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Analysis of Water for its Deuterium Content and its Effect on Potablity

Authors:
  • Dr D Y Patil School of Engineering, Lohegaon Via Charholi, Pune
1706
Omkar Shivaji Giri,Atul Suresh Jadhav, Swapnil Prakash Mane,
Lt. Col. Sanjay M. Karodpati,Dr Prashant P Chaudhari
International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research
IJETSR
www.ijetsr.com
ISSN 2394 3386
Volume 5, Issue 3
March 2018
Analysis of Water for its Deuterium Content and its Effect
on Potablity
Omkar Shivaji Giri1*,Atul Suresh Jadhav1, Swapnil Prakash Mane1,
Dr D Y Patil School of Engineering, Lohegaon, Pune
Lt. Col. Sanjay M. Karodpati2,Dr Prashant P Chaudhari2
Dr D Y Patil School of Engineering, Lohegaon, Pune
ABSTRACT:
Water is the lifeline of all living organisms. About 70 % of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. Heavy water is also
water, but it contains a higher proportion of the hydrogen isotope deuterium. Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen that
contains a proton and a neutron in the nucleus of the atom. The extra neutron doubles the mass of the hydrogen atom. It
is well-known that due to its mass difference, deuterium (D) behaves differently from hydrogen in chemical reaction. In
ocean water deuterium concentration is more than river water. Water made with deuterium tastes and looks the same but
has numerous distinguishing characteristics[1]. When deuterium combines with oxygen, the resulting water is referred to
as deuterium oxide or “heavy” water D2O. Deuterium is present in hydrogen and hydrogen bearing compounds like
water, hydrocarbons, etc. and has a small natural occurrence (D/D+H) of about 140 to 160 ppm %..Heavy Water has
great similarity in its physical and chemical properties to ordinary water. But its nuclear properties display a significant
variation which makes it an extremely efficient material for use as moderator in a nuclear reactor. The D2O is quite not
harmful for health within the limit. But the large concentration in body or in drinking water cause health problem.
Actually less concentration on Deuterium in drinking water has good impact over all types of cancer. DDW is good for
health.
Keywords: water, deuterium water, deuterium depleted water
INTRODUCTION
Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen that contains a proton and a neutron in the nucleus of the atom. The extra
neutron doubles the mass of the hydrogen atom .It is well-known that due to its mass difference, deuterium
(D) behaves differently from hydrogen in chemical reactions (called the isotope effect).
Fig.1 H2O & D2O atomic structure
The atomic structure of deuterium and hydrogen is show in fig above .In other words, deuterium can, in some
ways, be considered as an independent element. When deuterium combines with oxygen, the resulting water is
referred to as deuterium oxide or “heavy” water {D2O}. Water made with deuterium tastes and looks the
same but has numerous distinguishing characteristics.it has small natural occurrence of about 140 to 160 ppm.
Extremely large intake of heavy water is required for causing any noticeable harmful effect [1]-[22]. It was first
detected spectroscopically in late 1931 by Harold Urey, a chemist at Columbia University. Urey created the
1707
Omkar Shivaji Giri,Atul Suresh Jadhav, Swapnil Prakash Mane,
Lt. Col. Sanjay M. Karodpati,Dr Prashant P Chaudhari
International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research
IJETSR
www.ijetsr.com
ISSN 2394 3386
Volume 5, Issue 3
March 2018
names protium, deuterium, and tritium in an article published in 1934. The name is based in part on advice
from G. N. Lewis who had proposed the name "deutium". The name is derived from the Greek deuteros
(second), deuterium won Urey the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934. All natural water contains deuterium.
Most water contains about 150 ppm. Water with a concentration less than 140 ppm is considered deuterium-
depleted. According to clinical work conducted in Hungary, Japan and Russia, even this seemingly small
reduction in deuterium content can have a significant influence on a number of health parameters. Studies
conducted with concentrations between 25 and 125 ppm all show response.
Fig 2 -Left: Ice in normal water; Right: Ice
in Heavy water
Both heavy water and water are quite different in their physical and chemical properties. While the freezing
point of water is zero degrees Celsius, heavy water has a freezing point of 3.82 degrees Celsius. Heavy water
has a slightly higher boiling point when compared to water. While the boiling point of water is 100 degrees, it
is 101.4 degrees for heavy water. In density as well, heavy water has a higher density when compared to
water. The PH value of heavy water is 7.41 when compared to water’s PH value of 7
LITERATURE REVIEW
Karl Fabricius [1] in this research paper they observed various properties of natural and heavy water. They
comparing these two properties with values and stated some results.
Naturally occurring fresh water is not pure. Water, in a pure state, exists with an acidity (or pH) balance of 7.
However, in its non-distilled natural state, the pH will vary. Normal rain water has a pH of 5-6, making it
acidic. Acid rain runs as low as 1, which is equivalent to battery acid. A typical stream will vary in pH from 6-
8. This acidity causes natural water to acquire minerals. Unless these minerals are removed, they end up in the
water we drink.
M.G. Barishev [4] this paper is related to methodology which is used for removal of deuterium. the methods
which are expensive or not is focused in it. The principal manufacturers of deuterium depleted water currently
apply the method of distillation in rectifying columns. The disadvantage of this method is the low separation
coefficient. Multiple stages are needed in order to significantly reduce the deuterium content which makes the
method expensive. We have designed the electrolytic method with a recuperation unit which allows reducing
by 4-6 power consumption required for producing light water comparing to rectification methods applied
nowadays.
Gabor Somlyai [5] in this research paper Somlyai stated that DDW is used for anticancer treatment. It used
as a medicine. The two stable isotopes of hydrogen, protium (1H) and deuterium (2H) differ in their
physicochemical nature. Deuterium-depleted water
1708
Omkar Shivaji Giri,Atul Suresh Jadhav, Swapnil Prakash Mane,
Lt. Col. Sanjay M. Karodpati,Dr Prashant P Chaudhari
International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research
IJETSR
www.ijetsr.com
ISSN 2394 3386
Volume 5, Issue 3
March 2018
(DDW) significantly inhibited the growth rate of different tumour cell lines in culture media and
xenotransplanted MDA-MB-231, MCF-7
Human breast adenocarcinomas and PC-3 human prostate tumors in vivo. The apoptosis-triggering effect of
DDW was demonstrated both
In vitro and in vivo. The anti-cancer effect of D-depletion was also confirmed in a double-blind, randomized,
4-month-long, human phase II
Clinical trial on prostate cancer. D-depletion, as an adjuvant, caused 3-7 fold increases of median survival
time (MST) in lung cancer, two-
Fold in advanced breast cancer and it also effectively prevented recurrences of early stage breast cancer. It is
suggested that the cell cycle
MJ PANGMAN [7]; this paper mainly focused on deuterium and normal water.
Paper shows how we can made difference with ph., boiling point, density.
Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen that contains a proton and a neutron in the nucleus of the atom. The extra
neutron doubles the mass of the hydrogen atom.
It is well-known that due to its mass difference, deuterium (D) behaves differently from hydrogen in chemical
reactions (called the isotope effect). In other words, deuterium can, in some ways, be considered as an
independent element.
Anne Marie Helmenstine [9]
This is the main question related to heavy water and its answer is yes heavy water dangerous if it crosses the
limit .this is stated in this research paper. You need ordinary water to live, but you may have wondered
whether you can you drink heavy water? Is radioactive? Is it safe? Heavy water has the same chemical
formula as any other water, H2O, except one or both of the hydrogen atoms are the deuterium isotope of
hydrogen instead of the regular protium isotope. It is also known as deuterated water or D2O. While the
nucleus of a protium atom consists of a solitary proton, the nucleus of deuterium atom contains both a proton
and a neutron. This makes deuterium about twice as heavy as protium, but it is not radioactive.
Thus, radioactive. So, if you drink heavy water, you don't need to worry about radiation poisoning. It's not
completely safe to drink, though, because the biochemical reactions in your cells are affected by the difference
in the mass of the hydrogen atoms and how well they form hydrogen bonds.
METHODOLOGY
LITRATURE COLLECTION
VISIT TO CIF, NCL , SPPU, COEP
CONTACTING WITH HEAVY WATR BOARD FOR TESTING
1709
Omkar Shivaji Giri,Atul Suresh Jadhav, Swapnil Prakash Mane,
Lt. Col. Sanjay M. Karodpati,Dr Prashant P Chaudhari
International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research
IJETSR
www.ijetsr.com
ISSN 2394 3386
Volume 5, Issue 3
March 2018
CONCLUSION & RESULT:
All types of Natural water contain specific amount of D2O content i.e. 140 to 160 ppm. Upto this limit it is
not harmful to human health. If we drink one sip or two sip of D2O water it not harmful to our health but the
exceed concentration is harmful to health. The water contains less D2O than 140 ppm is called Deuterium
Depleted Water [DDW]. DDW is good for health. It is used as anticancer tool. And further research is in
process.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
It is needed with a great sense of pleasure and immense sense of gratitude that we acknowledge the help of
these individuals. We owe many thanks to many people who helped and supported us during the writing of
this report.
We are highly grateful to our HON. DR AJINKYA PATIL SIR, CHAIRMAN OF DYPKC for giving
permission at his home for seeing filter & valuable guidance.
We would like to express our deep sense of gratitude and regards to Prof. S.S.SONAVANE for making
available through the department the help needed in the form of facilities & guidance.
We are highly grateful to S.K.NAYAK Director Technical of Heavy Water Board for giving us permission
for water testing and analysis .
REFERENCES:
[1] Karl Fabricius.: 2011. Does Deuterium in Our Drinking Water Pose a Health Risk:
[2] Molnár; 2009; EFFECT of deuterium oxide (d2o) content of drinking water on glucose metabolism in stz-induced
diabetic rats.
[3] Gábor Somlyai.; September 2010 ; Biological signify cancer of naturally occurring deuterium: The antitumor effect
of deuterium depletion.
[4] M.G. Barishe.; 2013; Technologies For Obtaining Deuterium Depleted Water.
[5] G. Somlyai ; 2016; Pre-Clinical and Clinical Data Confirm the Anticancer Effect of Deuterium Depletion
[6] krisztina kermpels.:2008 j ;A Retrospective Evaluation of the Effects of Deuterium Depleted Water
[7] MJ PANGMAN; 2013; Deuterium-depleted water: What is it?
[8] Gábor Somlyai .; September 2010 ; Biological signifi cancer of naturally occurring deuterium: The antitumor
effect of deuterium depletion.
[9] Anne Marie Helmenstine,; 2017; Can You Drink Heavy Water?
[10] O'Leary, Dan (2012). "The deeds to deuterium". Nature Chemistry.
[11] Hartogh, Paul; Lis, Dariusz C.; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; De Val-Borro, Miguel; Biver, Nicolas; Küppers,
Michael; Emprechtinger, Martin; Bergin, Edwin A.; et al. (2011). "Ocean-like water in the Jupiter-family
[12] Hersant, Franck; Gautier, Daniel; Hure, JeanMarc (2001). "A Twodimensional Model for the Primordial Nebula
Constrained by D/H Measurements in the Solar System: Implications for the Formation of Giant Planets"
[13] Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Bar-Nun, A.; Berthelier, J. J.; et al. (2014). "67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a Jupiter
family comet with a high D/H ratio".
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[15] Hébrard, G.; Péquignot, D.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Walsh, J. R.; Ferlet, R. (7 Feb 2000), Detection of deuterium
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[16] Weiss, Achim. "Equilibrium and change: The physics behind Big Bang Nucleosynthesis". Einstein Online.
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[17] IUPAC Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (2001). "Names for Muonium and Hydrogen Atoms
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[18] "Cosmic Detectives". 2 April 2013. The European Space Agency (ESA)..
1710
Omkar Shivaji Giri,Atul Suresh Jadhav, Swapnil Prakash Mane,
Lt. Col. Sanjay M. Karodpati,Dr Prashant P Chaudhari
International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research
IJETSR
www.ijetsr.com
ISSN 2394 3386
Volume 5, Issue 3
March 2018
[19] Linsky, J. L.; Draine, B. T.; Moos, H. W.; Jenkins, E. B.; Wood, B. E.; Oliviera, C.; Blair, W. P.; Friedman, S. D.;
Knauth, D.; Lehner, N.; Redfield, S.; Shull, J. M.; Sonneborn, G.; Williger, G. M. (2006). "What is the Total
Deuterium Abundance in the Local Galactic Disk?". The Astrophysical Journal.
[20] Lellouch, E; Bézard, B.; Fouchet, T.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Encrenaz, T.; De Graauw, T. (2001). "The deuterium
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[22] Halford, Bethany (4 July 2016). "The deuterium switcheroo". Chemical & Engineering News. American Chemical
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Article
Full-text available
The two stable isotopes of hydrogen, protium (1 H) and deuterium (2 H) differ in their physicochemical nature. Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) significantly inhibited the growth rate of different tumor cell lines in culture media and xenotransplanted MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinomas and PC-3 human prostate tumors in vivo. The apoptosis-triggering effect of DDW was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-cancer effect of D-depletion was also confirmed in a double-blind, randomized, 4-month-long, human phase II clinical trial on prostate cancer. D-depletion, as an adjuvant, caused 3-7 fold increases of median survival time (MST) in lung cancer, twofold in advanced breast cancer and it also effectively prevented recurrences of early stage breast cancer. It is suggested that the cell cycle regulating system is able to recognize the changes in the 2 H/ 1 H ratio. Two key events takes place in the cell at the same time: the binding of growth hormone to the receptor activates the H +-transport system, which preferentially eliminates H + , resulting in an increased 2 H/ 1 H ratio, which is essential to start cell division; the properly working mitochondria, the terminal complex of mitochondrial electron transport chain reducing molecular oxygen to DDW, which reduces the 2 H/ 1 H ratio and inhibits the cell growth. The balance between the activated H +-transport system and the DDW producing mitochondria which determine the 2 H/ 1 H ratio in the cells is proposed as the key mechanism to regulate cell growth.
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Background: Deuterium, a stable isotope of hydrogen, binds to oxygen to form D2O. D2O exist in the environment at 1/6700 of H2O (150 ppm) and is expected to have some biological effects. Several lines of evidences suggest that D2O inhibits insulin release from pancreatic islets. Very little or no data is available on the action of lowering D2O content of the cellular environment. Some experimental and clinical observations suggest that depletion of D2O has anti-mitotic effect in various tumor cells. Some clinical observations also suggest that depletion D2O has anti-mitotic effect in various tumor cells. Some clinical observation also suggest that depletion D2O interfere with glucose metabolism diabetic patients. Objective: In our experiments we wanted to test the effect of removal of D2O on the glucose metabolism in sreptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model. Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single ip. injection of 60mg/kg body weight of STZ. After 2 weeks, animals were randomly distributed into several groups to test the effect of D2O (25-150 ppm) on glucose metabolism in diabetic animals with or without 2x1 U/day insulin treatment. The following parameters were tested: serum glucose, -fructose amine, -HbAIC, -creatinine, -TBARS and -insulin; urine glucose, -creatinine and -protein. At the end of the experiments, 8 weeks of treatment, membrane associated GLUT-4 content was estimated by western-blot technique from m. soleus. Results: Our results indicate that STZ treatment significantly increased serum glucose, fructose amine, HbAIC and TBARS concentration. Depletion of D2O did not influence any of the measured parameters in animals not received insulin. However the measured parameters were significantly lower in those animals received lower D2O containing drinking water and insulin treatment. The membrane associated GLUT-4 was significantly higher in these animals also. Conclusion: These data suggest that D2O depletion enhance insulin effect on GLUT-4 translocation and potentiate glucose uptake in diabetic animals. The major characteristic feature of metabolic syndrome is the decreased insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance/hyper-insulinemia is strongly associated with hyperlipidemia and hypertension, two major risk factors of coronary heart disease. Based on our experimental data, deuterium depleted water could be used to treat patients with MS by increasing the insulin sensitivity. The mode of action of D2O depletion is not fully understood and needs further experiments to elucidate this question.
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The concentration of deuterium is about 150 ppm (over 16 mmol/L) in surface water and more than 10 mmol/L in living organisms. Experiments with deuterium depleted water (30+/-5 ppm) revealed that due to D-depletion various tumorous cell lines (PC-3, human prostate, MDA, human breast, HT-29, human colon, M14, human melanoma) required longer time to multiply in vitro. DDW caused tumor regression in xenotransplanted mice (MDA and MCF-7, human breast, PC-3) and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Deuterium depleted water (25+/-5 ppm) induced complete or partial tumor regression in dogs and cats with spontaneous malignancies, it was registered as anticancer for veterinary use in 1999 (Vetera-DDW-25 A.U.V., 13/99 FVM). The hypodermic preparation of the registered veterinary drug was successfully tested in clinical investigations. Under the permission of the Hungarian Institute of Pharmacology (No. 5621/40/95) a randomized, double blind controlled, human Phase II clinical trial with prostate cancer was performed, in compliance with GCP principles, which exhibited a significant difference between the control and treated groups with respect to the examined parameters, median survival time and the extension of life-span. We suggest that cells are able to regulate the D/H ratio and the changes in the D/H ratio can trigger certain molecular mechanisms having a key role in cell cycle regulation. We suppose that not the shift in the intracellular pH, but the concomitant increase in the D/H ratio is the real trigger for the cells to enter into S phase. The decrease of D concentration can intervene in the signal transduction pathways thus leading to tumor regression. Deuterium depletion may open new perspectives in cancer treatment and prevention helping to increase the effectiveness of current oncotherapies.
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Does Deuterium in Our Drinking Water Pose a Health Risk
  • Karl Fabricius
Karl Fabricius.: 2011. Does Deuterium in Our Drinking Water Pose a Health Risk:
Technologies For Obtaining Deuterium Depleted Water
  • M G Barishe
M.G. Barishe.; 2013; Technologies For Obtaining Deuterium Depleted Water.
Can You Drink Heavy Water?
  • Anne Marie Helmenstine
Anne Marie Helmenstine,; 2017; Can You Drink Heavy Water?
Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry. Chemical Nomenclature and Structure Representation Division
  • G Hébrard
Hébrard, G 27 October 2006.. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry. Chemical Nomenclature and Structure Representation Division,