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Potential Use of Multipurpose Paulownia elongata Tree as an Animal Feed Resource

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Abstract

Paulownia is known as an economically important multipurpose tree genus due to its fast growth and short-rotation harvesting for timber. There is interest in growing Paulownia species as a woody biofuel crop. There are reports on its leaves being rich in nitrogen and double as good fodder, as well as fertilizer (green manure). Nutritional properties of Paulownia elongata leaves collected at monthly intervals from Paulownia Demonstration Plot, Fort Valley State University (FVSU), Fort Valley, Georgia, USA, from April to November 2011, were studied. The leaves were dried and analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), fat, gross energy, and ash content. The CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, fat and ash content ranged from 14% - 23%, 29% - 55%, 18% - 42%, 10% - 22%, 2% - 4%, and 6% - 9%, respectively, indicating that Paulownia leaves have potential as a feed resource for livestock. Forage potential research was followed up by developing protocols to manufacture feed pellets with 75% and 95% leaf component and assessing their physical properties. There is an economic market potential for the by-products of Paulownia , which is usually grown for timber.
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... Paulownia genus comprises of nine species and several natural hybrids of fast-growing trees that are native to China and adjoining countries (Bing et al., 2019). Trees have multipurpose uses and are grown for the production of timber, making musical instruments, and agroforestry programs but have lately shown suitability for animal feed, biochar, and biocomposite production as well (El-Showk and El-Showk, 2003;Joshee, 2012;Yadav et al., 2013;Tisserat et al., 2013aTisserat et al., , 2013bTisserat et al., , 2013cVaughn et al., 2015Vaughn et al., , 2017Stewart et al., 2018). Studies on Paulownia species suggest that the tree could be fully utilized as valuable feedstock in bioenergy production (Basu et al., 2015;Qi et al., 2016;Wang et al., 2019;Rodríguez-Seoanea et al., 2020). ...
... Studies on Paulownia species suggest that the tree could be fully utilized as valuable feedstock in bioenergy production (Basu et al., 2015;Qi et al., 2016;Wang et al., 2019;Rodríguez-Seoanea et al., 2020). Paulownia leaves are rich in proteins and other nutrients making them a suitable forage crop for small ruminants (Mueller et al., 2001;Stewart et al., 2018). Fast -growing characteristics of Paulownia make it a desirable phytoremediation agent for rapid removal of swine waste, trace elements and heavy metals from contaminated soils (Bergmann et al., 1997;Tang et al., 1980;Madejon et al., 2014;Zhang et al., 2019). ...
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The effects of plant tissue culture media with varying levels of growth regulators and carbon sources was tested on four explant types for organogenesis and plant regeneration in Paulownia elongata. Among the various treatments applied, the best response to adventitious shoot proliferation was observed when entire leaf or half leaf with attached petiole explants were cultured on either MS or B5 medium along with 25 μM thidiazuron, 10 μM indole acetic acid and 30 g/L maltose as a carbon source. Proliferated shoots were rooted within five days on a modified MS medium containing 5 μM indole butyric acid and plants were successfully acclimated and hardened for greenhouse transfer. A green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (npt II) gene was used to optimize genetic transformation protocols. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of half leaf with petiole explants produced transgenic plants using the media optimized for shoot proliferation and rooting. The insertion and expression of the GFP transgene was detected using PCR and RT-PCR.
... Paulownia trees have long been farmed in numerous countries, including China, Japan, Korea, the United States, and Bulgaria. These trees were firstly planted for their wood, which is used in the manufacturing of furniture, musical instruments, paper, flooring, and wall panels (Stewart et al. 2018). Paulownia is an economically significant multifunctional tree with a unique physicochemical characteristic that its leaves are suitable for food animal diet formulation as a fodder crop (Alagawany et al. 2020). ...
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The present study was conducted to assess the effect of paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa) leaf extract (PLE) enriched diets on the quality of meat and the economic efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 180 one-day-old male chicks (Cobb) were randomly assigned to four treatments with five replications each (9 birds per replicate). The chickens were fed corn-soybean-based diets supplemented with different levels of PLE (0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 g kg�1 ) for 42 days. The results showed that the inclusion of up to 0.5 g kg�1 PLE in the diet of broiler chickens significantly improved the live body weight, carcase weight, and carcase components (liver, heart, and gizzard) weights compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Enriched broiler diets with 0.5 g kg�1 of PLE significantly reduced collagen and lipid content as well as increased total protein levels in both breast and thigh muscle compared to the un-supplemented group (P < 0.001). Subjective evaluation of the breast meat showed a significant linear improvement in flavour and juiciness of meat samples from birds fed with dietary PLE in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Supplementation with different levels of PLE significantly improved the sensory attributes (flavour, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability) of thigh meat in a dose-dependent manner (linear; P < 0.05). Total potential return and net profit were significantly increased in all groups fed PLE compared to the control group. Birds that received PLE-supplemented diets at a level of 0.5 g kg�1 had the highest economic efficiency (P < 0.05). Conclusively, supplementation with 0.5 g PLE/kg in broiler diets could improve meat quality and economic efficiency
... Traeet bruges både til letvaegts-tømmer, biomasse og dyrefoder (Stewart et al., 2018). Paulownia hybrider bruges i SRC (short rotation coppice) eller i tømmerproduktion med kort omdriftstid i bl.a. ...
... Their leaves can be used as fertilizer or forage stuff. Their potential use as animal feed was also investigated [21]. The flowers are a source of nectar for honey bees [7,22,23]. ...
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Paulownia spp. are widely distributed ornamental trees with leaves abundant in secondary metabolites of high medicinal potential. Eighteen breeding clones of Paulownia spp. were tested in terms of their antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic contents. The 50% ethanolic extracts (2 g/30 mL) of leaves and petioles were compared in the screening step. Eight paulownia clones were selected for detailed analyses including HPTLC polyphenolic profile, verbascoside content and antibacterial activity against five bacteria species (S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, Y. enterocolitica, S. enterica). The species-specific differences in terms of antioxidant activity correlated with phenolic compounds were found mainly in the case of leaf blade extracts, the highest for P. tomentosa × P. fortunei and the lowest for P. elongata × P. fortunei clones. The P. tomentosa clones varied greatly in this regard. In the HPTLC polyphenolic profile, the occurrence of some polyphenols was proved and the specific verbascoside content was quantified (70 to 225 mg/g DW). The P. tomentosa × P. fortunei hybrids had the highest inhibitory activity, mainly against Gram-positive bacteria, whereas only slight inhibition of S. aureus growth was observed for P. elongata × P. fortunei clones. The obtained results indicate diverse suitability of paulownia clones as a source of active ingredients.
... Biochar produced from Paulownia is also a desirable organic soil amendment that allows the growth of beneficial microbes in the porous holes of the biochar [10]. Recently, researchers found its potential use as an animal feed resource [11]. ...
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Paulownia (Paulownia elongata) is a fast-growing, multipurpose deciduous hardwood species that grows in a wide range of temperatures from –30 °C to 45 °C. Seasonal cues influence the secondary growth of tree stems, including cambial activity, wood chemistry, and transition to latewood formation. In this study, a de novo transcriptome approach was conducted to identify the transcripts expressed in vascular cambial tissue from senescent winter and actively growing spring seasons. An Illumina paired-end sequenced cambial transcriptome generated 297,049,842 clean reads, which finally yielded 61,639 annotated unigenes. Based on non-redundant protein database analyses, Paulownia cambial unigenes shared the highest homology (64.8%) with Erythranthe guttata. KEGG annotation of 35,471 unigenes identified pathways enriched in metabolic activities. Transcriptome-wide DEG analysis showed that 2688 and 7411 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in spring tissues compared to winter. Interestingly, several transcripts encoding heat shock proteins were upregulated in the spring season. RT-qPCR expression results of fifteen wood-forming candidate genes involved in hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, auxin, and cytokinin pathways showed that the hemicellulose genes (CSLC4, FUT1, AXY4, GATL1, and IRX19) were significantly upregulated in spring season tissues when compared to winter tissues. In contrast, lignin pathway genes CCR1 and CAD1 were upregulated in winter cambium. Finally, a transcriptome-wide marker analysis identified 11,338 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSRs). The AG/CT dinucleotide repeat predominately represented all SSRs. Altogether, the cambial transcriptomic analysis reported here highlights the molecular events of wood formation during winter and spring. The identification of candidate genes involved in the cambial growth provides a roadmap of wood formation in Paulownia and other trees for the seasonal growth variation.
... It is known as an economically important multipurpose tree genus due to its quick development and short-rotation for production of timber. Paulownia is seen as a woody biofuel crop [1,2]. Investigaotors enumerated the value of Paulownia as a short-rotation woody crop plants, afforestation, mine site reclamation, ornamental use, the bark has been used in Chinese herbal medicine as a component remedies for some infectious diseases, used to make furniture, musical instruments, flooring and finally the wood of Paulownia is soft, lightweight with excellent MBRC http://mbrc.shirazu.ac.ir 56 machining and finishing properties [3][4][5]. ...
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Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. is a very important hard woody plant, an extremely fast-growing tree and produce timber. Therefore, there is a demand to produce transgenic Paulownia plant resistant to bacterial infection. Microbial infection (especially bacterial one) is serious sever and cause a loss in plant productivity as they bear upon the character and amount of plant product. Two phytopathogenic bacteria were chosen to consider their effect on Paulownia tomentosa. These two bacterial species were Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two thionin genes (AT1G12660 and AT1G12663) were selected. They produce antimicrobial peptides to resist this bacterial infection. Chitosan nanoparticle is a novel technology in genetic transformation into plant tissues. Chitosan nanoparticles were used in a ratio of 1:1 with the plasmid DNA carrying thionin genes independently. Characterization for chitosan nanoparticles was applied to determine the conditions of genetic transformation. The new transgenic P. tomentosa lines produced are partially resistant to these two bacterial infections compared to non-transgenic lines. The inhibitory percentage in the transgenic lines ranged from 8 to 21% wherein the non-transgenic the inhibitory percentage of P. tomentosa leaves ranged from 53-24%. Likewise, it is noticed that is Paulownia tomentosa less infectious than Erwinia carotovora. In conclusion, I recommend using chitosan nanoparticle is an excellent way for gene transformation into plant tissues. Also, manipulate the idea of using thionin as antimicrobial genes to resist bacterial infection for different plant species.
... 13 These trees are initially cultivated for their wood that used for furniture, musical instruments, floorings, and wall panels industries. 14 Because of its good nutritional value, many attempts to use Paulownia in animal feed have been reported. Its leaves have been used as fodder in different animal diets due to their interesting, valuable biochemical composition. ...
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