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Whai tikanga: The application of a culturally relevant value centred approach

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Abstract

This article presents and discusses the development of a kaupapa Māori (Māori centred) values based intervention, Whai Tikanga. The article briefly describes western perspectives of values based practice utilised within psychology, and discusses Māori perspectives of values as kaipuripuri (holders of traditional knowledge) with a deep connection to whakapapa kōrero (traditional Māori narratives). The application of the Whai Tikanga Values Card Sort (WT-VCS) will also be introduced. The authors propose that the WT-VCS exemplifies the importance of values centred approaches to engagement within the therapeutic context with Māori, building shared cultural understanding, and engaging in the transmission of Māori knowledge in the therapeutic context as a source and method of traditional healing. © The material published in this issue is
New Zealand Journal of Psychology Vol. 46, No. 3, November 2017• 46 •
Andre D. McLachlan, Rebecca Wirihana and Terry Huriwai
Whai tikanga: e application of a culturally
relevant value centred approach
Andre D. McLachlan, Rebecca Wirihana and Terry Huriwai
Waikato Institute of Technology, Te Utuhina Manaaki Trust and Te Rau Matatini
This article presents and discusses the development of a kaupapa Māori (Māori centred) values based intervention,
Whai Tikanga. The article briey describes western perspectives of values based practice utilised within psychology,
and discusses Māori perspectives of values as kaipuripuri (holders of traditional knowledge) with a deep connection to
whakapapa kōrero (traditional Māori narratives). The application of the Whai Tikanga Values Card Sort (WT-VCS) will
also be introduced. The authors propose that the WT-VCS exemplies the importance of values centred approaches
to engagement within the therapeutic context with Māori, building shared cultural understanding, and engaging in
the transmission of Māori knowledge in the therapeutic context as a source and method of traditional healing
Key words: Mātauranga Māori, Kaipuripuri, Te Whare Tapa Wha, Ngā Take Pū, Values, Valued-living
Culturally congruent interventions have been noted
to contribute to enhanced engagement, and assist in the
development of competencies linking indigenous theory
   
    




      
this basis. Currently psychological literature has a tendency
   
    
    
reside therein.

by a standard belief that there are a set of values that are

    



the risk of treatment disengagement, treatment failure, or
    
     
 


and processes, primarily focusing on the amelioration
     
    

making traditional mainstream psychological approaches


 
    
  
    
    
  


psychological approach to therapy, and by integrating
values based methods, practitioners can use traditional

  
    
   
   




     

A Māori centred psychological approach to therapy
    

  





  
   


   
  
   

     
systemic and individual racism that has occurred as a result,
 
     
    

• 47 •New Zealand Journal of Psychology Vol. 46, No. 3 November 2017
Whai Tikanga: Māori centred values in practice
   
    

     

    
    
   
     
      
    

   




    
     
in environments that are non-judgemental and are founded
 

      


      
     
      
      



    
      
     

   
  





        



   
 
       




   


     
     
   

    
  

     


     
   
establishing balanced relationships, and achievement of



     




Whakapapa korero as the foundaon for kaupapa
Māori based therapeuc acvies

  
    


    







   
    

the bright star ahead in the distance, points on the compass,
   



Firstly, they are important and desirable and, secondly, values
   


   
      
   
     

also been referred to as value-directed living, 'engaging in an


    

New Zealand Journal of Psychology Vol. 46, No. 3, November 2017• 48 •
Andre D. McLachlan, Rebecca Wirihana, and Terry Huriwai
     
     


you feel you should, must, or have to do.
 

 Valuing tends to bring a sense of vitality, purpose,
and meaning to life.
 
 



argued to both share common features, including enhancing
    
    
   
     
   
       


   
     
     

or other drug use.
     
    










   


    
of values cards and asks them to read them and separate
     
     
 


    

the meaning of the card, or the value may bring up important

  

     

  
behaviour and their ability to successfully live by these values.



Kaipuripuri: the transmission of Māori values
 

could be seen as nourishing ones desires, or take pū
can be noted as the source of issues of importance and

     
       
      

    
     

      
 


values and concepts also includes, and are related to, other

       
    



   

  
     

      



     



   
    
   

     
  




    

  

  

• 49 •New Zealand Journal of Psychology Vol. 46, No. 3 November 2017
Whai Tikanga: Māori centred values in practice








      

  

    
    



     




modes of behaviour, life lessons and appropriate courses of

   

 



      

     
    


    


about them.
   
using these mediums to support the process of healing from














 

   
dominant culture concepts of values and value-related

     





 


     
 
 
   

 

  

The Whai Tikanga Values Card Sort (WT-VCS)





     
adaptations of psychological treatment approaches and


 

1. 
2.  

 
4. 
Ngā Take Pū: Māori relevant values


     
  


    
 

 
    
     
  
    
Whanganui regions.
New Zealand Journal of Psychology Vol. 46, No. 3, November 2017• 50 •
Andre D. McLachlan, Rebecca Wirihana and Terry Huriwai
  
     





     
    
    


  



Kaipuripuri: whakataukī and the transmission of
whakapapa korero
      



whakataukī stress the importance of a


  


      


       
     

Incorporang metaphor and whakapapa korero
    

        
journey, and to consider those values that are less important


       
 
their chest pocket, as seen in image 2.
   
 

       

     
Image 1. Front and reverse of Whai Tikanga Values Card
Image 2. Example of Values Cards sorted according to importance
• 51 •New Zealand Journal of Psychology Vol. 46, No. 3 November 2017
Whai Tikanga: Māori centred values in practice
    



  
 
    
       
 
    


add richness to the understanding of the value and, due to
    

    
     
   


 
 
 
 



 
 
 
  
     

Applying Māori models of wellbeing to pracce



by the placement of a symbol on the corner of each card.


   
    




  

and the balance across the four taha.
    
 

 
 
   
comparison to the other domains, and
 


   
       
establishing goals to live by their values, strengthen their
       
   

   
   
   

   
   

    



     







    
     



      





   

   
Image 3. Whai Tikanga Values Card formed as a Whare (house)
New Zealand Journal of Psychology Vol. 46, No. 3, November 2017• 52 •
Andre D. McLachlan, Rebecca Wirihana and Terry Huriwai

    
     
   
 


     

  


Discussion



       

    
concepts of values and value-related behaviour in current







the search for meaningful engagement in the process of
    
  

    
 
provided the basis for the development of this resource and


   








there has been progress in this regard, more research is
   

       
 




of the authors to contribute to this process and to encourage

  

    
     
      
     


    




     
improved engagement in value-related behaviour.
Acknowledgements
     
     
    

and discussed.
References
      
Movaonal interviewing in treang psychological problems.

     
 
across cultural lines. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68 
 
ACT in pracce: case conceptualizaon
in acceptance & commitment therapy

      The adaptaon of
cognitive behavioural therapy for adult Māori clients with
depression: a pilot study.
Claiming spaces: proceedings of the 2007
naonal Māori and Pacic psychologies symposium 


client values in clinical behavior analysis. Behavior Analyst, 32

    
  
Behavioural and Cognive
Psychotherapy, 39
Takitaki mai: a
guide to movaonal interviewing for Māori

 Improving cultural
competence




The proceedings of the naonal māori graduates of psychology
symposium 2002: Making a dierence


Te manu kai i te mātauranga: Indigenous
psychology in Aotearoa/New Zealand
• 53 •New Zealand Journal of Psychology Vol. 46, No. 3 November 2017
Whai Tikanga: Māori centred values in practice

Spirituality, values and
mental health: jewels for the journey   

  A pōwhiri poutama approach to therapy. New
Zealand Journal of Counselling, 27
Whaiaora: Māori health development

     

     


New
Zealand Journal of Psychology, 34


PsyCh Journal, 4
     
      
therapies. Behavior Therapy 35
    Acceptance and
commitment therapy: an experiential approach to behavior
change


 
Substance use and Misuse. 37 
 


    
MAI review, 2

Cognive &
Behavioral Pracce, 19
The woven universe. Selected wrings of Rev.
Māori Marsden


   
in primary care. Journal of Primary Health Care, 4
He puna whakaata: therapeuc
acvies to guide change
   Te Kaharoa,


Behavioural Psychotherapy, 11
Personal
values card sort
“What’s important in my life”: the
personal goals and values card sorng task for individuals with
schizophrenia


distress. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 44

  
AlterNave, 10

Sexual Abuse
in Australia and New Zealand, 7

New
Zealand Journal of Psychology, 36

clinical behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 32


       

  

  
  
Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood. 17


    
Waikato.
     
      
Journal of Populaon Research, 33


    
Substance Use and
Misuse, 32

Democracy & Educaon. 17
      
Te manu kai i te
mātauranga: indigenous psychology in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

Whakarauora tangata understanding and healing
the impact of sexual violence for Māori


  

Wellington.
He paiaka totara: Māori psychologist’s
wānanga  
  



The Psychological Record, 60 
Ko ngā tūmanako o ngā wahine māori e ko ana
i roto i te reo Māori (exploring Māori women’s hopes for learning
te reo Māori.
        
MAI Journal, 3
Corresponding Author
Andre D. McLachlan
Centre for Health and Social Practice,
Waikato Institute of Technology
Private Bag 3036,
Waikato Mail Centre,
New Zealand Journal of Psychology Vol. 46, No. 3, November 2017• 54 •
Andre D. McLachlan, Rebecca Wirihana and Terry Huriwai
Hamilton 3240
Email: andre.mcLachlan@wintec.ac.nz
... Māori have a long history of oral storytelling. Pre-European Māori comprised a culture which saw information and myths transmitted orally across the generations (Metge 1998) using pūrakau (storytelling), waiata (song), whakairo (carving), rāranga (weaving) and moko (tattoo) (McLachlan et al. 2017). The oral tradition continues in contemporary society by way of hui (formal gatherings) on marae and, increasingly, into everyday environments such as schools, businesses and even the entertainment industry (Metge 1998;Husband 2018). ...
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This whakataukī or ‘proverb’ speaks to Māori perspectives of time, where the past, the present and the future are viewed as intertwined, and life as a continuous cosmic process. Within this continuous cosmic movement, time has no restrictions – it is both past and present. The past is central to and shapes both present and future identity. From this perspective, the individual carries their past into the future. The strength of carrying one’s past into the future is that ancestors are ever present, existing both within the spiritual realm and in the physical, alongside the living as well as within the living. This article explores Māori perspectives of the past and the models and inspiration they offer. In this way, it provides a critique of the practices in early childhood education, highlighting the importance of cultural concepts and practices, and discusses implications for both teaching and academic practice.
Book
An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello