Article

# Meitnerite, (NH 4 )(UO 2 )(SO 4 )(OH)·2H 2 O, a new uranyl-sulfate mineral with a sheet structure

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## Abstract

Meitnerite (IMA2017-065), (NH4)(UO2)(SO4)(OH)·2H2O, is a new mineral from the Green Lizard mine in Red Canyon, San Juan County, Utah, USA, where it occurs as a secondary alteration phase. It occurs on partially recrystallized quartz grains in association with beshtauite and gypsum. Meitnerite occurs as intergrowths of tabular crystals, flattened on {0 1 1}, up to about 80mm in diameter and 30 mm thick. The mineral is slightly greenish yellow and transparent with a vitreous lustre and very pale yellow streak. It exhibits greenish-white fluorescence in 405 nm light. Crystals are brittle with irregular fracture, and a perfect cleavage on {0 1 1}. The Mohs’ hardness is ca. 2. The calculated density is 3.320 g·cm–3. At room temperature, the mineral is slowly soluble in H2O and very rapidly soluble in dilute HCl. Optically, meitnerite is biaxial (–), with alpha = 1.568(2), beta = 1.589(2), gamma = 1.607(2) (white light); 2V = 84(1)°. The dispersion is r > v, moderate, The optical orientation is X ∧ b = 26°, Y ∧ a = 15°, Z ∧ c = 53°. The pleochroism is X nearly colourless, Z pale green yellow, Y light green yellow; X < Z < Y. Electron-microprobe analyses gave the empirical formula (NH4)1.01Na0.07(U0.97O2)(S1.03O4)[(OH)0.93O0.07]·2H2O, based on 9 O apfu. Meitnerite is triclinic, P1, a = 6.7964(2), b = 8.0738(3), c = 9.2997(7) A, alpha = 113.284(8), beta = 99.065(7), gamma = 105.289(7)°, V = 431.96(5) A^3 and Z = 2. The crystal structure, refined to R1 = 0.013 for 1871 observed reflections [I > 2sI], contains uranyl sulfate sheets based on the phosphuranylite anion topology. The interlayer region contains an NH4 group and two H2O groups.

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... The Green Lizard mine is near the head of Low Canyon on the east side of Red Canyon, 2.1 km north of the Blue Lizard mine. The Green Lizard mine is also a type locality for greenlizardite (Kampf et al., 2018b), shumwayite (Kampf et al., 2017b) and meitnerite (Kampf et al., 2018c). The Markey mine is also a type locality for feynmanite (Kampf et al., 2019), leószilárdite (Olds et al., 2017) and markeyite (Kampf et al., 2018a). ...
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Magnesioleydetite and straßmannite, two new uranyl sulfates minerals with sheet structures from Red Canyon, Utah - Anthony R. Kampf, Jakub Plášil, Anatoly V. Kasatkin, Barbara P. Nash, Joe Marty
Article
Chemically induced polytypic phase transitions have been observed during experimental investigations of crystallization in the mixed uranyl sulfate-selenate Mg[(UO2)(TO4)2(H2O)](H2O)4 (T = S, Se) system. Three different structure types form in the system, depending upon the Se:S ratio in the initial aqueous solution. The phases with the Se/(Se + S) ratios (in mol %) in the ranges 0-9, 16-47, and 58-100 crystallize in the space groups P21, Pmn21, and P21/c, respectively. The structures of the phases are based upon the same type of uranyl-based sulfate/selenate chains that, through hydrogen bonds, are linked into pseudolayers of the same topological type. The layers are linked into three-dimensional structures via interlayer Mg-centered octahedra. The three structure types contain the same layers but with different stacking sequences that can be conveniently described as belonging to the 1M, 2O, and 2M polytypic modifications. The Se-for-S substitution demonstrates a strong selectivity with preferential incorporation of Se into less tightly bonded T1 site. The larger ionic radius of Se6+ relative to S6+ induces rotation of (T1O4) tetrahedra in the adjacent layers and reconstruction of the structure types. From the information-theoretic viewpoint, the intermediate Pmn21 structure type is more complex than the monoclinic end-member structure types.
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The photoluminescence spectra of hydrated and anhydrous uranyl sulfates have been studied under conditions of high resolution at cryogenic temperatures. All uranyl sulfate systems were found to yield nonequivalent spectra: the energies for the electronic and vibronic origins were found to vary with the system, and certain uranyl vibrational frequencies exhibited a dependence on environment. These differences must reflect the various ways in which the uranyl centers are linked by the bridging sulfate groups, as this linking is the main difference between the various structures.
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A study of the low frequency vibrational spectra of compounds of the type L2UO2(NO3)2 (L = mono-dentate ligand), MUO2(NO3)3 (M = monovalent cation), and CS2UO2X4 (X = Cl or Br) has shown that the deformation frequency of the uranyl group occurs in the region 274–245 cm−1 but detailed assignments of the U—O (nitrate) frequencies are not given since it is shown that structurally related complexes do not necessarily give similar low frequency infrared (i.r.) and Raman spectra.
The i.r. spectra of UO2(NO3)2·6H2O, UO2(NO3)2(NH3)2, K2UO2(NO3)2F2 and K2UO2(NO3)2(CN)2 have been measured in the region from 4000 to 30 cm−1. The vibrational assignments of their skeletal vibrations have been made on the basis of a normal coordinate analysis in which a modified valence force field is assumed. Approximate force constants associated with the UO, UNO3 and UL (LH2O, NH3, F, CN) bonds have been obtained for the respective complexes.The ligation effects on the UO bonds in the complexes have been investigated through the calculations of overlap integrals of 1πu-molecular orbitals in the uranyl bonding. It has been suggested that the UO stretching force constant, which is a good measure for the UO bond strength, is closely related to the overlap integrals of the 1πu-molecular orbitals.
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Vibrational (Raman and infrared) spectra of nine alkali metal (lithium, sodium and potassium) uranates have been measured in the infrared range of 4000–250 cm−1 and the Raman shift range of 1100–50 cm−1. The Raman spectra of sodium and potassium uranates, and lithium polyuranates are reported for the first time. From these spectra the site symmetries of intrinsic uranate groups are deduced by comparing the number of observed and resolved bands with the number predicted by the various site symmetries subgroups possible for each uranate crystal symmetry. The following could then be assigned: C2h for Li2UO4; D2h for α-Na2UO4; D4h for K2UO4; D2 for Na2U2O7 and C2h for K2U2O7. For the lithium polyuranates, Li2O·1.6UO3, Li2O·1.75UO3, Li2U2O7 and Li2U3O10, as their crystal symmetries are not fully known, no definite conclusions concerning uranate site symmetry could be drawn, except that primitive monoclinic symmetry point groups must be excluded.
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The crystal structures of uranyl minerals and inorganic uranyl compounds are important for understanding the genesis of U deposits, the interaction of U mine and mill tailings with the environment, transport of actinides in soils and the vadose zone, the performance of geological repositories for nuclear waste, and for the development of advanced materials with novel applications. Over the past decade, the number of inorganic uranyl compounds (including minerals) with known structures has more than doubled, and reconsideration of the structural hierarchy of uranyl compounds is warranted. Here, 368 inorganic crystal structures that contain essential U 6+ are considered (of which 89 are minerals). They are arranged on the basis of the topological details of their structural units, which are formed by the polymerization of polyhedra containing higher-valence cations. Overarching structural categories correspond to those based upon isolated polyhedra (8), fi nite clusters (43), chains (57), sheets (204), and frameworks (56) of polyhedra. Within these categories, structures are organized and compared upon the basis of either their graphical representations, or in the case of sheets involving sharing of edges of polyhedra, upon the topological arrangement of anions within the sheets.
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The uranyl sulphate mineral zippeite was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The phase purity of the sample was initially checked by X-ray powder diffraction and its chemical composition was defined by electron microprobe (wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, WDS) analysis. The Raman spectroscopy research focused on the low wavenumber and uranyl stretching vibration regions. Vibration bands down to 50 cm(-1) were tentatively assigned. The U-O bond lengths were calculated based on empirical relations. Inferred values are consistent with those obtained from the crystal structure analysis of synthetic zippeite. Number of bands was interpreted on the basis of factor group analysis.
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Fermiite, Na 4 (UO 2 )(SO 4 ) 3 ·3H 2 O, and oppenheimerite, Na 2 (UO 2 )(SO 4 ) 2 ·3H 2 O, two new uranyl sulfate minerals from the Blue Lizard mine
• A R Kampf
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Ammoniozippeite, a new uranyl sulfate from the Blue Lizard mine
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Plá sil, J., Meisser, N., Čejka, J. (2016): The crystal structure of Na 6 [(UO 2 )(SO 4 ) 4 ](H 2 O) 4 : X-ray & Raman spectroscopy study. Can. Mineral., 54, 5-20.
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