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Nutritional Values of Moringa oleifera, Total Protein, Amino Acid, Vitamins, Minerals, Carbohydrates, Total Fat and Crude Fiber, under the Semi-Arid Conditions of Sudan


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Moringa oleifera plant is used in the semiarid, tropical, and subtropical areas as food and medicinal compounds. The leave extract of Moringa), was studied by evaluating total protein, amino acid, vitamins, minerals, total fat and crude fiber under the semi-arid conditions of Sudan. HPLC and amino acid analyzer, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Soxlet extractor, Kjeldahl methods were used in this study. It was found that, carbohydrates 9.1 g, dietary fiber 2.1 g, fat 1.7 g, protein 8.1 g also rich in vitamins such as vitamin A 80 μg, thiamine (B1) 0.103 mg, Riboflavin (B2) 0.112 mg, Niacin (B3) 1.5 pantothenic acids (B5) 0.48 mg. vitamin B6 0.129 mg folic acid (B9) 41 μg Vitamin C 8.6 mg also rich in minerals such as Calcium 99.1 mg, Iron 1.3 mg, Magnesium 35.1 mg Mangenase 0.119 mg, Phosphorus 70.8 mg, Potassium 471 mg, Sodium 70 mg, Zinc 0.85 mg Also rich in essentials amino acids (ug/ml) Threonine 36.77, Valine 22.1, Methionine 2.13, Leucine 20.50, Isoleucine 31.8, Phenylalanine36.8, Histidine 30.88, Lycine 27.67, Argnine 21.45.
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Volume 10(2): 56-58 (2018) - 56
J Microb Biochem Technol, an open access journal
ISSN: 1948-5948
Abbas et al., J Microb Biochem Technol 2018, 10:2
DOI: 10.4172/1948-5948.1000396
Research Article Open Access
Journal of
Microbial & Biochemical Technology
ISSN: 1948-5948
*Corresponding author: Rasha Khalid A, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of
Applied and Industrial Science University of Bahri, Sudan, Tel: 249155888430; Fax:
249155882052; E-mail:
Received March 15, 2018; Accepted April 26, 2018; Published April 30, 2018
Citation: Abbas RK, Elsharbasy FS, Fadlelmula AA (2018) Nutritional Values of
Moringa oleifera, Total Protein, Amino Acid, Vitamins, Minerals, Carbohydrates,
Total Fat and Crude Fiber, under the Semi-Arid Conditions of Sudan. J Microb
Biochem Technol 10: 56-58. doi: 10.4172/1948-5948.1000396
Copyright: © 2018 Abbas RK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
Nutritional Values of
Moringa oleifera
, Total Protein, Amino Acid, Vitamins,
Minerals, Carbohydrates, Total Fat and Crude Fiber, under the Semi-Arid
Conditions of Sudan
Rasha Khalid Abbas1,2*, Fatma S Elsharbasy3,4 and Abdalfatah Abdalla Fadlelmula2
1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Applied and Industerial Science University of Bahri Sudan
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts in Mukhwa, University of Albaha, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products, National Research Center, Egypt
4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Humanity studies, Sattam bin Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia
Moringa oleifera plant is used in the semiarid, tropical, and subtropical areas as food and medicinal compounds.
The leave extract of Moringa), was studied by evaluating total protein, amino acid, vitamins, minerals, total fat
and crude ber under the semi-arid conditions of Sudan. HPLC and amino acid analyzer, atomic absorption
spectrophotometry, Soxlet extractor, Kjeldahl methods were used in this study. It was found that, carbohydrates 9.1
g, dietary ber 2.1 g, fat 1.7 g, protein 8.1 g also rich in vitamins such as vitamin A 80 μg, thiamine (B1) 0.103 mg,
Riboavin (B2) 0.112 mg, Niacin (B3) 1.5 pantothenic acids (B5) 0.48 mg. vitamin B6 0.129 mg folic acid (B9) 41
μg Vitamin C 8.6 mg also rich in minerals such as Calcium 99.1 mg, Iron 1.3 mg, Magnesium 35.1 mg Mangenase
0.119 mg, Phosphorus 70.8 mg, Potassium 471 mg, Sodium 70 mg, Zinc 0.85 mg Also rich in essentials amino acids
(ug/ml) Threonine 36.77, Valine 22.1, Methionine 2.13, Leucine 20.50, Isoleucine 31.8, Phenylalanine36.8, Histidine
30.88, Lycine 27.67, Argnine 21.45.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera; Nutritional values; Carbohydrate;
Protein; Fat; Crude ber; Vitamins; Minerals; Amino acids
Moringa family Moringaceaeis native to India and northern Europe
[1-3]. It is grow best in dry sandy soil and tolerates poor soil. It is a sun-
and heat-loving plant [4-6]. It is a source of medicinal compounds and
has components of high nutritive value such as protein, amino acids,
carbohydrate minerals, vitamin and organic acids [7-9]. Moringa leaves
are anti-bacterial and anti-inammatory. Leaf tea treats gastric ulcers
and diarrhea. Moringa leaves are good food sources for those suering
from malnutrition due to the high protein and ber content. Leaves treat
with fevers, bronchitis, eye and ear infections, and inammation of the
mucus membrane. e iron content of the leaves is high and they are
reportedly prescribed for anemia is used in the treatment of scurvy skin
diseases. e leaves are the most nutritious part of the plant, being a
signicant source B vitamins, vitamin C, provitamin A as beta-carotene,
vitamin K, manganese, and protein, among other essential nutrients
[10,11]. Moringa are now so well known that there seems to be little
doubt of the substantial health benet, to be realized by consumption
of Moringa leaf powder in situations where starvation is found [12,13].
Leaves rubbed against the temple can relieve headaches [14-16].
e objective of this study was to assess the nutritional values of
Moringa oleifera.
Materials and Methods
e study was executed at the experimental farm of Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants Research Institute at Shambat, Sudan (Latitude1540N,
Longitude 3232 and 360 m above sea level). e climate is semi-arid with
low relative humidity and daily mean air temperature ranging from 25
to 40°C in summer and 15 to 21°C in winter. Moringa oleifera cultivated
in the demonstration farms of Medicinal And Aromatic Plant Research
Institute at Shambat (Sudan). e Plant samples were identied in the
department of plant taxonomy in the same institute, collected dried and
kept in carton bags for extraction.
Determination of total carbohydrate
Carbohydrates are rst hydrolysed into simple sugar using dilute
hydrochloric acid. In hot acidic medium glucose is dehydrated to
hydroxyl furfural. is compound forms with anthrone agree colored
product with an absorption maximum at 630 nm.
Determination of crude ber
Extract 2 g of material with petroleum ether to remove fat and then
boil with sulphuric acid for 30 min lter and washed with water until
washing are no longer acidic. Boil with 200 ml of sodium hydroxide
solution for 20 min, lter and washed water and 25 ml alcohol. Remove
the residue and transfer to ashing dish (pre weight dish W1, Dry the
residue for 2 h at 130°C cool and weigh W2. Ignite for 30 min at 600°C
then cool and weight W3.
Determination of total fat: e classical method is based on continuous
extraction performed on dried samples of food in a Soxlet extractor [17].
e extract ant used is oen petroleum spirit (which is less ammable that
Citation: Abbas RK, Elsharbasy FS, Fadlelmula AA (2018) Nutritional Values of Moringa oleifera, Total Protein, Amino Acid, Vitamins, Minerals,
Carbohydrates, Total Fat and Crude Fiber, under the Semi-Arid Conditions of Sudan. J Microb Biochem Technol 10: 56-58. doi: 10.4172/1948-
Volume 10(2): 56-58 (2018) - 57
J Microb Biochem Technol, an open access journal
ISSN: 1948-5948
results were in agree with those obtained in previous studies [9]. Table
3 showed the result of minerals content in Moringa oleifera, such as
Calcium 99.1 mg, Iron 1.3 mg Magnesium 35.1 mg Manganese 0.119
mg, Phosphorus 70.8 mg Potassium 471 mg, Sodium 70 mg, Zinc 0.85
mg these results were in conformity with those obtained in previous
studies [10]. Table 4 shows the results of essentials amino acids (ug/ml)
content in Moringa oleifera leaf extract reonine 36.77, Valine 22.1,
Methionine 2.13, Leucine 20.50, Isoleucine 31.8, Phenylalanine 36.8,
Histidine 30.88, Lycine 27.67, Argnine 21.45 these results were in agree
with those obtained in previous studies [10].
Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that Moringa
oleifera leave extract had highly nutritive values. Eating Moringa food
products is good for those suering from malnutrition.
The authors would like to express their deepest thanks to the laboratories
of biochemistry and food technology collage of agriculture Khartoum University
Sudan for their help in analyzing the samples.
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2. Parotta JA (1993) Moringa oleifera Lam. Reseda, horseradish tree.
Moringaceae. Horseradish tree family. USDA Forest Service, International
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genetic, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Moringa
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6. Rajangam J (2001) Status of production and utilisation of Moringa in Southern
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improvement for semiarid and arid ecosystem: Analysis of environmental
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diethyl ether and less likely to form peroxides), which requires completely
dry analytical portions and the removal of sugar.
Determination of protein total nitrogen: Total nitrogen is
measured using some version of the Kjeldahl method (which measures
total organic nitrogen). In this method the organic matter is digested
with hot concentrated sulphuric acid [17]. A “catalyst mixture” is added
to the acid to raise its boiling point, usually containing a true catalytic
agent (mercury, copper or selenium) together with potassium sulphate.
All organic nitrogen is converted to ammonia, which is usually
measured by titration.
Determination of essential amino acids
(16) 5 g of the test samples were macerated in 50% alcohol until
all pigment was extracted and concentrated under reduced pressure at
40°C. 10 ml NaCl (10%) was added to the extract, stirred for one hour
then 10 ml of trichloroacetic were added and ltrated. e precipitate
was collected by centrifugation, washed and dried in desiccato 20 mg
of protein were reuxed with 6 N HCl (10 ml) for 20 h and the acid
removed by evaporation under reduced pressure, the residue was
dissolved in 10% isopropanol for amino acids identication using the
method (Eppendorf-Germany Lc 3000) Amino acid analyzer.
Determination of minerals
e preferred techniques of minerals determination are atomic
absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) [17].
Determination of vitamins
e samples are saponied in alcoholic potassium hydroxide with
the addition of an antioxidant as ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene
(BHT) or pyrogallol. e vitamins are extracted using a suitable organic
solvent. e extract is evaporated with additional BHT at a controlled
temperature. Both normal-phase and reversed-phase HPLC can be
used for the separation. In normal-phase separations measurement is
usually by Brubacher et al. [17].
Results and Discussion
Data presented in Table 1 shows the results of Moringa oleifera leaf
extract nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz), Carbohydrate 9.1 g, Dietary
ber 2.1 g, fat 1.7 and protein 8.1. ese results conformity with those
obtained in previous studies [8]. Table 2 shows the results of vitamin
content in Moringa oleifera such as vitamin A 80 μg thiamine (B1) 0.103
mg, Riboavin (B2) 0, 112 mg, Niacin (B3) 1.5 pantothenic acids (B5)
0.48 mg, vitamin B6 0.129 mg folate (B9) 41 μg Vitamin C 8.6 mg these
Carbohydrates 9.1 g
Dietary ber 2.1 g
Fat 1.7 g
Protein 8.1 g
Table 1: Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of Moringa oleifera L. leave extract.
Vitamin A equiv. 80 μg
Thiamine (B1) 0.103 mg
Riboavin (B2) 0.112 mg
Niacin (B3) 1.5 mg
Pantothenic acid B5) 0.48 mg
Vitamin B6 0.129 mg
Folate (B9) 41 μg
Vitamin C 8.6 mg
Table 2: Vitamins content of Moringa oleifera L. all vitamins in 10%.
Calcium 99.1 mg
Iron 1.3 mg
Magnesium 35.1 mg
Manganese 0.119 mg
Phosphorus 70.8 mg
Potassium 471 mg
Sodium 70 mg
Zinc 0.85 mg
Table 3: Minerals content of Moringa oleifera L. trace metals all in 10%.
Threonine 36.77
Valine 22.1
Methionine 2.13
Leucine 20.50
Isoleucine 31.8
Phenylalanine 36.8
Histidine 30.88
Lysine 27.67
Arginine 21.45
Table 4: Essential amino acids of Moringa oleifera L. (ug/ml).
Citation: Abbas RK, Elsharbasy FS, Fadlelmula AA (2018) Nutritional Values of Moringa oleifera, Total Protein, Amino Acid, Vitamins, Minerals,
Carbohydrates, Total Fat and Crude Fiber, under the Semi-Arid Conditions of Sudan. J Microb Biochem Technol 10: 56-58. doi: 10.4172/1948-
Volume 10(2): 56-58 (2018) - 58
J Microb Biochem Technol, an open access journal
ISSN: 1948-5948
8. Madukwe EU (2013) Nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of dry
Moringa oleifera aqueous extract. Intern J Basic Appl Sci.
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Moringa oleifera and Ipomoea batatas leaves. Sci Res Essay 3: 57-60.
10. Moyo B, Masika P, Hugo A, Muchenje V (2011) Nutritional characterization of
Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. Afr J Biotechnol 10: 12925-12933 .
11. Arise AK, Arise RO, Sanusi MO, Esan OT, Oyeyinka SA (2014) Effect of Moringa
oleifera ower fortication on the nutritional quality and sensory properties of
weaning food Croat. J Food Sci Technol 6: 65-71.
12. Fahey, Jed W (2005) Moringa oleifera: A review of the medical evidence
for its nutritional, therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Part 1. Trees for
Life J.
13. Atawodi SE, Atawodi JC, Idakwo GA, Pfundstein B, Haubner R, et al. (2010)
Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol
extracts of the leaves, stem and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam. J Med
Food 13: 710-716.
14. Kumar HD (2004) Management of nutritional and health needs of malnourished
and vegetarian people in India. Adv Exp Med Biol, Springer US, pp: 311-321.
15. Baily JL (1967) Techniques in protein chemistry. Elsevier publishing Co.,
Amsterdam, pp: 289-349.
16. Harborne J (1973) Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of
plants analysis.
17. Ofcial Methods of Analysis of AOAC (1995) Ofcial method of analysis of the
association of ofcial analytical chemist’s 15th edn. Washington, USA.
... It is underutilized in Kenya where it is mainly incorporated in animal feed due to its high protein content (Mugo-Bundi et al., 2015;Kubiriza et al., 2018). Moringa oleifera is highly nutritious and rich in vitamins, minerals, and essential amino acids; it has higher digestibility and improves feed efficiency in animals (Moyo et al., 2016;Abbas et al., 2018;El-hack et al., 2018). Maize bran (Zea mays Linnaeus) (Poales: Poaceae), wheat bran (Triticum aestivum Linnaeus) (Poales: Poaceae), and soybean meal [Glycine max (L.) Merr] (Fabales: Fabaceae) have previously been used in production of R. differens (Malinga et al., 2018b, Malinga et al., 2020. ...
... Although the diversification of diet has been associated with high fecundity, grasshoppers fed Diet 4, which was most the diversified in this study recorded the least number of eggs . It is probable that the presence of MOLP in diets 1, 2, and 3 contributed to their better performance than Diet 4. Moringa leaves are rich in vitamins, minerals, and essential amino acids, which may have led to a higher fecundity in the diets with MOLP (Sodamade et al., 2017;Abbas et al., 2018). The inclusion of different nutrient classes in the diets of the Queensland fruitfly, Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt (Diptera: Tephritidae), resulted in substantial egg production (Fanson and Taylor, 2012a). ...
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The edible long-horned grasshopper Ruspolia differens Serville (Orthoptera:Tettigoniidae) is a highly nutritious food source consumed in over 20 African countries. Its occurrence is highly seasonal, and wild harvesting is carried out using locally designed and inefficient light traps, thus limiting sustainable utilization as an important food source. To ensure year-round production and availability of R. differens , we evaluated the effects of low-cost and affordable diets based on agricultural by-products on their growth performance, survival, fecundity, and longevity. A total of four diets with varying ratios of agricultural by-products were evaluated: Diet 1 [33.3% maize bran (MB) + 33.3% wheat bran (WB) + 33.3% Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP)], Diet 2 [25% MB + 25% WB + 25% MOLP + 25% shrimp powder (SP)], Diet 3 [20% MB + 20% WB + 20% MOLP + 20% SP + 20% soya bean meal], and Diet 4 (“control”—routinely used diet). The grasshoppers were subjected to the diets from the 1st nymphal instar (24-h-old stages) through adult stages until death. Diet 3 had the highest crude protein content (28%) and digestibility (74.7%). R. differens fed Diet 3 had the shortest development time (57 days) [ p < 0.001], highest survival (87%) [ p < 0.001], and maximum longevity (89 days) [ p = 0.015] and fecundity (247 eggs/female) [ p = 0.549] across the various diets. Female survival rate (59%) on Diet 3 was significantly higher compared to the males (41%). The adult female weight gain was significantly higher compared to males fed on different diets. Percentage hatchability of eggs was not significantly different when females were fed Diet 3 and Diet 2. There was a significantly positive correlation between longevity and fecundity of R. differens reared on Diet 2 and 3. These diets could be further optimized and fine-tuned for improved cost-effective mass production of R. differens continent-wide to reduce dependence on erratic and poor seasonal harvest during swarms.
... Evidence reports that these leaves potentially contain arginine and histidine two amino acids especially important for infants, who require enough protein for their growth and development. Carries potential to alleviate malnutrition among children and women (FAO 2014) [8]. ...
The present study aims to utilize the staple food of over half of the world population, that is rice, which is a brilliant source of energy and good for Celiac, and fortifying it with Moringa oleifera caries potential to enhance and improve overall nutrient availability. Products like Ready- to- Cook (RTC) Idli & Dhokla mix were fortified with 5 and 10 % moringa leaves powder respectively were analyzed. The proximate and nutrient composition like moisture, ash, fibre, protein, fat and carbohydrate of rice, moringa leaves and fortified mixes were analyzed. The micronutrients like calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamin C were analyzed and compared with RDA of adult and pregnant women as per % Daily Value (DV). The elevation of % DV by 1.5% & 3% in calcium, 2.5% & 3% in potassium, 5.2% & 10.4% in vitamin C and 4.2% & 9.5% (adult), 2.9% & 6.6% (pregnant women) with respect to standard sample was observed respectively with elevation of 5% and 10% fortification moringa leaves powder. The products were packed in different packaging materials like Glass, LDPE, HDPE, aluminum laminated HDPE and storage life was analyzed for the period of 60 days. For storage life parameters like weight, moisture content, water absorption capacity and overall acceptability were taken into consideration.
... M. oleifera, also known as Drumstick tree, is considered to be a nutritionally dense plant and is also referred to as a 'miracle Tree' because of its multi-purpose uses. Ease of cultivation makes it a cheap source of high-quality nutrients and ingredients in traditional herbal medicines [4]. The extract of its leaves is rich in important phytochemicals and has potential as an antioxidant [5], antimicrobial [6], anti-inflammatory [7], and anticancer agent [8]. ...
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Plant proteins can be an important alternative to animal proteins subject to minor modification to address sustainability issues. The impact of ultrasound application on the yield, techno-functional properties, and molecular characteristics of protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds was studied. For this purpose, a central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters such as amplitude (25–75%), solute-to-solvent ratio (1:10–1:30), and pH (9–13) for obtaining the maximum protein yield. At the optimized conditions of 75% amplitude, 1:20 solute-to-solvent ratio, and 11 pH, a protein yield of 39.12% was obtained in the UAE process. Moreover, the best sonication time at optimized conditions was 20 min, which resulted in about 150% more extraction yield in comparison to conventional extraction (CE). The techno-functional properties, for instance, solubility, water (WHC)- and oil-holding capacity (OHC), and emulsifying and foaming properties of the protein obtained from UAE and CE were also compared. The functional properties revealed high solubility, good WHC and OHC, and improved emulsifying properties for protein obtained from UAE. Although protein from UAE provided higher foam formation, foaming stability was significantly lower.
... However, many factors may affect the utilization of such byproducts in ruminants' nutrition, such as the protein and fiber contents or the concentrations of bioactive components, which can directly influence rumen fermentation parameters [6]. Moringa oleifera (ML) is one of the potential tree fodders, also known as the miracle tree, and is a native tree in India [7]. Its leaves have nutritional value and are rich in crude protein content (29.40%), minerals such as calcium (2.65%) and phosphorus (0.304 g/100 g), and vitamin C (188-279 mg/100 g) [8]. ...
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... Our results were a little bit lower than the work of who reported the Roselle-apple drink contained protein ranging from 0.47 to 0.63% [14]. Generally, moringa leaves contain 8.1% protein this was relatively higher than our findings due to the tiny amount of moringa leaves extract used [15]. Mean±Standard Deviation a-c Means followed by different superscript letters of alphabets in each column significantly different from among the sample Figure (2) shows the pH values for different Alo vera drinks enriched with moringa leaves. ...
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... 32,34 All parts of the plant have high nutritional value and contain 20 amino acids including 9 essential amino acids, proteins, vitamins (A, C, E), phenolics, carbohydrates, enzymes, essential fatty acids, β-carotene, chlorophyll pigments and minerals. 1,8,16,19 The plant is called as "miracle tree" and "tree of life" due to its rich nutrient potential particularly vitamins, calcium, iron and essential amino acids. 5,34 Each part of the plant is a store house of various nutrients and minerals which restore the health and mineral deficiencies if consumed as a food supplement. ...
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Moringa oleifera is native to India and being used as medicinal and nutritive plant for thousands of years. The plant is an important source for essential nutrients and biochemical constituents. The present study is carried out to investigate the biochemical constituents through FT-IR, GC-MS analysis. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the M. oleifera leaves extract are studied using DPPH assay and antimicrobial activity is observed by selecting various indicator microorganisms. In the present study, the methanolic extract is evaluated for its antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity was found through DPPH assay. The IC50 value is found to be 275μg/ml. The antimicrobial activity is studied through well diffusion assay and highest inhibitory activity is observed for E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Further, the biochemical constituents are identified through FTIR and GC-MS analysis and the presence of fatty acids such as dodecanoic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid, 11-octadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid trimethyl silyl ester and α-Linolenic acid trimethylsilyl ester are found. The fatty acids occupied major portion of the leaves and the other compounds identified through this analysis are diterpenoids, carotenoid pigments, silanes and diterpene alcohol. The leaves consist of a rich source of bioactive components with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The carotenoid pigments and omega fatty acids are considered as food supplements for boosting the immunity and also for scavenging of free radicals.
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Exploring innovative methods to provide essential nutrients and reducing ruminant greenhouse gas emission is crucial for animal production and diminishing global warming. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) in ruminants at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 40% level in different roughage (R) and concentrate (C) (80R:20C, 70R:30C and 60R:40C) under in vitro conditions. Chemical composition of ML, concentrate mixture and berseem were estimated. Rumen fermentation parameters of male goat kids viz., total gas production, CH4, true dry matter digestibility (TDMD), organic matter digestibility (TOMD), partial fraction (PF), microbial biomass (MBP), ammonia (N), acetate, propionate, butyrate and acetate propionate ratio were observed under in vitro conditions. Results revealed that crude protein, organic matter and ethyl ether content were higher in ML as compared to concentrate mixture and berseem. Magnesium and iron content were also higher in ML as compared to concentrate and berseem. Total gas production, digestibility of DM and OM, MBP, acetate and propionate level were improved ( P < 0.05) upto 10–20% replacement. In contrast, decreased in CH 4 (%) and CH 4 (mL/100 mg dDM) was noted with increased levels of ML incorporation. There was no change observed in ammonia, acetate: propionate ratios at all the three planes of nutrition. In this study, it is concluded that mixing Moringa oleifera leaves in feed can be used as protein supplement and reduce the methane emission without causing any effect on digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters. However, ML can be suggested for widespread practice to attain the sustainable animal production (10–20%) and to alleviate the global warming.
Diseases such as Covid-19 pose an inescapable challenge to the world. There is an undeniable link between nutrition, water quality, and many diseases. With poverty and recurrent food shortages as an unpleasant fact in Africa, alternative cost-effective, accessible, and affordable therapies can improve health and well-being, and prolong the lives of people especially those with underlying health problems. To lead a healthier life, all people, irrespective of their health condition, need to meet their daily energy, protein, and micronutrient requirements by eating a variety of foods. Maintaining good nutritional status helps to build and support the immune system, allowing the body to fight infection. Clean water is not only needed to provide nourishment, keep the house environment clean, in agriculture and food production, and to take medicines but also for a wide range of other uses such as the prevention and transmission of water-borne diseases (diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis A and typhoid) particularly in infants and HIV-positive mothers who cannot breastfeed their babies for fear of infecting them, etc. A massive effort is needed to cushion the impact of the pandemic, and nutritional care and support should be integral elements of any action taken. An evidence-based response is required to alleviate the overall burden of malnutrition and to reduce the severity and complexity of the impact of Covid-19 and malnutrition have on each other. Good nutrition is important in tackling Covid-19. As the sayings go, ‘’an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure’’ and ‘’prevention is better than cure’’. The cultivation and utilization of Moringa is being advocated for as a sustainable solution to the above-mentioned challenges. This review is aimed at showing the potential of the Moringa in terms of cultivation, agroforestry, food fortification for tackling malnutrition, disease prevention and provision of safe-drinking water.
There are some vegetal principles which modify the taste to sour, cause reduction in sweetness, induction of sweetness and flavor in the non sweet food. Few among those, induce sweetness in drinking water i.e. water and beverages taste sweet during drinking after their consumption. These chemicals are important because they substitute sugre (calorie rich) and zero calorie super sweet principle as they are calorie free and help in providing different tastes and rectifying different ailments e. g. diabetes and cardiovascular, kidney and liver disorders, high calories sugar consumption is restricted. Some of such natural organic acid like gymnemic acid not only reduce sweetness in mouth but also interact with sugar in intestine and reduce their calories. These taste modifiers are protein, triterpenoid, polysaccharides, polyphenol, ester of quinic acid etc. in nature. They are found in different plants as mentioned in Table 15.1.
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Moringa oleifera is an interesting plant for its use in bioactive compounds. In this manuscript, we review studies concerning the cultivation and production of moringa along with genetic diversity among different accessions and populations. Different methods of propagation, establishment and cultivation are discussed. Moringa oleifera shows diversity in many characters and extensive morphological variability, which may provide a resource for its improvement. Great genetic variability is present in the natural and cultivated accessions, but no collection of cultivated and wild accessions currently exists. A germplasm bank encompassing the genetic variability present in Moringa is needed to perform breeding programmes and develop elite varieties adapted to local conditions. Alimentary and medicinal uses of moringa are reviewed, alongside the production of biodiesel. Finally, being that the leaves are the most used part of the plant, their contents in terms of bioactive compounds and their pharmacological properties are discussed. Many studies conducted on cell lines and animals seem concordant in their support for these properties. However, there are still too few studies on humans to recommend Moringa leaves as medication in the prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, further studies on humans are recommended.
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Moringa oleifera is a nutrient rich plant that has the potential to combat malnutrition problems in Africa. This study aims to investigate the effect of fortification using Moringa oleifera flower powder on the sensory and proximate attributes of fermented yellow maize and millet blend (Ogi). The formulation was grouped into seven blends in ratio 100:0:0, 70:30:0, 70:25:5, 70:20:10, 70:15:15, 70:10:20, 70:5:25 for maize, millet and Moringa oleifera flower powder (MOFP) respectively. Moringa oleifera flower was air-dried for 5days, milled and sieved to obtained fine powder. The fine powder was mixed thoroughly with fermented maize and millet, wet milled and sieved. The proximate composition of fermented yellow maize and millet (Ogi) fortified with Moringa oleifera flower powder showed an increase in crude protein, crude fibre, ash and fat with increase in the levels of Moringa oleifera flower powder and decrease in carbohydrate and moisture content. Moisture, protein, fibre, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents varied in the range 7.92-9.74%, 10.46 _ 16.06%, 2.31-4.13%, 2.90-4.07%, 1.23-1.93% and 66.45-73.25% respectively. Sensory evaluation shows that blend 6 (20% MOFP) compared favourably with the control. Also, nutritional analysis shows that blend 6 is favourable as weaning food. Therefore, blend 6 formulation can be used as alternative to the weaning foods to improve the nutritional status of children and help to curb protein malnutrition.
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Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. moringaceae) is a highly valued plant that is mostly cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. It is used for food, medication and industrial purposes. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional value of Moringa leaves of the South African ecotype. Proximate and Van Soest methods were used to determine the nutritional value of Moringa leaves. The dried leaves had crude protein levels of 30.3% and 19 amino acids. The dried leaves had the following mineral contents: calcium (3.65%), phoshorus (0.3%), magnesium (0.5%), potassium (1.5%), sodium (0.164%), sulphur (0.63%), zinc (13.03 mg/kg), copper (8.25%), manganese (86.8 mg/kg), iron (490 mg/kg) and selenium (363 mg/kg). 17 fatty acids were observed with α-Linolenic acid (44.57%) having the highest value followed by heneicosanoic (14.41%), g-linolenic (0.20%) palmiteic (0.17%) and capric acid (0.07%). Vitamin E had the highest concentration of 77 mg/100 g than beta-carotene, which had 18.5 mg/100 g in the dried leaves. The fiber content was neutral detergent fibre (NDF) (11.4%), acid detergent fibre (ADF) (8.49%), acid detergent lignin (ADL) (1.8%) and (acid detergent cellulose (ADC) (4.01%). The condensed tannins had a value of 3.2%, while total polyphenols were 2.02%. The values of amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and vitamin profiles reflect a desirable nutritional balance.
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Levels of some nutrients in Moringa oleifera leaves as well as seven varieties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves were determined using standard analytical methods. Crude protein ranged from 16.78 -25.39%; crude fibre from 9.75 -12.14%; crude fat from 0.38 -1.91%; ash content from 8.71 -11.60%; moisture content (fwb) ranged from 80.16 -88.20%; carbohydrate values from 53.29 -59.01%; and calorific values ranged from 1344.00 – 1399.00 kJ/g (316.66-329.76 cal/g) for the sweet potato leaves. For M. oleifera leaves, crude protein was 27.51%, crude fibre was 19.25%, crude fat was 2.23%, ash content was 7.13%, moisture content was 76.53%, carbohydrate content was 43.88%, and the calorific value was 1296.00 kJ/g (305.62 cal/g). Elemental analysis of the leaves in mg/100g dry matter (DM) indicates the sweet potato leaves contained appreciable levels of calcium (1310.52-1402.27) and iron (9.62-23.02). Calcium and iron content of M. oleifera also in mg/100 g (DM) were 2,009.00 and 28.29, respectively. These results reveal that the leaves contain an appreciable amount of nutrients and can be included in diets to supplement our daily nutrient needs.
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Moringa oleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a pan-tropical species that is known by such regional names as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, and sajna. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. Its utility as a non-food product has also been extensively described, but will not be discussed herein, (e.g. lumber, charcoal, fencing, water clarification, lubricating oil). As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal value of a natural product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of "healthful" food who are now promoting M. oleifera as a panacea. While much of this recent enthusiasm indeed appears to be justified, it is critical to separate rigorous scientific evidence from anecdote. Those who charge a premium for products containing Moringa spp. must be held to a high standard. Those who promote the cultivation and use of Moringa spp. in regions where hope is in short supply must be provided with the best available evidence, so as not to raise false hopes and to encourage the most fruitful use of scarce research capital. It is the purpose of this series of brief reviews to: (a) critically evaluate the published scientific evidence on M. oleifera, (b) highlight claims from the traditional and tribal medicinal lore and from non-peer reviewed sources that would benefit from further, rigorous scientific evaluation, and (c) suggest directions for future clinical research that could be carried out by local investigators in developing regions. This is the first of four planned papers on the nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties of Moringa oleifera. In this introductory paper, the scientific evidence for health effects are summarized in tabular format, and the strength of evidence is discussed in very general terms. A second paper will address a select few uses of Moringa in greater detail than they can be dealt with in the context of this paper. A third paper will probe the phytochemical components of Moringa in more depth. A fourth paper will lay out a number of suggested research projects that can be initiated at a very small scale and with very limited resources, in geographic regions which are suitable for Moringa cultivation and utilization. In advance of this fourth paper in the series, the author solicits suggestions and will gladly acknowledge contributions that are incorporated into the final manuscript. It is the intent and hope of the journal's editors that such a network of small-scale, locally executed investigations might be successfully woven into a greater fabric which will have enhanced scientific power over similar small studies conducted and reported in isolation. Such an approach will have the added benefit that statistically sound planning, peer review, and multi-center coordination brings to a scientific investigation.
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Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered.
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses a study analyzing N-terminal modification of malarial antigens from E. Coli for purification of Ag1624, cells were suspended in 20 mM Tris–HCl, pH 9 m6M GnHCl and lysed using a Manton–Gaulin MR 15 homogenizer. The lysate was mixed with Ni-chelate resin (Roche) batch binding Agl624, which was then eluted stepwise with 20 mM Tris–HCl of decreasing pH containing 8M urea. Further purification was effected using a Vydac Protein C4 column with a gradient of 10% acetic acid aq. to 10% acetic acid in ethanol. Fractions containing Ag1624 were lyophilized. The expected sequence, MRGSHHHHHH, was obtained; however, the level of Met1 was low compared with the amino acids.