BookPDF Available

Atlas de las aves playeras de Chile: sitios importantes para su conservación

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Las costas de Chile son visitadas cada año por miles de aves playeras provenientes de la región Neártica y Neotropical. En nuestro país convergen las rutas migratorias norteamericanas del Atlántico y Pacífico, brindando abundante alimento, sitios de descanso y reproducción a numerosas especies. Diversos estudios en los últimos años han logrado levantar información valiosa en algunas áreas puntuales, como Bahía Lomas en Magallanes o la zona oriental de la Isla de Chiloé. Sin embargo, para grandes extensiones del litoral chileno permanecen sin responder muchas de estas preguntas básicas. Gracias a la participación de 63 censistas voluntarios, durante febrero de 2014 se censaron 46 humedales y 54 playas desde el norte de Chile (18°20’S) hasta el sur de Chiloé (43°25’S). La información fue almacenada en un protocolo de censo de aves playeras disponible en eBird. En total se registraron 30 especies de aves playeras (≈ 26.000 individuos), 19 correspondieron a migratorias Neárticas y 11 a migratorias Neotropicales. Mediante el uso de imágenes satelitales se extrapolaron los resultados por hábitat para estimar los tamaños poblacionales. Para Numenius phaeopus y Limosa haemastica nuestros resultados incrementan en 189% (115.949 ind) y 47% (30-937 ind), respectivamente, las estimaciones previas. En el norte de Chile destacan las playas rocosas que concentran altas cantidades de Aphriza virgata (23.854 ind) y Arenaria interpres (48.866 ind). Además, esto resultados nos permitieron detectar 16 sitios de importancia regional para las aves playeras.
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Tradicionalmente dicha investigación y los esfuerzos de divulgación y conservación, se ha concentrado en los humedales costeros que presentan un caudal permanente de agua dulce durante todo el año (Fariña y Camaño, 2012;Vargas et al., 2016). Es así como para el Sitio Ramsar Las Salinas de Huentelauquén (SRLSH), las investigaciones y muestreos de aves se han centrado en las aves acuáticas y playeras de la desembocadura del Río Choapa (Schmitt et al., 2011;García-Walther et al., 2017) Por ello, la información sobre las aves y conservación de las charcas estacionales, como las que se localizan en los llanos costeros de Huentelauquén es nula o de existir, es restringida, lo que hace necesaria su actualización (Zuleta y Piñones, 2014b;Zuleta y Piñones, 2015). ...
... Para la identificación de especies se siguió a Jaramillo (2005). Adicionalmente, siguiendo a García-Walther et al. (2017), se tomó nota de los comportamientos de las aves en cada uno de dichos micro-hábitats, estableciendo tres categorías conductuales: alimentación, descanso y acicalamiento. Para estos efectos, las aves que volaban sobre el área evaluada fueron descartadas de los análisis, pero si se registró su presencia con fines descriptivos de la historia natural del sitio de estudio. ...
... Por otra parte, resultó significativa la presencia del Chorlo nevado (Charadrius nivosus) en un ambiente poco habitual dada su biología (Figura Nº 5), especie que además no había sido reportada para las charcas de Huentelauquén (véase Zuleta y Piñones, 2014b; Zuleta y Piñones, 2015). En Chile y otros países sudamericanos, este chorlo está asociado a zonas con playa de arena, dado que utiliza ambientes arenosos como área de residencia habitual y zona reproductiva (Canevari et al., 2001;Senner y Angulo, 2014;García -Walther et al., 2017;Medrano y Tejeda, 2018). En el micro-hábitat de orillas semi-anegadas con piedras, se les observó en grupos relativamente compactos o separándose en parejas, las cuales se refugiaban tras piedras, en donde obtenían un efectivo camuflaje (Figura Nº 5). ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen Se presentan los resultados de un muestreo exploratorio de aves asociadas a una charca estacional, la cual constituye un humedal efímero dentro del Sitio Ramsar Las Salinas de Huentelauquén en la Región de Coquimbo. Se determinó la riqueza, abundancia de aves y adicionalmente se documentaron las presiones antropogénicas que podrían afectar la integridad de dicho ecosistema. La charca estacional presentó 8 especies de aves asociadas directamente, pudiéndose establecer que dicho humedal cumple un rol dentro de la ruta migratoria de especies australes y boreales, además de permitir el uso de un ambiente mayoritariamente árido, por parte de aves acuáticas y una playera residente con problemas de conservación, no descrita antes para estos ecosistemas. Existen presiones que podrían afectar a las poblaciones locales y migratorias de aves que ocupan estos ambientes poco conocidos y subvalorados. El estudio de estos ecosistemas podría ser abordado a través de proyectos de ciencia colaborativa, que involucren a las dos escuelas locales y a los observadores de aves, en un contexto que implique una adecuada planificación del territorio y un monitoreo continuo y participativo, utilizando herramientas de ciencia ciudadana como eBird.
... La importancia biológica del Humedal Río Maipo se relaciona con la variedad de hábitats que presenta tales como vegas, pajonales, pantanos, lagunas, playas y dunas (García-Walther et al., 2017). Este lugar es considerado desde el 2014 un Área Importante para la Conservación de Aves [AICA] o [IBA], debido a la existencia significativa de especies en riesgo y a las presiones y amenazas antrópicas existentes (BirdLife International, 2019). ...
... El humano no es la única amenaza que afecta la sobrevivencia del Pilpilén en esta importante desembocadura: las interacciones intraespecíficas (competencia), interespecíficas (depredación) y fenómenos de la naturaleza que modifican su hábitat como tsunamis, erosión de playas, fuertes marejadas y eventuales crecidas del río Maipo, son variables naturales no estudiadas para esta especie en el humedal. García-Walther et al. (2017) posiciona al Pilpilén como una especie numerosa en la desembocadura del río Maipo, con una población de 262 individuos equivalentes al 4,3% de la abundancia existente entre las regiones de Valparaíso y el Bío-Bío, condiciendo esto a los motivos de ser el área nominada sitio RHRAP. Sin embargo, los censos realizados por la Academia Científica Escolar Yecos del INCO en noviembre 2017 y octubre del 2018 publicados en eBird (2019), no superan los 30 ejemplares avistados. ...
... El análisis del promedio de abundancias máximas (Figura Nº 4) es menor el 2019 en comparación con los once años anteriores de registro, siendo los resultados actuales muy bajos en contraste a los que se utilizaron para designar la desembocadura del río Maipo como Sitio de Importancia Regional de la RHARP, por ser un hábitat para más del 1% de la población de H. palliatus. (García-Walther et al., 2017;BirdLife International, 2019). Es probable que el tsunami del año 2010, que inundó toda la superficie estudiada (Contreras y Winckler, 2013), comprometiera el reclutamiento de nuevas aves en la población de pilpilenes y causara la retirada o muerte de ejemplares (Figura Nº 4). ...
Article
Full-text available
El Pilpilén común (Haematopus palliatus) es un ave residente que nidifica en las dunas litorales primarias de la desembocadura del río Maipo. Para dilucidar si esta especie está amenazada, entre los meses de octubre del 2018 y abril del 2019 se realizaron muestreos de individuos, parejas y grupos, acompañados de la búsqueda de nidaciones, relaciones intraespecíficas, interespecíficas y evidencias antropogénicas que afectan a la especie. Los resultados muestran que el Pilpilén no logró reproducirse en el periodo 2018-2019, a pesar de establecer parejas territoriales. Fue frecuente visualizar fecas de ganado, presencia de humanos, perros y residuos sólidos en el hábitat. Por otro lado, las dunas litorales se han reducido un 50,8% desde el 2006 debido al avance de la línea costera atribuible al Cambio Climático. Por lo anterior, se considera relevante la implementación de planes de recuperación del hábitat del Pilpilén y otras aves playeras en la desembocadura del río Maipo, lugar que suma como amenaza los planes de expansión portuaria. Palabras claves: Aves nativas; Conservación de la diversidad; Aves de rapiña; Pilpilen; San Antonio. The Oyster catcher (Haematopus palliatus) is a resident bird that nests in the primary littoral dunes at the mouth of the Maipo River. To determine if this species is threatened, in the months of October 2018 to April 2019, samples of individuals, pairs and groups were carried out, accompanied by the search for nests, intraspecific and interspecific relationships and anthropogenic evidence that affect the species. The results show that the Oyster catcher failed to reproduce in the 2018-2019 period, despite establishing territorial pairs. It was common to see cattle feces, the presence of humans, dogs and solid waste in the habitat. On the other hand, the coastal dunes have been reduced by 50.8% since 2006 due to the advance of the coastline attributable to Climate Change. Therefore, the implementation of recovery plans for the Pilpilén habitat and other shorebirds at the mouth of the Maipo River is considered relevant, a place that adds as a threat to port expansion plans.
... Chile has a coastline of more than 4,000 kilometres, along which there are hundreds of wetlands that serve as breeding and wintering sites for both resident and migratory wild birds (García Walther et al., 2017). Thousands of individuals belonging to more than 30 species travel each year from the Northern Hemisphere, to spend the Northern Hemisphere's winter season, along the three flyways that arrive in the country (Atlantic, Central and the Pacific flyways). ...
... The families Scolopacidae (wader) and Laridae (gulls, terns and skimmers) are the ones that concentrate the largest number of species that migrate to Chile (García Walther et al., 2017;Olsen et al., 2006). Recent studies carried out by our research group have demonstrated the presence of a wide diversity of IAV subtypes in both resident and migratory wild birds in Chile, including low pathogenic H5 and H7 strains (Jiménez-Bluhm et al., 2018). ...
Article
Although wild birds are considered the main reservoir of the influenza A virus (IAV) in nature, empirical investigations exploring the interaction between the IAV prevalence in these populations and environmental drivers remain scarce. Chile has a coastline of more than 4,000 kilometers with hundreds of wetlands, which are important habitats for both resident and inter hemispheric migratory species. The aim of this study was to characterize the temporal dynamics of IAV in main wetlands in central Chile and to assess the influence of environmental variables on AIV prevalence. For that purpose, four wetlands were studied from September 2015 to June 2018. Fresh faecal samples of wild birds were collected for IAV detection by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, a count of wild birds present at the site was performed and environmental variables, such as temperature, rainfall, vegetation coverage (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index-NDVI) and water body size were determined. A generalized linear mixed model was built to assess the association between IAV prevalence and explanatory variables. An overall prevalence of 4.28% ± 0.28 was detected with important fluctuations among seasons, being greater during summer (OR=4.87, 95% CI 2.11 to 11.21) and fall (OR=2.59, 95% CI 1.12 to 5.97). Prevalence was positively associated with minimum temperature for the month of sampling and negatively associated with water body size measured two months before sampling, and NDVI measured three months before sampling. These results contribute to the understanding of IAV ecological drivers in Chilean wetlands providing important considerations for the global surveillance of IAV.
... There are more than 30,000 Whimbrels and 20,000 Hudsonian Godwits on Chiloe Island alone, and across the rest of Southern Chile and Tierra del Fuego, there are likely many thousands more [29][30][31][32]. There are also over 25,000 Ruddy Turnstones in Patagonia and Terra del Fuego, and Red Knots number between 5000 and 10,000 in Chile [33]. Census data and flight distances were not recorded for the Eskimo Curlew, but it is thought that they were particularly numerous in Tierra del Fuego and likely flew long distances, similar to their close relatives [34,35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Among the most distantly separated plant species are those that are found on the polar regions of the northern and southern hemispheres, the so-called bipolar species. Two routes of introduction have been proposed—long-distance dispersal (LDD) and mountain hopping (MH). Shorebirds have been implicated in the distribution of the bipolar species by several authors, but the most likely participants and the most probable routes of introduction have been little investigated. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility database was accessed to determine the geographic range of those angiosperm species that have been reported to have bipolar distributions. A bipolar plant species was considered most likely to have been dispersed by LDD if it has a distinct disjunct distribution between North and South America, and through MH if it is found in intermediate latitudes. The Atlas of Bird Migrations and the Cornell Birds of the World database were searched to discover which birds make long-distance migrations from Arctic North America to the tip of South America, and their mode of travel. Twenty-three plant species have been identified as bipolar. LDD appears to have been more important than MH in their dispersal, as seventeen (75%) have disjunct distributions and six (25%) are found in intermediate latitudes. The most likely players in the LDD dispersal of the bipolar plant species are the Eskimo Curlew, Hudsonian Godwit, Red Knot, Ruddy Turnstone and Whimbrel. Of these five long flyers, the Hudsonian Godwit may have delivered the most seeds as its breeding and migration ranges overlap with the most bipolar species, 12 in all.
... The river mouth is located inside a rocky bay with a 1-km-long beach. Here, a small lagoon is formed, surrounded by a wetland fed mainly by groundwater and seawater infiltrations [62]. The hydrologic regime of the river is permanent with a mean annual discharge of 0.4 m 3 /s [63]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The ecological value of coastal wetlands is globally recognized, particularly as biodiversity hotspots, but also as buffer areas because of their role in the fight against climate change in recent years. Most of Chile's coastal wetlands are concentrated in the central and southern part of the country due to climate conditions. However, northern coastal wetlands go unnoticed despite being located in areas of high water deficit (desert areas) and their role in bird migratory routes along the north-south coastal cordon of South America. This study reviews the current environmental status of the arid coastal wetlands of northern Chile (Lluta, Camarones, Loa, La Chimba, Copiapó, Totoral, Carrizal Bajo) in terms of regulations, management, and future aims. The main natural and anthropogenic threats to these coastal wetlands are identified, as well as the main management tools applied for their protection, e.g., the Nature Sanctuary designation, which allows for the protection of both privately and publicly owned property; and the Urban Wetland, a recently created protection category.
... Para el caso de playero blanco (Calidris alba) y gaviotín piquerito (Sterna trudeaui) que se presentan exclusivamente en ambientes costeros, generalmente en playas y marismas, no suelen distribuirse hacia el interior (Canepa, 2009;García-Walther et al., 2017) se excluyó del análisis a la laguna el Peral por estar ubicada 700 m hacia el interior. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Cartagena lagoon is part of Cartagena’s municipal wetlands reserve, which houses a great diversity of waterbirds. Unlike the majority of the wetland, the lagoon is safeguarded by perimeter fences which grant better living conditions for rest and reproduction the waterbirds. This piece of work presents a preservation program for waterbirds in Cartagena lagoon based on the characterization of these birds, potential abundance and the identification of limiting factors. After comparing the relative density between the nearby wetlands: El Peral lagoon, Rio Maipo wetland and Albufera lagoon, inside the results it was identified that most of the waterbirds species have a relative density within the expected numbers, except Sanderling (Calidris alba) and Many-colored Rush Tyrant (Tachuris rubrigastra) which present a density below what is expected. The limiting factors identified inside the lagoon are shoreline slopes, reed reduction and predation, among others. This program is divided into seven sub-programs aimed at different strategic guidelines, such as coastal slopes in shorelines, reed restoration and controlling predators and exotic rodents. These guidelines pursue creating the conditions for waterbirds to thrive in such a manner that species that present an abundant or expected population keep their numbers and those that present population below expected are able to increase. Key words: waterbirds, wetland conservation, conservation program.
... and Vanellus chilensis), in an area where at least 11 different species (e.g. Anas sibilatrix, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, sterna trudeaui) have been observed (Matus et al., 2010;García et al., 2017). To put this in perspective, Villagran et al. (1999) reported that the numbers of bird and mammal species known in the Mapuche language are 55 and 154, respectively. ...
Article
Coastal dunes can offer a series of Ecosystem Services (ES), especially to local communities. This study aimed to evaluate these benefits by exploring the perception of the Mapuche communities and representatives of the local government concerning the ES provided by the coastal dune fields of the Araucanía Region of Chile. Binary, multiple-choice, Likert scale and open questions were used to explore the general knowledge of 49 subjects about the ES provided by the dunes. Closed questions were analysed using Fisher's exact test, and tests of goodness of fit chi-square and G, while open questions were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The results showed that (1) cultural services were more important for Mapuche communities, while tourism was more valued for local government, (2) tourism and stock-raising were the most frequent use given to the dunes in the opinion of local government and Mapuche communities respondents, respectively, (3) both groups think that dunes offer habitat for biodiversity, and (4) the regulation of natural processes is one of the most important functions for both groups, although Mapuche communities consider that dune fields would not attenuate the effects of a tsunami. The conclusion is that dune fields offer a series of benefits, which are perceived in different ways by Mapuche communities and representatives of the local government. The lack of recognition of this knowledge is one of the main gaps in Chile's territorial planning instruments since it could make a decisive contribution to the management of social-ecological systems by zoning areas and identifying singular components, especially in Mapuche territories.
... Due the current lack of knowledge about the parasitic fauna of Neotropic cormorants in Chile, this study aimed to document new records of the ecto-, endoparasites, and protozoa of this widely distributed bird in the country. Additionally, most cormorants included in this study were residents of Talcahuano and San Vicente Bay, both areas characterized by the presence of estuarine wetlands and marshes, which are usually visited by resident and migratory birds to rest and feed (León & Benítez-Mora, 2005;García-Walther et al., 2017). Encounters among diverse bird species in these areas provide opportunities for the transmission of different parasite groups (Bjoersdorff et al., 2001), highlighting the importance of determining parasitic organisms in these birds to better understand parasite-host interactions in the established ecological communities. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Neotropic cormorant Nannopterum (Phalacrocorax) brasilianus (Suliformes: Phalacrocoracidae) is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Chile, information about parasites for this species is limited to helminths and nematodes, and little is known about other parasite groups. This study documents the parasitic fauna present in 80 Neotropic cormorants’ carcasses collected from 2001 to 2008 in Antofagasta, Biobío, and Ñuble regions. Birds were externally inspected for ectoparasites and necropsies were performed to examine digestive and respiratory organs in search of endoparasites. Ectoparasites collected were cleared and mounted for identification under a microscope. Fecal samples were also evaluated to determine the presence of protozoan parasites employing a flotation technique. A total of 44 (42.5%) of birds were infested with at least an ectoparasite, while 77 (96.25%) were carrying endoparasites. No protozoan forms were found after examination. Most prevalent endoparasite species found were Contracaecum rudolphii (72/80, 90%), followed by Pectinopygus gyroceras (33/80, 41.25%), and Profilicollis altmani (26/80, 32.5%). This is the first report of P. altmani, Baruscapillaria carbonis, Avioserpens sp., Cyathostoma (Cyathostoma) phenisci, and Eidmaniella pelucida in the Neotropic cormorant. These findings also expand the distributional range of Andracantha phalacrocoracis, Paradilepis caballeroi, Ascocotyle felippei, Hysteromorpha triloba, and P. gyroceras to Chile.
Article
Events during one stage of the annual cycle can reversibly affect an individual’s condition and performance not only within that stage, but also in subsequent stages (i.e., reversible state effects). Despite strong conceptual links, however, few studies have been able to empirically link individual‐level reversible state effects with larger‐scale demographic processes. We studied both survival and potential reversible state effects in a long‐distance migratory shorebird, the Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica). Specifically, we estimated period‐specific survival probabilities across the annual cycle and examined the extent to which an individual’s body condition, foraging success, and habitat quality during the nonbreeding season affected its subsequent survival and reproductive performance. Godwit survival rates were high throughout the annual cycle, but lowest during the breeding season, only slightly higher during southbound migration, and highest during the stationary nonbreeding season. Our results indicate that overwintering godwits foraging in high‐quality habitats had comparably better nutritional status and pre‐migratory body condition, which in turn improved their return rates and the likelihood that their nests and chicks survived during the subsequent breeding season. Reversible state effects thus appeared to link events between nonbreeding and breeding seasons via an individual’s condition, in turn affecting their survival and subsequent reproductive performance. Our study thus provides one of the few empirical demonstrations of theoretical predictions that reversible state effects have the potential to influence population dynamics.
Article
Full-text available
Islands within the Reloncaví Sound, southern Chile, have historically been used for fishing, agriculture , and tourism. However, little is known about the shorebird community inhabiting these islands; therefore, field data are needed to prioritize conservation actions. Here, we describe the shorebird assamblages on two islands located in the Reloncaví Sound, near the city of Puerto Montt. Our results highlight the importance of these islands for a relatively diverse bird community and, specifically, for species such as the Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica) and the American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus).
Article
Full-text available
The importance of Chile's coastline for long-distance migratory shorebirds is broadly known. Every year, thousands of shorebirds migrate south from their northern breeding grounds and congregate at coastal sites in Chile. Since the creation of the Chilean Shorebird Network (RECAP) in 1989, research on shorebirds in Chile has increased. Study sites currently span more than 3,000 km from Arica (18øS) to Concepci6n Bay (37øS), including Coquimbo, Quinteros and Santo Domingo. Each of these areas supports a high concentration of shorebirds, and each is a centre of investigation. RECAP has over 30 active members who are associated with 6 different universities. The scientific studies conducted at each research centre are varied and include research on populations and community ecology, as well as management and conservation strategies for long-distance migratory species. Ya es ampliamente sabido la importancia de las costas de Chile para las aves migratorias de larga distancia, ofreciendo • ireas de descanso y de permanencia durante la • poca no reproductiva para las aves. En estas • ireas cada amo se concentran miles de chorlos y playeros provinientes del Hemisferio Norte. Desde el origen de la Red Chilena de Aves Playeras (RECAP) en 1989, los estudios en este grupo de aves en el pais se han intensificado cubriendo actualmente mas de 3 000 km de distancia entre la 1ocalidad de Arica (18 lat. sur) hasta la Bahia de Concepci6n (37 lat. sur), pasando por Coquimbo, Quintero y Santo Domingo, las que concentran gran abundancia de Playeros y son nuestros Centros de Investigaci6n. RECAP cuenta con mas de 30 participantes activos afiliados a 6 diferentes instituciones. Los estudios cientificos que se realizan en cada uno de estos Centros de Investigaci6n son variados abarcando desde estudios poblacionales, ecologfa de comunidades, hasta manejo y conservaci6n de las especies migratorias de larga distancia. L'importance de la cSte du Chili pour les oiseaux de rivage qui migrent sur de 1ongues distances est largement connue. Ainsi, tousles ans, des milliers d'oiseaux de rivage migrent vers le Sud depuis leurs aires de reproduction du Nord et se rassemblent i • divers endroits de la cSte du Chili. Depuis la creation en 1989 du R • seau chilien d' • tude des oiseaux de rivage (RECAP), la recherche sur les oiseaux de rivage s'est accrue dans ce pays. , • , l'heure actuelle, les secteurs • tudi • s couvrent une r • gion qui va d'Arica (18 • S) i • la bale Concepci6n (37 • S), soit plus de 3 000 kin, et qui comprend Coquimbo, Quinteros et Santo Domingo. Chacun de ces secteurs, qui abrite des concentrations • levcSes d'oiseaux de rivage, constitue un centre de recherche. Le r • seau RECAP compte plus de 30 membres actifs affili • s i • 6 universit, s diff • rentes. Les • tudes scientifiques effectucSes i • chacun des centres sont varicSes et comportent des • tudes sur les populations et l'6cologie des communaut • s, ainsi que sur les strategies de gestion et de conservation des esp • ces de migrateurs au long cours.
Article
Full-text available
We re-assessed the population size and trend of 52 species and 75 taxa of shorebirds that occur in North America by reviewing published papers, soliciting unpublished data, and seeking the opinions of experts. New information resulted in changing population estimates for 35 of the 71 taxa that could be compared directly to the estimates published in 2006; from this comparison, 28 estimates increased and seven decreased. Almost all of the increases (88%) were the result of more comprehensive surveys being conducted or re-analyses of existing data rather than actual increases in numbers. Retaining the previous estimate was almost always due to a lack of new information. Recent trend analysis indicates that many shorebird populations have stabilized in recent years after large declines during the early 1980s and mid-1990s. Although many shorebird populations listed as threatened or endangered by the U.S. and Canadian governments have increasing population trends, none have reached recovery targets. Information on population trends remains virtually unknown for 25% of the shorebirds occurring in North America, and surveys are needed to determine the state of these populations.
Article
Full-text available
A large proportion of the Hudsonian Godwits (Limosa haemastica) spending the boreal winter along the eastern Pacific Ocean coast are known to occur in the vicinity of Chiloé Island, Chile, but the importance of the region to Whimbrels (Numenius phaeopus) is less known. Ground counts conducted in 2007 and 2008 increased published estimates, at a minimum, of Pacific coast populations by 27% for Whimbrels (33,150 individuals) and 51% for Hudsonian Godwits (21,161 individuals). Bays and shorelines in the Chiloé Island region supported 99% of Hudsonian Godwits and, perhaps, 61% of Whimbrels estimated to occur along the Pacific coast during the boreal winter. Whereas Hudsonian Godwits aggregated in shallow bays on the eastern and northern coast of Chiloé Island, Whimbrels were more dispersed along the island's coastline and reached a density of 7.5 birds/km along sheltered gravel shorelines. Bays in the vicinity of Chiloé's capital, Castro, provided important foraging and roosting habitat for non-breeding birds; these sites supported 52% of the Pacific coast population of Hudsonian Godwits and >4,000 Whimbrels. Low human disturbance in Pullao and Putemún bays makes these sites particularly attractive to nonbreeding Hudsonian Godwits, and their permanent protection is urged.
Article
Synthesises data on physical, biological and anthropogenic processes, concentrating on the form of estuarine and similar beaches, and the wave and current processes that shape them. Ecological aspects, recreational use, shore protection and regulatory considerations are also covered, indicating the environmental changes that accompany an anthropogenic disturbance to the natural shoreline. The text is divided into the following chapters: definitions and locations of estuarine beaches; waves, currents and water level changes; beach and shoreline characteristics; changes in beach morphology and sediment volumes; resource values of estuarine beaches; shore protection alternatives; management considerations; research needs. (S.J.Stone)
Article
Hudsonian Godwits Limosa haemastica are widely distributed across the southern cone of South America during the austral spring, summer and fall (Sep-Apr). Despite their relative abundance, little effort has been made to quantify godwit habitat use and foraging ecology during their stay in the Southern Hemisphere. During an eightmonth tour of godwit migration stopover sites and areas of concentration outside the breeding season in Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile, we sought a better understanding of the types of habitats godwits frequent and their numbers and foraging patterns. During this tour, we opportunistically collected data on the foraging ecology of godwits at 15 sites. Across all sites, godwits averaged 58.36 probes/minute and 1.82 prey items/ minute. Using one-way ANOVAs, we found that godwit foraging behavior differed across all sites, but varied little between sites. Only Rio Grande, Argentina and Bahía Lomas, Chile significantly differed in the number of probes/minute. Across habitat types, those sites characterized by the softest sediments had higher numbers of probes and prey items captured per minute than did sandy or inland sites, and it may be that this difference, and the resulting differences in prey type and abundance, is what dictates the observed inter-site variation in these rates. This is the first study to quantitatively assess godwit foraging ecology at a large geographical scale and, along with our anecdotal observations of godwit habitat usage, should prove useful in future assessments of habitat quality and godwit behavior.
Abundance and phenology of migratory non-breeding shorebirds on exposed sandy beaches of south central Chile
  • A Aparicio
Aparicio, A. (2006). Abundance and phenology of migratory non-breeding shorebirds on exposed sandy beaches of south central Chile. Wader Study Group Bull, 111, 60-63.
Recuperado 1 de diciembre de
  • Chile Aves De
Aves de Chile. (2016). Recuperado 1 de diciembre de 2016, a partir de http://www. avesdechile.cl/
  • R Barros
  • A Jaramillo
  • F Schmitt
Barros, R., Jaramillo, A., & Schmitt, F. (2015). Lista de las Aves de Chile 2014. La Chiricoca 20: 79-100.