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EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH SPORTS SPECIFIC ACTIVITY ON JUMP PERFORMANCE IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS

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Int J Physiother Res 2018;6(3):2696-2700. ISSN 2321-1822 2696
Original Research Article
EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH
SPORTS SPECIFIC ACTIVITY ON JUMP PERFORMANCE IN BASKET-
BALL PLAYERS
Gayatri Saraswate 1, Gajanan Bhalerao *2, Ashok Shyam3, Parag Sancheti 4.
1 BPTh, Sancheti Institute College of Physiotherapy, Pune, Maharashtra, India
*2 MPTh in Neuro Physiotherapy, Associate Professor, Department of Neuro Physiotherapy, Sancheti
Institute College of Physiotherapy, Pune, Maharashtra,India
3 MS Ortho, Research officer, Sancheti Institute of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Pune,
Maharashtra, India
4 MS Ortho, Chairman, Sancheti Institute of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Pune, Maharashtra,
India.
Background: In basketball, jumping quickly as well as maximally is equally important. Stretching is quite often
included as part of warm up exercises but the effects of dynamic stretching on performance and whether it has
a sustained effect is not clearly understood.
Study Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dynamic stretching when combined with
sports specific activity on jump performance in basketball players.
Study Design: Quasi Experimental Study
Method: Forty basketball players, aged 15 - 25 years took part in the study. Subjects were asked to perform the
dynamic stretching exercises and 15 minutes of sports specific basketball activity which consisted of 10 min-
utes shooting and 5 minutes sprint layup. Vertical jump test was assessed pre-stretching, immediately after
stretching and after 15 minutes of sports specific activity.
Results: Significant improvement in vertical jump performance was seen immediately after stretching of 41.9
±2.30 cm to 44.06±2.29 cm (p<0.0001). After 15 minutes of basketball activity there was maintenance of jump
performance seen 44.37±2.32 cm (p=0.053).
Conclusion: Jump performance improves immediately after dynamic stretching in basketball players which is
maintained after 15 minutes of sports specific activity.
KEY WORDS: Basketball, Dynamic Stretching, Sports Specific Activity, Jump Performance.
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
Address for correspondence: Dr. Gajanan Bhalerao, MPTh, Sancheti Institute College of
Physiotherapy, Pune, Maharashtra, India. E-mail Address: gajanan_bhalerao@yahoo.com
International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research,
Int J Physiother Res 2018, Vol 6(3):2696-2700. ISSN 2321-1822
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijpr.2018.114
Access this Article online
Quick Response code International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research
ISSN (E) 2321-1822 | ISSN (P) 2321-8975
https://www.ijmhr.org/ijpr.html
DOI-Prefix: https://dx.doi.org/10.16965/ijpr
DOI: 10.16965/ijpr.2018.114
Received: 20 Feb 2018
Peer Review: 20 Feb 2018
Revised: None
Accepted: 16 Apr 2018
Published (O): 20 May 2018
Published (P): 11 June 2018
Journal Information
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Article Information
stretching exercises as a part of warm-up dur-
ing pre-training or pre-competition is very com-
mon in sports and many studies support their
effectiveness [1-3]. The warm-up protocol is
Basketball is a high intensity sport which
includes maximum sprints and repeated jumps
throughout a game of 40 minutes. Inclusion of
Int J Physiother Res 2018;6(3):2696-2700. ISSN 2321-1822 2697
specifically designed to prepare the body for
exercise by increasing muscle temperature and
blood flow to muscles and stretching is known
to increase range of motion, reduce injuries,
decrease stiffness and improve athletic perfor-
mance [4,5]. American College of Sports Medi-
cine (ACSM) also recommends the idea of
stretching before competition [6]. Though
effects of stretching on performance is a debat-
able topic, some authors believe that it improves
performance [7-9] and reduces risk of muscle
injury while some say it has negative effect on
performance [10,11]. Dynamic stretching uses
active muscular force and momentum to stretch
the muscle which allows quick transition of the
muscle from concentric phase of contraction to
eccentric phase. Dynamic stretching, when per-
formed as a part of warm up, has been reported
to increase leg extensors muscle power and
strength and ultimately enhance performance
[12]. In many team sports, like basketball, the
stretching period is followed by sport-specific
activity, of usually 15 minutes duration. Whether
and in which way, when dynamic stretching
exercises are combined with sports specific
activity affects jump performance in basketball
players is not completely understood. Accord-
ingly, this study was designed to assess the
effects of dynamic stretching on vertical jump
performance executed before, immediately
after and at the end of the sports specific activ-
ity (i.e. 15 minutes- 10 minutes of shooting
phase and 5 minutes of sprint layup).
METHODOLOGY
The distance between these two points was
considered as the vertical jump distance and was
measured in centimeters. Best of three jumps
was considered. Figure 2 clearly explains the
method followed for assessment and interven-
tion in the form of a timeline.
The players were given a general warm up of 10
minutes jog after which a vertical jump assess-
ment was done. Then the players were demon-
strated and asked to perform dynamic stretch-
ing exercises as given in Table 1. Each exercise
was performed along a full basketball court two
times each way. Immediately after which verti-
cal jump assessment was done. The players then
performed 15 minutes of sports specific activity
which consisted of 5 minutes of full court sprint
layup and 10 minutes of shooting. After this, the
final vertical jump assessment was done
Statistical Analysis: To evaluate the results the
SPSS package 16 was used. To determine the
difference between the vertical jump perfor-
mance immediately after stretching and after
sports specific activity, paired t-test was used.
The level of significance was accepted as
p<0.0001.
After approval from the ethical committee of the
institute, this study included athletes between
the age 15-25 (mean age 20.72), playing
basketball actively for at least 2 years (average
training years 4.85), with no injury and those
who were willing to participate. The demo-
graphic details of the participating players have
been represented in Figure 1. For the Vertical
jump test, a tape measure was placed on the
wall and the player had to stand with their side
to the wall and feet flat on the ground and were
asked to reach the arm closest to the wall as
high as possible and to mark the highest spot
they could reach with a chalk. From the same
standing position, they were asked to jump and
mark the wall at the highest point of your jump.
A significant increase in vertical jump height was
found immediately post dynamic stretching of
around average 2.16 cm indicating positive ef-
fect of the same (p<0.0001) as seen in Table 2.
Post 15 minutes of basketball activity, there was
maintenance of jump performance seen
(p=0.053), indicating that effects of stretching
persist if combined with sports specific activity
as seen in Table 3.
The mean and standard deviation for all three
vertical jump performances have been repre-
sented in Figure 3.
RESULTS
Fig. 1:
Demographic
data of
participating
players.
Gayatri Saraswate, Gajanan Bhalerao, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH SPORTS
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY ON JUMP PERFORMANCE IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS.
Int J Physiother Res 2018;6(3):2696-2700. ISSN 2321-1822 2698
Table 1: Dynamic Stretching Protocol.
Muscle Stretch Description
exercise for hamstrings leg swing to opposite hand
While walking, subject takes a step with right leg while
swinging left leg forward. Left leg touches right hand while
keeping the knee extended. Repeat the same for the other leg.
Stretch occurs in hamstrings of swinging leg
exercise for adductor
muscles Lateral low shuffle From standing position, subject performs a lateral low shuffle
alternating every three steps a lateral lunge (one for each leg)
exercise for calf muscles Tip-toe walking
Traveling forward while completing alternating plantar flexion
(tip toe) with every step forward. The aim is to raise the body
as high as possible through tip toeing.
exercise for quadriceps forward lunge with opposite
arm reach upward
While walking, subject performs a forward lunge with one leg,
bringing the opposite arm lying upwards and keeping his back
flat until a slight tension is felt in quadriceps
Table 2: Descriptive statistics for jump performance pre
stretching and post stretching
Pre stretching Post stretching
(mean + std dev) (mean + std dev)
41.9 ±2.30 cm 44.06±2.29 cm <0.0001
p value
Table 3: Descriptive statistics for jump performance post
stretching and post activity
Post stretching Post activity
(mean + std dev) (mean + std dev)
44.06±2.29 cm 44.37±2.32 cm 0.053
p value
Fig. 2: Timeline of assessment and intervention.
Fig. 3: Vertical jump performance in pre-stretching, post-
stretching and post activity phase.
DISCUSSION
findings were similar to that observed in study
by L.Parsons and N.Maxwell6, in which they
attributed the improvement in jump performance
as dynamic stretching increases neuromuscu-
lar efficiency. They further explained that due
to dynamic stretching, muscles are stretched
according to their synergistic patterns as well
as movement is rehearsed in a more specific
pattern and it actually increases neural drive by
increasing core temperature. Similar results were
seen in a study by Fletcher and Jones [17] where
they suggest that the rehearsal of specific
movement patterns through active dynamic
stretching may increase coordination, which
allows the muscle to transition more quickly and
therefore with increased power, from the eccen-
tric to the concentric phase of contraction.
After dynamic stretching there is elevation in
heart rate and muscle as well as body tempera-
ture [17,18] which improves muscle perfor-
mance. The voluntary contractions associated
with dynamic stretching have been reported to
enhance excitability of the motor unit and
improve kinesthetic sense leading to improved
proprioception and preactivation [9] and
increase nerve impulse transmission leading to
favorable changes in the force-velocity relation-
ship [20] and the decreased inhibition of antago-
nist muscles. Turki O et al [21] concluded that
10 minutes of dynamic stretching is sufficient
to potentiate vertical jump performance char-
acteristics.
This study also shows that effects of dynamic
stretching are sustained after 15 minutes of
sports specific activity. The sustenance of
improved jump performance can be attributed
This study investigated the effects of dynamic
stretching when combined with sports specific
activity on jump performance in basketball
players. This study shows that there was an
increase in jump performance immediately
after the dynamic stretching exercises and the
improved jump performance was maintained
after 15 minutes of sports specific activity. These
Gayatri Saraswate, Gajanan Bhalerao, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH SPORTS
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY ON JUMP PERFORMANCE IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS.
Int J Physiother Res 2018;6(3):2696-2700. ISSN 2321-1822 2699
to a warm up consisting of a combination
stretching and sports specific movement
patterns. Similar results were seen in study by
Mandy T. Woolstenhulme et al [13], they
reported a 3 cm increase in vertical jump height
for the ballistic stretching group following 20
minutes of basketball play. They thought ballis-
tic stretching provided a more speciûc warm-up
to the muscle, which was similar to the muscu-
lar movements, performed in basketball.
Giuseppe Annino el al [12] reported slight
improvement in jump performance immediately
after dynamic stretching but decrease in
performance after 20 minutes of shooting phase
in basketball players. Results similar to this
study were seen in a study by Young and Behm
on rugby players, where they have reported
increase in jump performance when stretching
was combined with sports specific activity such
as sprints.
In basketball, jumping quickly as well as maxi-
mally is equally important. Athletes are required
to generate quick bursts of movement resulting
in maximal jump in as little time as possible.
Few studies have reported that the jump perfor-
mance has returned to baseline when no physi-
cal activity was performed in between14. While
in this study, athletes performed sports specific
activity like sprint lay ups and shooting which
helped to maintain the effects of dynamic
stretching.
CONCLUSION
Jump performance improves immediately after
dynamic stretching in basketball players which
is maintained after 15 minutes of sports
specific activity.
[4]. Fletcher IM and Jones B. The effect of different warm-
up stretch protocols on 20 meter sprint performance
in trained rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res
2004; 18:885-8.
[5]. Shellock FG and Prentice WE. Warming-up and
stretching for improved physical performance and
prevention of sports-related injuries. Sports Med
1985; 2:267-78.
[6]. L.Parsons, N. Maxwell, C. Elnif, M. Jacka Static vs
Dynamic Stretching on Vertical Jump and Standing
Long Jump, Department of PT, Wichita State Univer-
sity, Kansas
[7]. Knudson DV, Noffal GJ, Bahamonde RE, Bauer JA,
Blackwell JR. Stretching has no effect on tennis serve
performance. J Strength Cond Res 2004; 18:654-6.
[8]. Shrier I and Gossal, K. Myths and truths of stretch-
ing: individualized recommendations for healthy
muscles. Phys Sportsmed 2000; 28:5763.
[9]. Shrier I. Does stretching improve performance? A
systematic and critical review of the literature. Clin
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[10]. Bacurau RFP, Monteiro GA, Ugrinowitsch C, Tricoli
V, CabralLFf, Aoki MS. Acute effect of a ballistic and
a static stretching exercise bout on flexibility and
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[11]. Yamaguchi T and Ishii K. Effects of static stretching
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[12]. Giuseppe Annino, Bruno RuScello, Pietro leBone ,
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Luca Verdecchia, Virginia Tancredi, Ferdinando
IellaMo. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretch-
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[13]. Mandy T. Woolstenhulme, Christine M. Griffiths,
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Conflicts of interest: None
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Gayatri Saraswate, Gajanan Bhalerao, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH SPORTS
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY ON JUMP PERFORMANCE IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS.
Int J Physiother Res 2018;6(3):2696-2700. ISSN 2321-1822 2700
Gayatri Saraswate, Gajanan Bhalerao, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH SPORTS
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY ON JUMP PERFORMANCE IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS.
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How to cite this article:
Gayatri Saraswate, Gajanan Bhalerao, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti.
EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH SPORTS
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY ON JUMP PERFORMANCE IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS. Int
J Physiother Res 2018;6(3):2696-2700. DOI: 10.16965/ijpr.2018.114
... To improve blood flow to the muscles and prepare the body for exercise, warm up protocol is designed and stretching is mainly done to reduce injuries, improve range of motion of joint, athlete performance and to decrease the stiffness. 2,3 According to some studies, static stretching was performed before the jump performance, there was a decrease in jump performance but the joint range of motion was increased whereas when dynamic stretching was performed, power production doesn't seem to be decreased, but most of the time it seems to be increased. Active muscular force and momentum are utilized in dynamic stretching which permits a rapid change of msuscle from concentric contraction to eccentric contraction. ...
... 2. After completion of the consent form, body weight, body height was measured and body mass index will be calculated. 3. A total of 50 subjects was considered which was assigned into 2 groups (25 each) i.e. ...
... Most appropriate out of 3 jumps reading was taken. 3 5. Both the groups were asked to perform the general warm-up of 10 minutes jog which was followed by a vertical jump test. ...
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Aim: to assess the effects of Static (SS) and Dynamic Stretching (DS) on vertical jump performance executed before, immediately after and at the end of the shooting phase (i.e., 15 min later), as to simulate the actual conditions preceding a match, in professional basketball players. Methods: Ten elite basketball players (age: 29 ± 6.73 years, height: 194.67 ± 7.75 cm, weight: 91 ± 8.17 Kg and BMI 23.8 ± 7.91 Kg.m-2) participated to the study. SS and DS protocols were administered during the first training session of the week, 48 hours after the championship match. Stretching protocols consisted in ~7 minutes of general warm-up phase followed by ~8 minutes of SS and DS, performed with a cross-over design., and ~15 minutes of a specific warm-up shooting phase (SP) Vertical jump tests consisted in counter movement jump (CMJ) and CMJ with arm swings (CMJas) and were performed immediately after the end of each stretching phase (preS, postS, postSP). Results: A significant decrease (P=0.05; η2partial=0.29) in jumping tests height occurred in CMJas, when performed after the SS (i.e, PostS). However, no significant differences in jumping performances, occurred after the general warm phase and the specific warm-up shooting phase, between the two stretching protocols. Conclusions: These results would indicate that, overall, stretching routines either dynamic or static, performed before a basketball match are transient and affect only marginally leg muscles performance. Stretching routines, particularly the dynamic ones, may be useful to maintain muscle performance before a competition, provided that this latter begins shortly after.
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Stretching recommendations are clouded by misconceptions and conflicting research reports. This review of the current literature on stretching and range-of-motion increases finds that one static stretch of 15 to 30 seconds per day is sufficient for most patients, but some require longer durations. Heat and ice improve the effectiveness of static stretching only if applied during the stretch. Physicians should know the demands of different stretching techniques on muscles when making recommendations to patients. An individualized approach may be most effective based on intersubject variation and differences between healthy and injured tissues.
Article
Competitive and recreational athletes typically perform warm-up and stretching activities to prepare for more strenuous exercise. These preliminary activities are used to enhance physical performance and to prevent sports-related injuries. Warm-up techniques are primarily used to increase body temperature and are classified in 3 major categories: (a) passive warm-up - increases temperature by some external means; (b) general warm-up - increases temperature by nonspecific body movements; and (c) specific warm-up - increases temperature using similar body parts that will be used in the subsequent, more strenuous activity. The best of these appears to be specific warm-up because this method provides a rehearsal of the activity or event. The intensity and duration of warm-up must be individualised according to the athlete's physical capabilities and in consideration of environmental factors which may alter the temperature response. The majority of the benefits of warm-up are related to temperature-dependent physiological processes. An elevation in body temperature produces an increase in the dissociation of oxygen from haemoglobin and myoglobin, a lowering of the activation energy rates of metabolic chemical reactions, an increase in muscle blood flow, a reduction in muscle viscosity, an increase in the sensitivity of nerve receptors, and an increase in the speed of nervous impulses. Warm-up also appears to reduce the incidence and likelihood of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries. Improving flexibility through stretching is another important preparatory activity that has been advocated to improve physical performance. Maintaining good flexibility also aids in the prevention of injuries to the musculoskeletal system. Flexibility is defined as the range of motion possible around a specific joint or a series of articulations and is usually classified as either static or dynamic. Static flexibility refers to the degree to which a joint can be passively moved to the end-points in the range of motion. Dynamic flexibility refers to the degree which a joint can be moved as a result of a muscle contraction and may therefore not be a good indicator of stiffness or looseness of a joint. There are 3 basic categories of stretching techniques: (a) ballistic--which makes use of repetitive bouncing movements; (b) static--which stretches the muscle to the point of slight muscle discomfort and is held for an extended period; and (c) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation - which uses alternating contractions and stretching of the muscles. Each of these stretching methods is based on the neurophysiological phenomenon involving the stretch reflex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)