Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

https://hbr.org/2018/05/the-power-of-listening-in-helping-people-change

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Effective listening is vital for employees and their organization (Flynn et al., 2008;Itzchakov & Kluger, 2018). The benefits include enhanced performance (e.g., higher volume of sales; Bergeron & Laroche, 2009;Itani et al., 2019;Johnston & Reed, 2017), job satisfaction (Tangirala & Ramanujam, 2012), organizational commitment (Tucker & Turner, 2015), creativity (Castro et al., 2018), and work engagement (Jonsdottir & Kristinsson, 2020). ...
... We base the current work on theorizing that listening is essential for facilitating positive workplace relationships (Itzchakov & Kluger, 2018;Kluger & Itzchakov, 2022). Individuals have an innate need to be listened to and feel understood by others (Reis et al., 2017;Rogers, 1975). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present work focuses on listening training as an example of a relational human resource practice that can improve human resource outcomes: Relatedness to colleagues, burnout, and turnover intentions. In two quasi-field experiments, employees were assigned to either a group listening training or a control condition. Both immediately after training and three weeks later, receiving listening training was shown to be linked to higher feelings of relatedness with colleagues, lower burnout, and lower turnover intentions. These findings suggest that listening training can be harnessed as a powerful human resource management tool to cultivate stronger relationships at work. The implications for Relational Coordination Theory, High-Quality Connections Theory, and Self-Determination Theory, are discussed.
... Both of these tenets require considerable self (Cheung-Judge & Jamieson, 2018), openmindedness, active listening (Itzchakov and Kluger, 2018;Itzchakov et al., 2020;Katz & Miller, 2013a), willingness to change, and ability to evaluate and assess environments and systems (Ornellas et al., 2018). After all, how can one be able to engage in dialogue, accept the importance of diversity of thought, understand the need for equity in access, others' stories and perspectives, and collaborate on projects if one is judgmental, does not listen ...
Article
Full-text available
Social initiatives are pivotal for generating authentic and transformational change regarding injustices in society. With values aligned to social justice work, organization development (OD) has historically improve organizations, communities, and societies. Today's global environment continues to be rich with grand challenges, and social movements are being established or maintained to continue the hard work of improving societal problems and eradicating injustices. Unfortunately, social movements are not immune to social injustices. This article explores and explains some of these challenges in social movements, with examples given from DEI social justice work, and discusses the application of an OD approach aligned with social work when facilitating change that is focused on tackling the hard problemsbeyond the traditional occupational organization. Social change, social action, social justice, social movements, diversity, inclusivity _______________ Dr. Brandy Shufutinsky is a licensed social worker, educator, and researcher. A DEI thought leader, she engages her unique combination of social work, criminal justice, international relations, non-profit leadership, and multicultural education experience to provide constructive DEI training, coaching, and leadership to organizations and communities.
Article
Full-text available
Outcomes of conversations, including those dealing with controversial, deeply personal, or threatening disclosures, result not only from what is said but also from how listeners receive these messages. This paper integrates the motivational framework of self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2017) and the expanding literature on interpersonal listening to explore the reasons why high-quality listening is so impactful during these conversations. We describe why high-quality listening is a specific and distinguishable autonomy-supportive motivational strategy, and argue that there is much to gain by considering that listening can satisfy basic psychological needs, in particular for autonomy and relatedness. We argue that SDT can help explain why high-quality listening is effective, especially in reducing defensiveness, bridging divides, and motivating change. The discussion focuses on ways motivation science can build more effective interventions for behavioral change by harnessing listening as an interpersonal strategy.
Article
Full-text available
Social psychologists have a longstanding interest in the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of positive social connections. This paper reviews and integrates two emerging but to this point disparate lines of work that focus on these mechanisms: high-quality listening and perceived partner responsiveness. We also review research investigating the downstream consequences of high-quality listening and perceived partner responsiveness: the how and why of understanding the process by which these downstream benefits are obtained. High-quality listening and perceived responsiveness, though not isomorphic, are related constructs in that they both incorporate several key interpersonal processes such as understanding, positive regard, and expressions of caring for another person. We develop a theoretical model for representing how listening embodies one form of interactive behavior that can promote (or hinder) perceived partner responsiveness and its downstream affective, cognitive, and behavioral effects. Finally, we discuss our model’s implications for various social-psychological concerns, such as social cognition, self-evaluation, constructive disagreements, and interpersonal relationships.
Article
Listening is associated with and a likely cause of desired organizational outcomes in numerous areas, including job performance, leadership, quality of relationships (e.g., trust), job knowledge, job attitudes, and well-being. To advance understanding of the powerful effects of listening on organizational outcomes, we review the construct of listening, its measurement and experimental manipulations, and its outcomes, antecedents, and moderators. We suggest that listening is a dyadic phenomenon that benefits both the listener and the speaker, including supervisor-subordinate and salesperson-customer dyads. To explain previous findings and generate novel and testable hypotheses, we propose the episodic listening theory: listening can lead to a fleeting state of togetherness, in which dyad members undergo a mutual creative thought process. This process yields clarity, facilitates the generation of novel plans, increases well-being, and strengthens attachment to the conversation partner. 4.1
Article
Creating positive change in the direction intended is the goal of organizational interventions. Watts, Gray, and Medeiros (WGM; in press) raise this issue of “side effects,” which include changes that are unintended and often in the opposite direction of the organizational intervention. With our expertise in applied psychology, military psychiatry/neuroscience, organizational behavior, and corporate safety, we argue for three additional factors for consideration – avoiding harm, benefits of high-quality interpersonal listening, and a discussion of side effects as a natural part of the change process. We offer these as a means to extend the conversation begun by WGM.
Article
Full-text available
Listening is associated with and a likely cause of desired organizational outcomes in numerous areas, including job performance, leadership, quality of relationships (e.g., trust), job knowledge, job attitudes, and well-being. To advance understanding of the powerful effects of listening on organizational outcomes, we review the construct of listening, its measurement and experimental manipulations, and its outcomes, antecedents, and moderators. We suggest that listening is a dyadic phenomenon that benefits both the listener and the speaker, including supervisor-subordinate and salesperson-customer dyads. To explain previous findings and generate novel and testable hypotheses, we propose the episodic listening theory: listening can lead to a fleeting state of togetherness, in which dyad members undergo a mutual creative thought process. This process yields clarity, facilitates the generation of novel plans, increases well-being, and strengthens attachment to the conversation partner. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 9 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Article
Full-text available
Listening has been identified as a key workplace skill, important for ensuring high-quality communication, building relationships, and motivating employees. However, recent research has increasingly suggested that speaker perceptions of good listening do not necessarily align with researcher or listener conceptions of good listening. While many of the benefits of workplace listening rely on employees feeling heard, little is known about what constitutes this subjective perception. To better understand what leaves employees feeling heard or unheard, we conducted 41 interviews with bank employees, who collectively provided 81 stories about listening interactions they had experienced at work. Whereas, prior research has typically characterized listening as something that is perceived through responsive behaviors within conversation, our findings suggest conversational behaviors alone are often insufficient to distinguish between stories of feeling heard vs. feeling unheard. Instead, our interviewees felt heard or unheard only when listeners met their subjective needs and expectations. Sometimes their needs and expectations could be fulfilled through conversation alone, and other times action was required. Notably, what would be categorized objectively as good listening during an initial conversation could be later counteracted by a failure to follow-through in ways expected by the speaker. In concert, these findings contribute to both theory and practice by clarifying how listening behaviors take on meaning from the speakers' perspective and the circumstances under which action is integral to feeling heard. Moreover, they point toward the various ways listeners can engage to help speakers feel heard in critical conversations.
Article
Full-text available
Listening has been identified as a key workplace skill, important for ensuring high-quality communication, building relationships, and motivating employees. However, recent research has increasingly suggested that speaker perceptions of good listening do not necessarily align with researcher or listener conceptions of good listening. While many of the benefits of workplace listening rely on employees feeling heard, little is known about what constitutes this subjective perception. To better understand what leaves employees feeling heard or unheard, we conducted 41 interviews with bank employees, who collectively provided 81 stories about listening interactions they had experienced at work. Whereas, prior research has typically characterized listening as something that is perceived through responsive behaviors within conversation, our findings suggest conversational behaviors alone are often insufficient to distinguish between stories of feeling heard vs. feeling unheard. Instead, our interviewees felt heard or unheard only when listeners met their subjective needs and expectations. Sometimes their needs and expectations could be fulfilled through conversation alone, and other times action was required. Notably, what would be categorized objectively as good listening during an initial conversation could be later counteracted by a failure to follow-through in ways expected by the speaker. In concert, these findings contribute to both theory and practice by clarifying how listening behaviors take on meaning from the speakers' perspective and the circumstances under which action is integral to feeling heard. Moreover, they point toward the various ways listeners can engage to help speakers feel heard in critical conversations.
Article
We examined how the experience of high-quality listening (attentive, empathic, and nonjudgmental) impacts speakers' basic psychological needs and state self-esteem when discussing the difficult topic of a prejudiced attitude. Specifically, we hypothesized that when speakers discuss a prejudiced attitude with high-quality listeners, they experience higher autonomy, relatedness, and self-esteem than speakers who share their prejudiced attitude while experiencing moderate listening. We predicted that autonomy need satisfaction would mediate the effect of listening on speakers' self-esteem even when related-ness, a well-documented predictor of self-esteem, is controlled for in mediation models. Two experiments that manipulated listening through in-person interactions with high-quality or moderate listeners supported these hypotheses. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, with a focus on the role of experiencing high-quality listening for speakers' state self-esteem during difficult conversations.
Book
Against the backdrop of research that tells us emotions are playing an increasingly prevalent role in organizations’ performance, this text draws on empirical studies to powerfully argue that it is incumbent upon school principals to display emotional leadership within the education system. A Model of Emotional Leadership in Schools sets out the importance of affective wellness in teachers and addresses questions on emotive school management. Bringing together a range of studies, the book elucidates emotion as a managerial tool in the school environment, and considers the interpersonal emotional support of teachers by principals. Ultimately, the text puts forward a new model of emotional leadership in schools to provide practical insights into the ways in which principals can influence, transform, and manage teachers’ emotions. This insightful text will be of interest to researchers, academics, and postgraduate students in the fields of school leadership and leadership strategy, as well as educators and school leaders concerned with how interpersonal aspects of emotion management play out within the school context.
Article
Theorizing from humanistic and motivational literatures suggests attitude change may occur because high quality listening facilitates the insight needed to explore and integrate potentially threatening information relevant to the self. By extension, self-insight may enable attitude change as a result of conversations about prejudice. We tested whether high quality listening would predict attitudes related to speakers' prejudices and whether self-insight would mediate this effect. Study 1 (preregistered) examined scripted conversations characterized by high, regular, and poor listening quality. In Study 2, we manipulated high versus regular listening quality in the laboratory as speakers talked about their prejudiced attitudes. Finally, Study 3 (preregistered) used a more robust measure of prejudiced attitudes to test whether perceived social acceptance could be an alternative explanation to Study 2 findings. Across these studies, the exploratory (pilot study and Study 2) and confirmatory (Studies 1 & 3) findings were in line with expectations that high, versus regular and poor, quality listening facilitated lower prejudiced attitudes because it increased self-insight. A meta-analysis of the studies (N = 952) showed that the average effect sizes for high quality listening (vs. comparison conditions) on self-insight, openness to change and prejudiced attitudes were, ds = 1.19, 0.46, 0.32 95%CIs [0.73, 1.51], [0.29, 0.63] [0.12, 0.53], respectively. These results suggest that when having conversations about prejudice, high quality listening modestly shapes prejudice following conversations about it, and underscore the importance of self-insight and openness to change in this process.
Article
Listening in work organizations is both largely neglected by organizational behavior research, and at the same time appears, upon careful review, to cause and predict success of workers and organizations. Therefore, this chapter offers a detailed review of the associations of listening with organizational success, including job performance, employee creativity, attitudes such as job satisfaction, and perceived leadership. Next, the chapter describes the definition of listening at work. Finally, to help advance research on listening at work, the chapter considers psychological barriers and methodological opportunities. The psychological barriers include the effects of listening on the status of the listener, cross‐cultural differences, and avoidance‐attachment style. The methodological opportunities are revealed by using social relations modeling showing that listening operates largely at the dyadic level of analysis.
Article
Can improving employees’ interpersonal listening abilities impact their emotions and cognitions during difficult conversations at work? The studies presented here examined the effectiveness of listening training on customer service employees. It was hypothesized that improving employees’ listening skills would (a) reduce their anxiety levels during difficult conversations with customers, (b) increase their ability to understand the customers’ point of view (i.e., perspective-taking), and (c) increase their sense of competence. The two quasi-experiments provide support for the hypotheses. Study 1 (N = 61) consisted of a pre-post design with a control group and examined the effect of listening training on customer service employees in a Fortune 500 company. Study 2 (N = 33) conceptually replicated the results of Study 1 using listening training conducted in one branch of a company that provides nursing services compared to another branch of the company that did not receive training. The results indicated that listening training had lasting effects on employees' listening abilities, anxiety reduction, and perspective-taking during difficult conversations. The discussion centers on the importance of interpersonal listening abilities to the empowerment wellbeing of employees in the workplace.
Chapter
This chapter includes a comprehensive case study on system change. It introduces the reader to community supervision and core practices that undergird its existence. Further, it expounds on “how” to approach a system with the objective of impacting it for change. In this case, Multnomah County Department of Community Justices’ (DCJ) adjustment in their community supervision model is highlighted. The phases of change are clearly outlined in this case study. It is concluded that the phases of change (and principles attached to each phase) DCJ matriculated through can be applied to and by systems (which are many) that serve youth, i.e., education, healthcare, for impactful change.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.