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The Negative Effects of Digital Technology Usage on Children’s Development and Health

Authors:
  • Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa
  • Bingol University & Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa

Abstract

Today, children and adolescents are growing up exposed to both traditional and modern technology. While it is known that the increase in the use of traditional technology, such as television and its content, have negative effects on children’s development and health, studies have shown such modern technologies as smartphones, tablets, and computers that have been developed and become increasingly widespread over the past decade to be beneficial and to constitute health risks for children. It seems that children’s inappropriate use of such technological devices in terms of content, duration, frequency, and the posture they adopt while using them pose a variety of health risks, including developmental problems, musculoskeletal problems, physical inactivity, obesity, and inadequate sleep quality. This study reviews the literature on the clinical problems that digital technology use has on children. In order for children and adolescents to adopt a healthy life style, it is important to monitor the time, frequency, and content viewed while using technological devices and to ensure that children have or develop adequate physical activity opportunities, healthy eating habits, proper sleep cycles, and nurturing social environment.
ADDICTA: THE TURKISH JOURNAL ON ADDICTIONS
Copyright © 2018 Turkish Green Crescent Society
http://addicta.com.tr/en/
ISSN 2148-7286 eISSN 2149-1305
Autumn 2018 5(2) 13–21
Extended Abstract
Abstract
Today, children and adolescents are growing up exposed to both traditional and modern technology. While
it is known that the increase in the use of traditional technology, such as television and its content, have
negative effects on children’s development and health, studies have shown such modern technologies as
smartphones, tablets, and computers that have been developed and become increasingly widespread over the
past decade to be beneficial and to constitute health risks for children. It seems that children’s inappropriate
use of such technological devices in terms of content, duration, frequency, and the posture they adopt
while using them pose a variety of health risks, including developmental problems, musculoskeletal
problems, physical inactivity, obesity, and inadequate sleep quality. This study reviews the literature on
the clinical problems that digital technology use has on children. In order for children and adolescents to
adopt a healthy life style, it is important to monitor the time, frequency, and content viewed while using
technological devices and to ensure that children have or develop adequate physical activity opportunities,
healthy eating habits, proper sleep cycles, and a nurturing social environment.
Keywords
Health • Technology • Child • Risk • Addiction
To cite this article: Mustafaoğlu, R., Zirek, E., Yasacı, Z., & Razak Özdinçler, A. (2018). The negative effects of digital
technology usage on children’s development and health. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions. Advance online
publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.15805/addicta.2018.5.2.0051
The Negative Effects of Digital Technology Usage on
Children’s Development and Health*
* This is an extended abstract of the paper entitled “Dijital Teknoloji Kullanımının Çocukların Gelişimi ve Sağlığı Üzerine
Olumsuz Etkileri” published in Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions.
Manuscript Received: November 29, 2017 / Accepted: March 15, 2018 / OnlineFirst: April 30, 2018.
1 Department of Neurological Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Division of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of
Health Sciences, Istanbul University, Istanbul Turkey. Email: ahiska_1944@hotmail.com
2 Division of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Institute of Health Sciences, Istanbul University, Istanbul Turkey. Email:
zireke@gmail.com
3 Correspondence to: Zeynal Yasacı, Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Institute of Health Sciences, Istanbul
University, İstanbul Turkey. Email: zeynalyasaci@gmail.com
4 Department of Neurological Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Division of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of
Health Sciences, Istanbul University, Istanbul Turkey. Email: arzuozdincler@hotmail.com
Rüstem Mustafaoğlu1
Istanbul University
Emrah Zirek2
Istanbul University
Zeynal Yasacı3
Istanbul University
Arzu Razak Özdinçler4
Istanbul University
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Digital technology’s integration into the daily lives of children and its inuence
on their cognitive, emotional, and social development continues to increase day by
day. Technology offers many opportunities for children to play, explore, and learn
(Linebarger & Piotrowski, 2009). Since children’s brains are extremely exible in
this period, these learning opportunities constitute a critical developmental point in
children and through the natural exploration and discovery of their own world, new
connections between neurons are formed and existing connections are strengthened
(Blanchard & Moore, 2010).
Use of Digital Technology among Children
In the United States, more than 1,000 parents reported on a nationwide telephone
interview that their children under the age of 6 used digital technology an average of
1.58 hours a day, played outside an average of 2.01 hours, and spent 39 minutes reading.
In the study, it was found that 36% of the children lived in a house where the television
was constantly on, 45% of the parents used television as a means to keep their children
occupied when they had important jobs to complete, and 27% of the children between
4 and 6 used a computer every day (Rideout, Vandewater, & Wartella, 2003).
Technological Tools and Their Effects
Television. Television plays an active role in children’s world due to its visually
and auditory captivating and entertaining nature. Watching an excessive amount of
television and videos by children less than two years of age has been reported to
signicantly inuence language development and behavioral disturbances (Chonchaiya
& Prusanandaonda, 2008; Mistry, Minkovitz, Strobino, & Borzekowski, 2007).
Computer. Similar to television, computers have become an indispensable element
in children’s lives. Spending too much time on the computer from an early age can
negatively affect academic success due to the low concentration, lack of attention
and disorganization, undeveloped language skills, creativity, and imagination seen in
children as a result of excess computer use (Cordes & Miller, 2000; Palmer, 2015).
Internet. Studies on the internet’s possible effects on early literacy activities
have explored whether the internet offers intentional and unintentional learning
opportunities, and the impact of the internet on early literacy is still not fully understood
(Coiro, Knobel, Lankshear, & Leu, 2008). Easy access to illegal, violent, and sexual
content, communication with dangerous people, and excessive dependence on games
constitute only a few of these signicant risks (Iscibasi, 2011).
Video games. Although much has been written about the effects of video games
on children and adolescents, there has been little work done on the effects of video
games on young children (Bailey, West, & Anderson, 2011). Violent video games
Mustafaoğlu, Zirek, Yasacı, Razak Özdinçler / The Negative Effects of Digital Technology Usage on Children’s Development...
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can lead children to aggressive behavior and inhibit creative game play (Provenzo,
1992). Studies have shown that there is a strong link between violence in video
games and real life violence, and that these games lead to social isolation and lack of
communication and communication with children (Kutner & Olson, 2008).
Smart phones. An increased use of smartphones has been reported to be associated
with passive aggressive, unprotected, socially incompatibility, obsession, addiction,
and anxiety. It has been reported that those children engaged with their smartphone
during school negatively affect both own and their classmates’ attention (Sevi,
Odabaşıoğlu, Genç, Soykal, & Ozturk, 2014; Yen et al., 2009).
Digital toys. As digital toys multiply and become an indispensable part of
children’s daily lives, the increasingly restricted use of outdoor playgrounds may
negatively affect the normal development of children. For normal development,
children need to spend their time with their peers (Rosen et al., 2014).
Developmental and Health Risks of Digital Technology Usage
Digital Technology Usage and Developmental/Behavioral Risks
The use of digital technology has been associated with lack of attention, aggressive
behaviors, physical inactivity, obesity, and sleep problems in preschool and school
age children. The overuse of digital technology causes children to use their time
inefciently. Concern should also be paid to the cognitive and emotional effects that
these technologies have on the development of children (Brown, 2011). The overuse
of technology in early childhood has been found to be related to cognitive, language,
and social/emotional delays in community-based researches (Pagani, Fitzpatrick,
Barnett, & Dubow, 2010).
Digital Technology Usage and Musculoskeletal System
A steady increase in the use of digital technology at home and in school environments
has been reported to cause an increase in musculoskeletal problems (Harris &
Straker, 2000; Kelly, Dockrell, & Galvin, 2009). In addition to psychological factors
such as monitoring anxiety and somatic complaints (headache and abdominal pain)
(Harris, Straker, Pollock, & Smith, 2015), musculoskeletal disorders are associated
with such physical factors as sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and exposure to
sedentary activities. For this reason, playing with toys should be encouraged in
place of watching screens in order to minimize the risks of potential musculoskeletal
disorders and sedentary lifestyles, and conscious instruction manuals for tablets and
other technological devices should be provided to parents and caregivers (Howie,
Coenen, Campbell, Ranelli, & Straker, 2017).
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Digital Technology Usage and Physical Inactivity
Evidence that the use of technology has changed physical activity is doubtful, but
it is being investigated as to whether the use of excessive technology, in particular,
takes the place of night’s sleep. In a study on children aged 4-11 years, it was found
that 37% of the children had a low active play level, 65% had high screening time
(television, computer, tablet, etc.), and 26% had a combination of these two (Anderson
& Whitaker, 2010). Another study found that only 4 out of 10 children aged 6-11 years
met the recommendations of the guidelines for both physical activity and screening
duration, further showing that increased age was associated with decreased physical
activity in children (Fakhouri, Hughes, Brody, Kit, & Ogden, 2013).
Digital Technology Usage and Obesity
The rate of obesity in children has tripled in the last 20 years. For healthy
development of children, 3-4 hours of daily physical activity and social interaction
are needed (Hancox & Poulton, 2006). Excessive use of technology is linked to
lifetime obesity and cardiovascular risk and this relationship is now observed starting
from early childhood (Bel-Serrat et al., 2013). The excessive use of social media
during the pre-school period is associated with low, but signicant increases in BMI,
laying the groundwork for weight gain in later childhood (Cox et al., 2012).
Digital Technology Usage and Sleep Quality
Keeping a television, computer, or mobile phone in the bedroom during early
childhood is associated with less sleep (Cespedes et al., 2014). Children who make
excessive use of social media or who sleep with mobile devices in their bedrooms
are at increased risk of experiencing sleep disturbances (Levenson, Shensa, Sidani,
Colditz, & Primack, 2016). Poor sleep quality in adolescents is associated with
extreme mobile phone use while the number of devices in a bedroom and poor sleep
quality are associated with excessive internet use and duration of digital technology
usage prior to sleep in pre-adolescents (Bruni et al., 2015). The use of electronic
devices during the daytime can also affect sleep quality (Hysing et al., 2015).
Conclusion
It is clear that the developments in digital technology and research on these products
will continue. Technological developments are largely variable, and the effects also
depend on the type of device, the type of use, the amount and extent of use, and
the characteristics of the child or adolescent. Since children are currently growing
up using highly personalized technology, parents should strive to ensure that they
are able to implement and benet from the principles of balanced nutrition, quality
sleep, adequate physical activity, and positive social interaction for healthy growth
Mustafaoğlu, Zirek, Yasacı, Razak Özdinçler / The Negative Effects of Digital Technology Usage on Children’s Development...
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and development by making plans according to the age, health status, character, and
level of development of their children. However, parents should also be aware of
their duties and responsibilities in modeling appropriate technology use while also
striking a balance between technology usage and other activities.
Parents should be aware that their technological device use may also have negative
effects on their children. It should be known that children under the age of four
playing games alone rather than being exposed to technological devices will help
the child develop creative thinking and individual problem solving skills. The total
technology usage time during the day (e.g., watching television and playing games
on computers, tablets, and mobile phones) should be limited to 1-2 hours. Care must
be taken that children aged 2 years or younger not be allowed to face the screen.
Television and technological equipment connected to the internet should be kept
away from the child’s bedroom. If one’s children are allowed to use technological
devices, the use of these devices must be subject to certain rules. Enforce a mealtime
and bedtime “ban” for technological devices, including cell phones. Reasonable, but
rm, rules for cell phones, television, computer games, internet, and social media use
should be established and these rules should not be compromised.
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... On the other hand, recent research has revealed that the increased screen time amongst children and adolescents is associated with mental and physical health issues (Mustafaoğlu, Zirek, Yasacı & Razak Özdinçler, 2018; Al-Mohtaseb, Schachter, Shen Lee, Garlich & Trattler, 2021). The displacement hypothesis "posits that the harms of technology are directly proportional to exposure. ...
... Computers, televisions, smartphones and the internet are part of indispensable elements in children and adolescents (Mustafaoğlu, Zirek, Yasacı & Razak Özdinçler, 2018). In fact, they are crucial for an effective, integrating and globalizing education (Nhatuve, 2021a;. ...
... Headaches, tiredness and sleepless nights are well known disturbances associated with prolonged screen time even before the pandemic (Przybylski & Weinstein, 2017;Mustafaoğlu, Zirek, Yasacı & Razak Özdinçler, 2018). The lockdown measures and the online learning processes triggered increase in screen time and its consequences. ...
Article
This study sought to establish health disturbances experienced by university students due to prolonged screen use during the covid-19 Pandemic in Zimbabwe. It employed the descriptive design under the quantitative approach. The study involved students from two universities in Zimbabwe, and it used a random sampling technique. A total of 128 students participated completing a survey. Data collection was conducted through a survey with a one closed-ended question seeking to identify health challenges experienced by students due to prolonged use of screens. Results were presented in percentages through graphs. The study concludes that headaches, tiredness and difficulties to sleep were experienced by students as a consequence of prolonged screen time. Furthermore, students experienced different psychological disturbances including stress and depression, inattention (difficulties to concentrate), anxiety and low self-esteem as a consequence of prolonged screen time. Finally, sight loss, tearing eyes, eye irritation, eye redness, eye swelling and dry eye disease were experienced by respondents. Based on the conclusions, the study recommends that students and all users of digital technologies for different purposes should control the time they spend on the screen and visit doctors whenever they have abnormal experience in their eyes for further guidance. The study further recommends that learning institution should come up with measures to reduce the time individuals spend on the screen by providing alternative study options that may reduce the time spent on screens for learning.
... Pandemi ile beraber covid (C) kuşağı çocukların ilgi alanları ve aynı şekilde öğrenme biçimleri de bundan önceki kuşaklardan tamamen farklılaşarak dijitalleşmektedir. Covid pandemisi öncesi yapılan çalışmalarda günde ortalama önerilen toplam dijital ekranlı araçların kullanım süresi 1-2 saat ile sınırlı iken, bugün eğitim ve iş hayatı tamamen dijitalleşmiş ve bu süre artmış durumdadır (7,8). Günümüzde yaşam alanını kuşatan ekranlı dijital cihazlar, tabletler, bilgisayarlar, cep telefonları, fotoğraf ve video kameraları, dijital müzik, eğlence ve oyuncakları ve araçlarıdır. ...
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Geliş Tarihi (Received): 09.02.2022 Kabul Tarihi (Accepted): 21.03.2022 Yayın Tarihi (Published): 29.04.2022 Öz Çocukların davranışları farklı nesiller boyunca teknolojik ve sosyal gelişimlerden etkilenerek değişti. Koronavirüs pandemisi 2019 tarihinde ortaya çıkan virüs salgını ile birlikte bütün dünyaya yayıldı. Salgınla mücadele kapsamında gerek çalışma gerekse de eğitim ve öğretim şartları ciddi değişliklere uğradı. Uzaktan eğitimler ve ev ofis tarzında uzaktan çalışma tüm dünyada pandemi izolasyonu kapsamında uygulanmaya başladı. Bu durum akıllı telefon, bilgisayar, tablet ve diğer ekranlı araç kullanımını doğrudan yaşam tarzı haline getirerek, ekranlı dijital araçları hayatımızın ayrılmaz bir parçası olmasına sebep oldu. Bu yeni durum çocuk ve ergenlerde yeni bir kuşak olan ve C kuşağı (Covid) olarak da adlandırılabilecek dijital ekran alışkanlıkları ve yaşam farklılıkları önemli ölçüde değişen bir neslin yetişmesine yol açtı. 2019 dan itibaren C kuşağı olarak adlandırılabilecek çocuklar dünya ile iletişimlerini dijital bir ekran vasıtası ile yapar ve tanır hale geldiler. Böylece günümüz çocukları dijital akıllı cihazlarla çevrili bir dünyada büyüyorlar. Yaşamın temel bir parçası haline gelen akıllı telefonlar, televizyonlar, tabletler veya bilgisayarlar günlük yaşamlarında, evde ve okulda olduğu kadar ofis dışında da rutin kullanılan araçlar olarak hayatımızda yer aldı. Ekranlı dijital cihaz kullanım alışkanlıklarının değişmesi de beraberinde özellikle göz sağlığının ciddi oranda etkilenmesi sonucunu doğurdu. Bu araştırmada dijital ekranların göz sağlığı ve görme bozuklukları üzerine etkilerine yönelik bir alanyazın incelemesinin yapılması amaçlanmıştır. Bu doğrultuda doküman inceleme yöntemi ile bu konudaki bilimsel veriler incelenerek sentezlenmiş, günümüz dijital çağda alınabilecek koruyucu önlemler ve yenilikler ele alınmıştır. Abstract Children's behavior has changed over different generations due to the influence of technological and social developments. The COVID-19 pandemic or coronavirus pandemic has spread all over the world with the virus outbreak that emerged in Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei region of China, on December 1, 2019. During the fight against the epidemic, both working and education conditions have undergone serious changes. Within the scope of pandemic isolation, distance education and home-office style remote working have started to be implemented all over the world. This situation has made the use of smartphones, computers, tablets and other screen devices directly into a lifestyle, and thus screened digital tools have become an integral part of our lives. This new situation has led to the growth of a new generation of children and adolescents , which can be called the C generation (Covid), whose digital screen habits and life differences have changed significantly. As of 2019, children who can be called C generation communicate with the world through a digital screen and become familiar with it. Thus, today's children are growing up in a world surrounded by digital smart devices. Smartphones, televisions, tablets or computers, which have become a fundamental part of daily life, have taken place in our lives as tools that are routinely used at home, school and office. The change in the usage habits of screened digital devices has resulted in a serious impact particularly on eye health. In this study, it is aimed to review the literature on the effects of digital screens on eye health and visual disorders. In this direction, the scientific data on this subject have been analyzed and synthesized with the document analysis method and the protective measures and innovations that can be taken in today's digital age are discussed.
... Co więcej, badania dotyczące korzystania z urządzeń elektronicznych przez małe dzieci nie były jednoznaczne (por. Couse, Chen, 2010;Mustafaoğlu, Zirek, Yasacı, Özdinçler, 2018;Walter i in., 2020), a nauczycielom wielogodzinne siedzenie przed komputerem kojarzyło się raczej z problemem uzależnienia od mediów niż ze wzbogaceniem procesu kształcenia. ...
... 32 Playing of computer games is utilized as a substitute for ordinary physical movement, the positive relationship between game play and stoutness is unquestionably conceivable; time spent staring at the TV or just resting, computer game play can serve to all the more decidedly influence vitality use. 33 Expanded utilization of cell phones has been accounted for to be related with latent forceful, unprotected, socially contradiction, fixation, dependence, and tension. 34 It is essential to record young people's commitment with food and drink marks via webbased networking media. ...
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Digital media has surpassed traditional media as the most widely used medium. It allows single-handed access to a variety of digital equipment. We can transition from video to audio and from audio to web link with a single click. Today, it is gaining popularity among both youngsters and adults. The research will evaluate the influence of digital media use on children's mental health and the repercussions. Communication, which is an integral aspect of life, may also be facilitated by modern technologies. The current state of affairs imposes additional strain on our minds. This results in a lack of focus and poor sleeping habits; these are also side effects of employing several long-distance interpersonal connection sites. We are gradually annihilating ourselves more honestly. Consuming late-night munchies, drinking little water, sleeping late, and slumping are all examples of this age's catastrophe. The fundamental arrangement, or what we refer to as blood, is a source of energy in our bodies. It provides important nutrients to our muscles, allowing them to move and exert force when necessary. Television educational programming can be beneficial if it is well-designed and age-appropriate. Academic successes are possible when well-designed instructional content is available. Without a doubt, digital media also has a beneficial effect. Individuals, particularly children, should spend a significant amount of time in front of the television throughout their early years, but social media platforms such as YouTube have mostly supplanted television. YouTube is presently the finest website for children's content. A quantitative study technique was used to ascertain the effect of digital media communication on children's health. This study demonstrates that social media has a detrimental influence on kids. Positive correlation between social media and unethical behavior discovered. Additionally, this study examined the impact of digital media on youngsters. A quantitative study was conducted to ascertain the effect of digital media communication on children's health. Finally, our research demonstrates the enormous influence of digital media on children's health, as more youngsters admit to being hooked to digital media and are confronted with significant physical and mental health problems. They experience significant sleep disturbances and are often bothered by studying. In summary, digital media make students and youngsters drowsy and frequently result in procrastination.
... Poor sleep is a common and dangerous problem in adolescents, affecting 25-40% of children at some point during their development [5,6]. The spread of electronic devices such as tablet PCs and smartphones has been associated with children's poor health [7][8][9]. TVs in the bedroom have been associated with later bedtimes, less time in bed, shorter sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness [10]. The habit of using smartphones until late at night resulted in bedtime procrastination and, as a result, sleep deprivation [11]. ...
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The use of electronic screen devices has a negative effect on sleep. The purpose of this study is to longitudinally examine the effects of various screen use on sleep problems in children under 7 years of age. A total of 314 caregivers of children aged 4–7 years from three cities in Korea were recruited and responded to a self-administered questionnaire from 2017 to 2020. As a result of the analysis of the mixed model designed as a two-leveled structure, the use frequency of smartphones significantly predicted children’s sleep problems (β = 0.328, p < 0.001) compared to that of TV, PC, and tablet PC. In addition, the frequency of smartphone screen use showed a weak but significant correlation with bedtime resistance (r = 0.067, p = 0.009), sleep duration (r = 0.089, p <0.001), nighttime awakening (r = 0.066, p = 0.010), and daytime sleepiness (r = 0.102, p < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that screen time education in Korea should focus on smartphones above all else.
... 33 Expanded utilization of cell phones has been accounted for to be related with latent forceful, unprotected, socially contradiction, fixation, dependence, and tension. 34 It is essential to record young people's commitment with food and drink marks via web-based networking media. 35 Information on the exceptional qualities and image frameworks of media decide how every medium can best be utilized by kids and how the data introduced is differentially handled. ...
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Digital media has been emerged as the fastest using medium. It provides multiple accesses to various digital equipment single handedly. In one click we can switch from video to audio and from audio to web link. Today it is equally get popular among children as adults. The research aims to examine the impact of the usage of digital media among children and its consequences in their mental health. Communication which is a part of life can also be fulfilled by the help of these technologies. The present condition increment weight on our mind. Result into absence of fixation, terrible rest propensities, these are additionally the consequence of utilizing a lot of long range interpersonal communication sites. We are annihilating our self-step by step more genuinely. Having late night snacks, drinking insufficient water, resting late and slumping is one of the debacle of this age. Basic arrangement or we can call blood is a fuel in our body. It gives essential supplements to our muscles to move and apply power when there is a need. Educational programs on television can be Beneficial if they are well designed and age appropriate. When well-designed educational content is present academic achievements can be made. No doubt there is also the positive impact of digital media as well. In early years individuals and uniquely kids should sit in front of the TV as a large portion of their time however these days' social sites like YouTube supplant with TV. YouTube is currently the best site for all the children's. A quantitative research method applied to observe the impact of digital media communication on children health. This study shows that the effects of social media on students are negative. Relationship between social media and unethical behavior found positive. Present study also conducted to search the effects of digital media on children's. Quantitative Research designed applied to observe the impact of digital media communication on children health. In the end our research concludes the huge impact of digital media on children health as more children admit that they are addicted to digital media and they face serious health and mental issues. They feel severe problems in sleep and also they feel studies disturb. The digital media in short make student or children lethargic and often lead to procrastination.
... Some studies have demonstrated that being addicted to social media could lead to deviant behavior such as of rape, homosexuality and bestiality are high among adolescents and is attributed to the exploration of pornographic sites in the internet (Abudullahi, et al., 2013). Mustafaoglu, Zirek, Yasaci and Razak(2018) opined that spending too much time on computer from an early age can negatively affect academic success due to the low concentration, lack of attention and disorganization, undeveloped language skills, creativity, and imagination seen in children as a result of excess computer use. ...
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This study examined relationship between social media addiction and deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Delta State. It equally examined gender and school type. Four research questions were raised and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A Correlation research design was used for the study. The population of the study is 26, 428 SS Two students in Delta State. The sample size of the study constitutes600 students. The two instruments used for the study are: Social Media Addiction Scale (SMAS) and Deviant Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The instruments was subjected to internal consistency which yielded reliability coefficient of .76 and .72 respectively. The data were analyzed using Correlation and Regression Statistics. The results indicated that there is a significant relationship between social media addiction and deviant behaviour of secondary school students. There is no significant relationship between gender and deviant behaviour of students. There is a significant correlation between school type and deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Delta State. Based on the result of these findings, recommendation is made that secondary school students should spend less time with social media and parents should try and provide their children's basic needs in order to prevent deviant behaviour. Also, student's good behaviour should be reinforced positively while the bad behaviour should be punished so that others can learn.
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The evolution of the internet is revolutionizing for the mankind which has brought about a transformation in the life of people and the way we browse information. It has long term impact on our learning and development. Even children who are going to school have a huge volume of information available to them at click of a button. The internet has started affecting the child's development, behavior and learning. A study to examine the influence of the internet on the children development, those who are going to school was conducted. The study involved a sample survey of 502 parents of children between ages of 6 to 12 years and are under the influence of internet exposure going to school in Navi Mumbai. It is found that child development is affected by more use of the internet.
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Smartphone and tablet usage duration may relate to problems with early development in children. It is imperative to determine the appropriate duration of its usage by children. The purpose of the study was 1) to investigate the correlation between child development and smartphone and tablet usage duration, 2) to study the correlation of smartphone and tablet usage duration between children and their caregivers, and 3) to correlate child development and other factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Eighty-five community children with a mean age of 4.05 ± 0.91 years were recruited as study subjects. Development was assessed using the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, which includes gross motor, language, fine motor-adaptive and personal-social developments. Subsequently, details of smartphone and tablet usage for the next seven days were recorded. The average duration of smartphone and tablet usage was 82.78 ± 62.82 min/day. In addition, 32.94%, 11.76%, 9.42%, and 2.35%, of children were classified as suspected fine motor-adaptive, personal-social, language, and gross motor development, respectively. The main findings revealed a highly significant correlation between a child's smartphone and tablet usage duration and their gross motor development. Children's smartphone and tablet usage duration showed a positive significant correlation with the duration spent on smartphones and tablets by mothers and relatives. Father's medical history and family income showed a significant correlation with child development. Thus, caregivers must pay attention to the smartphone and tablet usage time of children, mothers and relatives to prevent abnormal development in children.
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Çocukların oyun tercihlerinde çocukların çevrelerindeki yetişkinlerin rolü olmakla birlikte annelerinin de büyük bir rolü olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu sebeple çocukların dijital oyunları kullanımına ilişkin annelerin görüşlerinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu 5 yaş çocuğa sahip çocukları İstanbul’da özel ve devlete bağlı anaokullarına devam eden araştırmaya gönüllü olarak katılan anneler oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada veri toplama yöntemi olarak görüşme yöntemi benimsenmiştir. Araştırmada yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu kullanılarak annelerle yüz yüze görüşme yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın analizleri sonucu elde edilen bulgulara göre çocukların ilgileri, annelerin kendilerine ya da ev işlerine zaman ayırması, oyun aracı olarak kolaylıklar kullanılması ve özellikle eğlenceli olması dijital oyunların tercih edilme nedenleri arasında görülmektedir.
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The purpose of this study was to analyze differences between preadolescents and adolescents on the use of technology and to test the contribution of using Internet and mobile phone, and circadian preference on sleep quality. We recruited a sample of 850 (364 males) preadolescents and adolescents. Self-report questionnaires about sleep schedule, sleep wake behavior problems, circadian preferences, and the use of technology (e.g., Internet and mobile phone) were administered. Students were asked to fill out the School Sleep Habits Survey, a self-report questionnaire on the use of technology, the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ), and the Shorter Promis Questionnaire (SPQ). Adolescents reported more sleep problems, a tendency toward eveningness, and an increase of Internet and phone activities, as well as social network activities, while preadolescents were more involved in gaming console and television viewing. The regression analysis performed separately in the two age groups showed that sleep quality was affected by the circadian preference (eveningness) in both groups. Adolescents' bad sleep quality was consistently associated with the mobile phone use and number of devices in the bedroom, while in preadolescents, with Internet use and turning-off time. The evening circadian preference, mobile phone and Internet use, numbers of other activities after 9:00 p.m., late turning off time, and number of devices in the bedroom have different negative influence on sleep quality in preadolescents and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.
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Young children (ages 3 to 5) are using mobile touchscreen technology, including tablet computers, yet little is known on the potential musculoskeletal and physical activity implications of its use. This within-subject laboratory study (n = 10) examined head, trunk and arm postures, upper trapezius muscle activity, and total body and upper limb physical activity during playing with tablets compared to during TV watching and playing with non-screen toys. Overall, this study found that during tablet play children had greater mean head, trunk and upper arm angles compared to both TV watching and toy play. Conversely, compared to toy play, children playing with tablets had lesser trunk, upper arm and elbow postural variation, lesser trapezius activity, more time sitting and lesser physical activity. Thus, to minimize potential musculoskeletal and sedentary risks, non-screen toy play should be encouraged and education and guidelines provided for parents and caretakers to support wise use of tablets.
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Today's children and adolescents are immersed in both traditional and new forms of digital media. Research on traditional media, such as television, has identified health concerns and negative outcomes that correlate with the duration and content of viewing. Over the past decade, the use of digital media, including interactive and social media, has grown, and research evidence suggests that these newer media offer both benefits and risks to the health of children and teenagers. Evidence-based benefits identified from the use of digital and social media include early learning, exposure to new ideas and knowledge, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health promotion messages and information. Risks of such media include negative health effects on sleep, attention, and learning; a higher incidence of obesity and depression; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. This technical report reviews the literature regarding these opportunities and risks, framed around clinical questions, for children from birth to adulthood. To promote health and wellness in children and adolescents, it is important to maintain adequate physical activity, healthy nutrition, good sleep hygiene, and a nurturing social environment. A healthy Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren. org/MediaUsePlan) that is individualized for a specific child, teenager, or family can identify an appropriate balance between screen time/online time and other activities, set boundaries for accessing content, guide displays of personal information, encourage age-appropriate critical thinking and digital literacy, and support open family communication and implementation of consistent rules about media use.
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Introduction: Many factors contribute to sleep disturbance among young adults. Social media (SM) use is increasing rapidly, and little is known regarding its association with sleep disturbance. Methods: In 2014 we assessed a nationally-representative sample of 1788U.S. young adults ages 19-32. SM volume and frequency were assessed by self-reported minutes per day spent on SM (volume) and visits per week (frequency) using items adapted from the Pew Internet Research Questionnaire. We assessed sleep disturbance using the brief Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Sleep Disturbance measure. Analyses performed in Pittsburgh utilized chi-square tests and ordered logistic regression using sample weights in order to estimate effects for the total U.S. Population: Results: In models that adjusted for all sociodemographic covariates, participants with higher SM use volume and frequency had significantly greater odds of having sleep disturbance. For example, compared with those in the lowest quartile of SM use per day, those in the highest quartile had an AOR of 1.95 (95% CI=1.37-2.79) for sleep disturbance. Similarly, compared with those in the lowest quartile of SM use frequency per week, those in the highest quartile had an AOR of 2.92 (95% CI=1.97-4.32) for sleep disturbance. Associations all demonstrated a significant linear trend. Discussion: The strong association between SM use and sleep disturbance has important clinical implications for the health and well-being of young adults. Future work should aim to assess directionality and to better understand the influence of contextual factors associated with SM use.
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Distance education progressed with diversified technologies through newspapers, mails, radio, television and lastly, internet, in terms of historical process. As from the 21st century, the development of internet technologies has made distance education an indispensable instrument within the engineering education. Method of the study was configured by the survey technique. The scale, being used, is consisted of 19 questions and the following results were determined: Cronbach's Alpha = .791 and Kaiser Meier Olkin (KMO) = .805. The population is Firat University Faculty of Education and the sample group is consisted of 242 Final Year Students. 59.1% of the students who participated in the study are male and 40.9% of them are female teacher candidates. As a result of the study, it was determined that teacher candidates display a positive attitude towards distance education. The purpose of this study is to determine the views of the Final year students of Faculty of Education related to distance education. The population is consisted of Faculty of Education students in Fi{dotless}rat University, The sample of the study is consisted of Final year students of Faculty of Education in Fi{dotless}rat University. In the study, five point likert type survey was applied. T-test, variance analysis, percentage and frequency processes were used for the statistical analysis.
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Unlabelled: Children's computer use is rapidly growing, together with reports of related musculoskeletal outcomes. Models and theories of adult-related risk factors demonstrate multivariate risk factors associated with computer use. Children's use of computers is different from adult's computer use at work. This study developed and tested a child-specific model demonstrating multivariate relationships between musculoskeletal outcomes, computer exposure and child factors. Using pathway modelling, factors such as gender, age, television exposure, computer anxiety, sustained attention (flow), socio-economic status and somatic complaints (headache and stomach pain) were found to have effects on children's reports of musculoskeletal symptoms. The potential for children's computer exposure to follow a dose-response relationship was also evident. Developing a child-related model can assist in understanding risk factors for children's computer use and support the development of recommendations to encourage children to use this valuable resource in educational, recreational and communication environments in a safe and productive manner. Practitioner summary: Computer use is an important part of children's school and home life. Application of this developed model, that encapsulates related risk factors, enables practitioners, researchers, teachers and parents to develop strategies that assist young people to use information technology for school, home and leisure in a safe and productive manner.