ArticlePDF Available




Content may be subject to copyright.
Int J Physiother Res 2018;6(3):2696-2700. ISSN 2321-1822 2696
Original Research Article
Gayatri Saraswate 1, Gajanan Bhalerao *2, Ashok Shyam3, Parag Sancheti 4.
1 BPTh, Sancheti Institute College of Physiotherapy, Pune, Maharashtra, India
*2 MPTh in Neuro Physiotherapy, Associate Professor, Department of Neuro Physiotherapy, Sancheti
Institute College of Physiotherapy, Pune, Maharashtra,India
3 MS Ortho, Research officer, Sancheti Institute of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Pune,
Maharashtra, India
4 MS Ortho, Chairman, Sancheti Institute of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Pune, Maharashtra,
Background: In basketball, jumping quickly as well as maximally is equally important. Stretching is quite often
included as part of warm up exercises but the effects of dynamic stretching on performance and whether it has
a sustained effect is not clearly understood.
Study Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dynamic stretching when combined with
sports specific activity on jump performance in basketball players.
Study Design: Quasi Experimental Study
Method: Forty basketball players, aged 15 - 25 years took part in the study. Subjects were asked to perform the
dynamic stretching exercises and 15 minutes of sports specific basketball activity which consisted of 10 min-
utes shooting and 5 minutes sprint layup. Vertical jump test was assessed pre-stretching, immediately after
stretching and after 15 minutes of sports specific activity.
Results: Significant improvement in vertical jump performance was seen immediately after stretching of 41.9
±2.30 cm to 44.06±2.29 cm (p<0.0001). After 15 minutes of basketball activity there was maintenance of jump
performance seen 44.37±2.32 cm (p=0.053).
Conclusion: Jump performance improves immediately after dynamic stretching in basketball players which is
maintained after 15 minutes of sports specific activity.
KEY WORDS: Basketball, Dynamic Stretching, Sports Specific Activity, Jump Performance.
Address for correspondence: Dr. Gajanan Bhalerao, MPTh, Sancheti Institute College of
Physiotherapy, Pune, Maharashtra, India. E-mail Address:
International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research,
Int J Physiother Res 2018, Vol 6(3):2696-2700. ISSN 2321-1822
Access this Article online
Quick Response code International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research
ISSN (E) 2321-1822 | ISSN (P) 2321-8975
DOI: 10.16965/ijpr.2018.114
Received: 20 Feb 2018
Peer Review: 20 Feb 2018
Revised: None
Accepted: 16 Apr 2018
Published (O): 20 May 2018
Published (P): 11 June 2018
Journal Information
ICV for 2016
Article Information
stretching exercises as a part of warm-up dur-
ing pre-training or pre-competition is very com-
mon in sports and many studies support their
effectiveness [1-3]. The warm-up protocol is
Basketball is a high intensity sport which
includes maximum sprints and repeated jumps
throughout a game of 40 minutes. Inclusion of
Int J Physiother Res 2018;6(3):2696-2700. ISSN 2321-1822 2697
specifically designed to prepare the body for
exercise by increasing muscle temperature and
blood flow to muscles and stretching is known
to increase range of motion, reduce injuries,
decrease stiffness and improve athletic perfor-
mance [4,5]. American College of Sports Medi-
cine (ACSM) also recommends the idea of
stretching before competition [6]. Though
effects of stretching on performance is a debat-
able topic, some authors believe that it improves
performance [7-9] and reduces risk of muscle
injury while some say it has negative effect on
performance [10,11]. Dynamic stretching uses
active muscular force and momentum to stretch
the muscle which allows quick transition of the
muscle from concentric phase of contraction to
eccentric phase. Dynamic stretching, when per-
formed as a part of warm up, has been reported
to increase leg extensors muscle power and
strength and ultimately enhance performance
[12]. In many team sports, like basketball, the
stretching period is followed by sport-specific
activity, of usually 15 minutes duration. Whether
and in which way, when dynamic stretching
exercises are combined with sports specific
activity affects jump performance in basketball
players is not completely understood. Accord-
ingly, this study was designed to assess the
effects of dynamic stretching on vertical jump
performance executed before, immediately
after and at the end of the sports specific activ-
ity (i.e. 15 minutes- 10 minutes of shooting
phase and 5 minutes of sprint layup).
The distance between these two points was
considered as the vertical jump distance and was
measured in centimeters. Best of three jumps
was considered. Figure 2 clearly explains the
method followed for assessment and interven-
tion in the form of a timeline.
The players were given a general warm up of 10
minutes jog after which a vertical jump assess-
ment was done. Then the players were demon-
strated and asked to perform dynamic stretch-
ing exercises as given in Table 1. Each exercise
was performed along a full basketball court two
times each way. Immediately after which verti-
cal jump assessment was done. The players then
performed 15 minutes of sports specific activity
which consisted of 5 minutes of full court sprint
layup and 10 minutes of shooting. After this, the
final vertical jump assessment was done
Statistical Analysis: To evaluate the results the
SPSS package 16 was used. To determine the
difference between the vertical jump perfor-
mance immediately after stretching and after
sports specific activity, paired t-test was used.
The level of significance was accepted as
After approval from the ethical committee of the
institute, this study included athletes between
the age 15-25 (mean age 20.72), playing
basketball actively for at least 2 years (average
training years 4.85), with no injury and those
who were willing to participate. The demo-
graphic details of the participating players have
been represented in Figure 1. For the Vertical
jump test, a tape measure was placed on the
wall and the player had to stand with their side
to the wall and feet flat on the ground and were
asked to reach the arm closest to the wall as
high as possible and to mark the highest spot
they could reach with a chalk. From the same
standing position, they were asked to jump and
mark the wall at the highest point of your jump.
A significant increase in vertical jump height was
found immediately post dynamic stretching of
around average 2.16 cm indicating positive ef-
fect of the same (p<0.0001) as seen in Table 2.
Post 15 minutes of basketball activity, there was
maintenance of jump performance seen
(p=0.053), indicating that effects of stretching
persist if combined with sports specific activity
as seen in Table 3.
The mean and standard deviation for all three
vertical jump performances have been repre-
sented in Figure 3.
Fig. 1:
data of
Gayatri Saraswate, Gajanan Bhalerao, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH SPORTS
Int J Physiother Res 2018;6(3):2696-2700. ISSN 2321-1822 2698
Table 1: Dynamic Stretching Protocol.
Muscle Stretch Description
exercise for hamstrings leg swing to opposite hand
While walking, subject takes a step with right leg while
swinging left leg forward. Left leg touches right hand while
keeping the knee extended. Repeat the same for the other leg.
Stretch occurs in hamstrings of swinging leg
exercise for adductor
muscles Lateral low shuffle From standing position, subject performs a lateral low shuffle
alternating every three steps a lateral lunge (one for each leg)
exercise for calf muscles Tip-toe walking
Traveling forward while completing alternating plantar flexion
(tip toe) with every step forward. The aim is to raise the body
as high as possible through tip toeing.
exercise for quadriceps forward lunge with opposite
arm reach upward
While walking, subject performs a forward lunge with one leg,
bringing the opposite arm lying upwards and keeping his back
flat until a slight tension is felt in quadriceps
Table 2: Descriptive statistics for jump performance pre
stretching and post stretching
Pre stretching Post stretching
(mean + std dev) (mean + std dev)
41.9 ±2.30 cm 44.06±2.29 cm <0.0001
p value
Table 3: Descriptive statistics for jump performance post
stretching and post activity
Post stretching Post activity
(mean + std dev) (mean + std dev)
44.06±2.29 cm 44.37±2.32 cm 0.053
p value
Fig. 2: Timeline of assessment and intervention.
Fig. 3: Vertical jump performance in pre-stretching, post-
stretching and post activity phase.
findings were similar to that observed in study
by L.Parsons and N.Maxwell6, in which they
attributed the improvement in jump performance
as dynamic stretching increases neuromuscu-
lar efficiency. They further explained that due
to dynamic stretching, muscles are stretched
according to their synergistic patterns as well
as movement is rehearsed in a more specific
pattern and it actually increases neural drive by
increasing core temperature. Similar results were
seen in a study by Fletcher and Jones [17] where
they suggest that the rehearsal of specific
movement patterns through active dynamic
stretching may increase coordination, which
allows the muscle to transition more quickly and
therefore with increased power, from the eccen-
tric to the concentric phase of contraction.
After dynamic stretching there is elevation in
heart rate and muscle as well as body tempera-
ture [17,18] which improves muscle perfor-
mance. The voluntary contractions associated
with dynamic stretching have been reported to
enhance excitability of the motor unit and
improve kinesthetic sense leading to improved
proprioception and preactivation [9] and
increase nerve impulse transmission leading to
favorable changes in the force-velocity relation-
ship [20] and the decreased inhibition of antago-
nist muscles. Turki O et al [21] concluded that
10 minutes of dynamic stretching is sufficient
to potentiate vertical jump performance char-
This study also shows that effects of dynamic
stretching are sustained after 15 minutes of
sports specific activity. The sustenance of
improved jump performance can be attributed
This study investigated the effects of dynamic
stretching when combined with sports specific
activity on jump performance in basketball
players. This study shows that there was an
increase in jump performance immediately
after the dynamic stretching exercises and the
improved jump performance was maintained
after 15 minutes of sports specific activity. These
Gayatri Saraswate, Gajanan Bhalerao, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH SPORTS
Int J Physiother Res 2018;6(3):2696-2700. ISSN 2321-1822 2699
to a warm up consisting of a combination
stretching and sports specific movement
patterns. Similar results were seen in study by
Mandy T. Woolstenhulme et al [13], they
reported a 3 cm increase in vertical jump height
for the ballistic stretching group following 20
minutes of basketball play. They thought ballis-
tic stretching provided a more speciûc warm-up
to the muscle, which was similar to the muscu-
lar movements, performed in basketball.
Giuseppe Annino el al [12] reported slight
improvement in jump performance immediately
after dynamic stretching but decrease in
performance after 20 minutes of shooting phase
in basketball players. Results similar to this
study were seen in a study by Young and Behm
on rugby players, where they have reported
increase in jump performance when stretching
was combined with sports specific activity such
as sprints.
In basketball, jumping quickly as well as maxi-
mally is equally important. Athletes are required
to generate quick bursts of movement resulting
in maximal jump in as little time as possible.
Few studies have reported that the jump perfor-
mance has returned to baseline when no physi-
cal activity was performed in between14. While
in this study, athletes performed sports specific
activity like sprint lay ups and shooting which
helped to maintain the effects of dynamic
Jump performance improves immediately after
dynamic stretching in basketball players which
is maintained after 15 minutes of sports
specific activity.
[4]. Fletcher IM and Jones B. The effect of different warm-
up stretch protocols on 20 meter sprint performance
in trained rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res
2004; 18:885-8.
[5]. Shellock FG and Prentice WE. Warming-up and
stretching for improved physical performance and
prevention of sports-related injuries. Sports Med
1985; 2:267-78.
[6]. L.Parsons, N. Maxwell, C. Elnif, M. Jacka Static vs
Dynamic Stretching on Vertical Jump and Standing
Long Jump, Department of PT, Wichita State Univer-
sity, Kansas
[7]. Knudson DV, Noffal GJ, Bahamonde RE, Bauer JA,
Blackwell JR. Stretching has no effect on tennis serve
performance. J Strength Cond Res 2004; 18:654-6.
[8]. Shrier I and Gossal, K. Myths and truths of stretch-
ing: individualized recommendations for healthy
muscles. Phys Sportsmed 2000; 28:5763.
[9]. Shrier I. Does stretching improve performance? A
systematic and critical review of the literature. Clin
J Sport Med 2004; 14:267-73.
[10]. Bacurau RFP, Monteiro GA, Ugrinowitsch C, Tricoli
V, CabralLFf, Aoki MS. Acute effect of a ballistic and
a static stretching exercise bout on flexibility and
maximal strength. J Strength Cond Res2009;23:3048.
[11]. Yamaguchi T and Ishii K. Effects of static stretching
for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg ex-
tension power. J Strength Cond res 2005; 19:677-83
[12]. Giuseppe Annino, Bruno RuScello, Pietro leBone ,
Francesco Palazzo, Mauro Lombardo, Elvira Padua,
Luca Verdecchia, Virginia Tancredi, Ferdinando
IellaMo. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretch-
ing on jump performance after 15 min of recondi-
tioning shooting phase in basketball players. The
Journal of Sports Medicine and physical fitness 2017
April; 57(4):330-7.
[13]. Mandy T. Woolstenhulme, Christine M. Griffiths,
Emily M. Woolstenhulme, Allen C. Parcell. Ballistic
stretching increases flexibility and acute vertical
jump height when combined with basketball activ-
ity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,
2006, 20(4), 799–803
[14]. Bradley P, Olsen P, Portas M. The effect of static,
ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facili-
tation stretching on vertical jump performance. J
Strength Cond res 2007; 21:223-6.
[15]. Nicholas T. Kruse a, Marcus W. Barr b, Roger M.
Gilders b, Michael R. Kushnick b, Sharon R. Rana
Effect of different stretching strategies on the kinet-
ics of vertical jumping in female volleyball athletes,
Journal of Sport and Health Sciences, 2015(4) , 364-
[16]. Young, W.B., and D.G. Behm. Effects of running, static
stretching and practice jumps on explosive force
production and jumping performance. J. Sports Med.
Phys. Fitness 43:21– 27. 2003.
[17]. Fletcher M, Jones B The effect of different warm-up
stretch protocols on 20 meter sprint performance
in trained rugby union players The Journal of
Strength and Reconditioning research Dec 2004
Conflicts of interest: None
[1]. Bishop d. Warm up ii: performance changes follow-
ing active warm up and how to structure the warm
up. Sport. Med 2003; 33:483-98.
[2]. Faigenbaum AD, Kang J, Mcfarland J, Bloom JM,
Magnatta J, Ratamess NA, Hoffman J. Acute effects
of different warm-up protocols on anaerobic per-
formance in Teenage athletes. Pediatr. Exerc Sci
2006; 18:64-75.
[3]. McMillian DJ, Moore JH, Hatler BS, Taylor dc. Dy-
namic vs. static stretching warm up: the effect on
power and agility performance. J Strength Cond Res
2006; 20:492-9.
Gayatri Saraswate, Gajanan Bhalerao, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH SPORTS
Int J Physiother Res 2018;6(3):2696-2700. ISSN 2321-1822 2700
Gayatri Saraswate, Gajanan Bhalerao, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH SPORTS
[18]. Fletcher IM and Monte-Colombo, MM. An investiga-
tion into the possible physiological mechanisms
associated with changes in performance related to
acute responses to different preactivity stretch
modalities. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35: 27–34,
[19]. Behm, DG and Chaouachi, A. A review of the acute
effects o f sta tic and dynami c str etching o n
[20]. Bishop, D. Warm up I: Potential mechanisms and
the effects of passive warm up on exercise perfor-
mance. Sports Med 33: 439–454, 2003
[21]. Olfa Turki, Anis Chaouachi, Eric J. Drinkwater, Moktar
chtara,Karim Chamari, Mohamed Amri and David
G. Behm Ten minutes of dynamic stretching is suffi-
cient to potentiate vertical jump performance char-
acteristics. J Strength Cond res volume 25, number
9, September 2011 ,2453-2463
How to cite this article:
Gayatri Saraswate, Gajanan Bhalerao, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti.
J Physiother Res 2018;6(3):2696-2700. DOI: 10.16965/ijpr.2018.114
... To improve blood flow to the muscles and prepare the body for exercise, warm up protocol is designed and stretching is mainly done to reduce injuries, improve range of motion of joint, athlete performance and to decrease the stiffness. 2,3 According to some studies, static stretching was performed before the jump performance, there was a decrease in jump performance but the joint range of motion was increased whereas when dynamic stretching was performed, power production doesn't seem to be decreased, but most of the time it seems to be increased. Active muscular force and momentum are utilized in dynamic stretching which permits a rapid change of msuscle from concentric contraction to eccentric contraction. ...
... 2. After completion of the consent form, body weight, body height was measured and body mass index will be calculated. 3. A total of 50 subjects was considered which was assigned into 2 groups (25 each) i.e. ...
... Most appropriate out of 3 jumps reading was taken. 3 5. Both the groups were asked to perform the general warm-up of 10 minutes jog which was followed by a vertical jump test. ...
Full-text available
Aim: to assess the effects of Static (SS) and Dynamic Stretching (DS) on vertical jump performance executed before, immediately after and at the end of the shooting phase (i.e., 15 min later), as to simulate the actual conditions preceding a match, in professional basketball players. Methods: Ten elite basketball players (age: 29 ± 6.73 years, height: 194.67 ± 7.75 cm, weight: 91 ± 8.17 Kg and BMI 23.8 ± 7.91 Kg.m-2) participated to the study. SS and DS protocols were administered during the first training session of the week, 48 hours after the championship match. Stretching protocols consisted in ~7 minutes of general warm-up phase followed by ~8 minutes of SS and DS, performed with a cross-over design., and ~15 minutes of a specific warm-up shooting phase (SP) Vertical jump tests consisted in counter movement jump (CMJ) and CMJ with arm swings (CMJas) and were performed immediately after the end of each stretching phase (preS, postS, postSP). Results: A significant decrease (P=0.05; η2partial=0.29) in jumping tests height occurred in CMJas, when performed after the SS (i.e, PostS). However, no significant differences in jumping performances, occurred after the general warm phase and the specific warm-up shooting phase, between the two stretching protocols. Conclusions: These results would indicate that, overall, stretching routines either dynamic or static, performed before a basketball match are transient and affect only marginally leg muscles performance. Stretching routines, particularly the dynamic ones, may be useful to maintain muscle performance before a competition, provided that this latter begins shortly after.
Full-text available
Although pre-event static stretching (SS) is an accepted practice in most youth programs, pre-event dynamic exercise (DY) is becoming popular. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of pre-event SS, DY, and combined SS and DY (SDY) on vertical jump (VJ), medicine-ball toss (MB), 10-yard sprint (SP), and pro-agility shuttle run (AG) in teenage athletes (15.5 ± 0.9 years). Thirty athletes participated in three testing sessions in random order on three nonconsecutive days. Before testing, participants performed 5 min of walking/jogging followed by one of the following 10 min warm-up protocols: a) five static stretches (2 x 30 s), b) nine moderate-to-high-intensity dynamic movements (2 x 10 yards), or c) five static stretches (1 x 30 s) followed by the same nine dynamic movements (1 x 10 yards). Statistical analysis of the data revealed that performance on the VJ, MB, and SP were significantly (p < .05) improved after DY and SDY as compared with SS. There were no significant differences in AG after the 3 warm-up treatments. The results of this study indicate that pre-event dynamic exercise or static stretching followed by dynamic exercise might be more beneficial than pre-event static stretching alone in teenage athletes who perform power activities.
Full-text available
Purpose The present study aimed to examine the effect of static stretching (SS) and a sport-specific dynamic stretching (DS) session at two specific post-stretch time intervals in highly trained female athletes (age 19.9 ± 1.60 years; height 1.80 ± 0.06 m; mass 76.87 ± 9.95 kg) on kinetic parameters of peak force, time-to-takeoff and rate of force development. Methods The data were collected over 3 days (randomized within subject design with control session). Following each stretch session (SS vs. DS vs. control) of equal duration (7 min total: 30 s per targeted muscle group) participants performed countermovement jumping on a force platform at 1 and 15 min after stretching. Results The DS session significantly improved upon kinetic variables of rate of force development, peak force and time-to-takeoff relative to SS at 1 min after stretching. No significant effect was found at 15 min. Conclusions Together these findings suggest that when training and competing to jump quickly and maximally the female athlete should incorporate DS instead of SS as part of their pre-competition warm-up, but conduct performance within 15 min of their warm-up to elicit maximal gains.
Full-text available
The current literature recommends dynamic rather than static stretching for the athletic warm-up. Dynamic stretching and various conditioning stimuli are used to induce potentiation in subsequent athletic performance. However, it is unknown as to which type of activity in conjunction with dynamic stretching within a warm-up provides the optimal potentiation of vertical jump performance. It was the objective of the study to examine the possible potentiating effect of various types of conditioning stimuli with dynamic stretching. Twenty athletes participated in 6 protocols. All the experimental protocols included 10 minutes of dynamic stretching. After the dynamic stretching, the subjects performed a (a) concentric (DS/CON): 3 sets of 3 repetition maximum deadlift exercise; (b) isometric (DS/ISOM): 3 sets of 3-second maximum voluntary contraction back squats; (c) plyometric (DS/PLYO): 3 sets of 3 tuck jumps; (d) eccentric (DS/ECC): 3 modified drop jumps; (e) dynamic stretching only (DS), and (f) control protocol (CON). Before the intervention and at recovery periods of 15 seconds, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 minutes, the participants performed 1-2 maximal countermovement jumps. The DS and DS/CON protocols generally had a 95-99% likelihood of exceeding the smallest worthwhile change for vertical jump height, peak power, velocity and force. However, the addition of the deadlift to the DS did not augment the potentiating effect. Time-to-peak potentiation was variable between individuals but was most consistent between 3 and 5 minutes. Thus, the volume and the intensity associated with 10 minutes of dynamic stretching were sufficient to provide the potentiation of vertical jump characteristics. Additional conditioning activities may promote fatigue processes, which do not permit further potentiation.
Full-text available
An objective of a warm-up prior to an athletic event is to optimize performance. Warm-ups are typically composed of a submaximal aerobic activity, stretching and a sport-specific activity. The stretching portion traditionally incorporated static stretching. However, there are a myriad of studies demonstrating static stretch-induced performance impairments. More recently, there are a substantial number of articles with no detrimental effects associated with prior static stretching. The lack of impairment may be related to a number of factors. These include static stretching that is of short duration (<90 s total) with a stretch intensity less than the point of discomfort. Other factors include the type of performance test measured and implemented on an elite athletic or trained middle aged population. Static stretching may actually provide benefits in some cases such as slower velocity eccentric contractions, and contractions of a more prolonged duration or stretch-shortening cycle. Dynamic stretching has been shown to either have no effect or may augment subsequent performance, especially if the duration of the dynamic stretching is prolonged. Static stretching used in a separate training session can provide health related range of motion benefits. Generally, a warm-up to minimize impairments and enhance performance should be composed of a submaximal intensity aerobic activity followed by large amplitude dynamic stretching and then completed with sport-specific dynamic activities. Sports that necessitate a high degree of static flexibility should use short duration static stretches with lower intensity stretches in a trained population to minimize the possibilities of impairments.
Full-text available
The interaction between running, stretching and practice jumps during warm-up for jumping tests has not been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of running, static stretching of the leg extensors and practice jumps on explosive force production and jumping performance. Sixteen volunteers (13 male and 3 female) participated in five different warm-ups in a randomised order prior to the performance of two jumping tests. The warm-ups were control, 4 min run, static stretch, run + stretch, and run + stretch + practice jumps. After a 2 min rest, a concentric jump and a drop jump were performed, which yielded 6 variables expressing fast force production and jumping performance of the leg extensor muscles (concentric jump height, peak force, rate of force developed, drop jump height, contact time and height/time). Generally the stretching warm-up produced the lowest values and the run or run + stretch + jumps warm-ups produced the highest values of explosive force production. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) between the control and run + stretch warm-ups, whereas the run yielded significantly better scores than the run + stretch warm-up for drop jump height (3.2%), concentric jump height (3.4%) and peak concentric force (2.7%) and rate of force developed (15.4%). The results indicated that submaximum running and practice jumps had a positive effect whereas static stretching had a negative influence on explosive force and jumping performance. It was suggested that an alternative for static stretching should be considered in warm-ups prior to power activities.
Full-text available
Despite limited scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness, warm-up routines prior to exercise are a well-accepted practice. The majority of the effects of warm up have been attributed to temperature-related mechanisms (e.g. decreased stiffness, increased nerve-conduction rate, altered force-velocity relationship, increased anaerobic energy provision and increased thermoregulatory strain), although non-temperature-related mechanisms have also been proposed (e.g. effects of acidaemia, elevation of baseline oxygen consumption (.VO(2)) and increased postactivation potentiation). It has also been hypothesised that warm up may have a number of psychological effects (e.g. increased preparedness). Warm-up techniques can be broadly classified into two major categories: passive warm up or active warm up. Passive warm up involves raising muscle or core temperature by some external means, while active warm up utilises exercise. Passive heating allows one to obtain the increase in muscle or core temperature achieved by active warm up without depleting energy substrates. Passive warm up, although not practical for most athletes, also allows one to test the hypothesis that many of the performance changes associated with active warm up can be largely attributed to temperature-related mechanisms.
The aim of this study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying performance changes linked to different warm-up stretch modalities. Twenty-one male collegiate-semiprofessional soccer players (age, 20.8 +/- 2.3 years) performed under 3 different warm-up conditions: a no-stretch warm-up (WU), a warm-up including static passive stretches (SPS), and a warm-up incorporating static dynamic stretches (SDS). Countermovement jump, drop jump, peak torque, heart rate, core temperature, movement kinematics, and electromyography (EMG) were recorded for each intervention. Significant increases (p < 0.001) in performance were recorded for the countermovement, drop jump, and peak torque measures when the SDS was compared with the WU and SPS trials. When mechanism data were analysed, heart rate was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the SDS condition compared with the SPS and WU conditions (a pattern also shown with core temperature), whereas the WU condition heart rate was also significantly higher than the SPS condition heart rate. When EMG data were examined for the rectus femoris muscle, significantly greater (p < 0.01) muscle activity was observed in the SDS condition compared with the SPS condition. It seems the most likely mechanisms to explain the increase in performance in the SDS condition compared with the SPS condition are increased heart rate, greater muscle activity, and increased peak torque.
Stretching recommendations are clouded by misconceptions and conflicting research reports. This review of the current literature on stretching and range-of-motion increases finds that one static stretch of 15 to 30 seconds per day is sufficient for most patients, but some require longer durations. Heat and ice improve the effectiveness of static stretching only if applied during the stretch. Physicians should know the demands of different stretching techniques on muscles when making recommendations to patients. An individualized approach may be most effective based on intersubject variation and differences between healthy and injured tissues.
Competitive and recreational athletes typically perform warm-up and stretching activities to prepare for more strenuous exercise. These preliminary activities are used to enhance physical performance and to prevent sports-related injuries. Warm-up techniques are primarily used to increase body temperature and are classified in 3 major categories: (a) passive warm-up - increases temperature by some external means; (b) general warm-up - increases temperature by nonspecific body movements; and (c) specific warm-up - increases temperature using similar body parts that will be used in the subsequent, more strenuous activity. The best of these appears to be specific warm-up because this method provides a rehearsal of the activity or event. The intensity and duration of warm-up must be individualised according to the athlete's physical capabilities and in consideration of environmental factors which may alter the temperature response. The majority of the benefits of warm-up are related to temperature-dependent physiological processes. An elevation in body temperature produces an increase in the dissociation of oxygen from haemoglobin and myoglobin, a lowering of the activation energy rates of metabolic chemical reactions, an increase in muscle blood flow, a reduction in muscle viscosity, an increase in the sensitivity of nerve receptors, and an increase in the speed of nervous impulses. Warm-up also appears to reduce the incidence and likelihood of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries. Improving flexibility through stretching is another important preparatory activity that has been advocated to improve physical performance. Maintaining good flexibility also aids in the prevention of injuries to the musculoskeletal system. Flexibility is defined as the range of motion possible around a specific joint or a series of articulations and is usually classified as either static or dynamic. Static flexibility refers to the degree to which a joint can be passively moved to the end-points in the range of motion. Dynamic flexibility refers to the degree which a joint can be moved as a result of a muscle contraction and may therefore not be a good indicator of stiffness or looseness of a joint. There are 3 basic categories of stretching techniques: (a) ballistic--which makes use of repetitive bouncing movements; (b) static--which stretches the muscle to the point of slight muscle discomfort and is held for an extended period; and (c) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation - which uses alternating contractions and stretching of the muscles. Each of these stretching methods is based on the neurophysiological phenomenon involving the stretch reflex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)