Chou, & Fang, 2018;Kocot, Kiełczykowska, Luchowska-Kocot, Kurzepa, & Musik, 2018;Kunnumakkara et al., 2017;Lephart, 2018;Ríos, Giner, Marín, & Recio, 2018;Rodríguez-Luna et al., 2018;Simitzis, 2018;Vega et al., 2017Vega et al., , 2018Vollmer et al., 2018;Yokota, Yahagi, & Masaki, 2018), promote skin repair (Bellot et al., 2019; Davinelli, Nielsen, & Scapagnini, 2018; Ferreira & Gomes, 2018; Kim et al., 2019; Yang et al., 2018), and enhance diabeticassociated wound healing (Bellot et al., 2019; Ben-Nun, 2018; Cuadrado et al., 2019; Ferreira & Gomes, 2018; Gorini et al., 2019; Huang et al., 2018; Kim et al., 2019; Kocot et al., 2018; Kunnumakkara et al., 2017; Panahi et al., 2019;Ríos et al., 2018;Sanchez, Lancel, Boulanger, & Neviere, 2018;Vega et al., 2017;Vega et al., 2018;Vollmer et al., 2018).With respect to the latter, almost a third of the world's population is considered to be overweight or obese(González-Muniesa et al., 2017) and the percentage is rising to epidemic proportions(Blaszczak et al., 2019;Severin, Sabbahi, Mahmoud, Arena, & Phillips, 2019). Weight gain is further magnified in pediatric and adolescent age groups(Wilkes et al., 2019). ...
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