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Comparative study and nutritional assesment of dehulled and whole hunteria umbellata seed


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The nutritional compositions of Hunteria umbellata were examined in this study. Proximate, mineral and inorganic elements of dehulled Hunteria umbellata seed (DHUS) and whole Hunteria umbellata seed (WHUS) were analyzed. The proximate composition (%) of the DHUS and WHUS seed are as follows; crude protein (13.65) and (9.0), crude fibre (26.79) and (2.74), crude fat (2.87) and (14.97), ash (3.89) and (3.45), moisture (9.57) and (10.95) and carbohydrate (43.23) and (58.88). Hunteria umbellata are good source of macro and micro nutrient (mg/100g) with Potassium (1130) and 1150, Magnesium(180) and (189), Calcium (76) and (78), Sodium (87.5) and (90), Iron (60) and (63), Manganese (5) and (7) also present in appreciable quantities. The result of inorganic element (mg/100g) also revealed in Hunteria umbellata; Nitrogen (7.14) and (2.11), Carbon (52.1) and (68.4), Hydrogen (4.22) and (6.11), Sulphur (2.33) and (2.26) and Oxygen (34.3) and (21.1) respectively. Nitrogen content was determined by microKjeldahl method. Total carbohydrate was calculated by the difference method while mineral analysis was carried out after acid digestion using spectrophotometer and flame photometry. The high value obtained for potassium, carbohydrate, and carbon reveal that Hunteria umbellata seed has potential of serving as supplement for food, source of synthetic and antimicrobial drugs, and traditional herbal medicine.
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Onawumi, OOE et al./ Elixir Appl. Chem. 109 (2017) 48056-48058
Plants are very effective in the treatment of diseases and
serve as food. Some seeds offer multiple advantages of
providing plant proteins with reduced cost of production, less
difficulty of processing and can still be used as a medicinal
plant. Hence, all research effort geared towards effective
utilization of these inexpensive plants for nutritional,
functional properties and applications cannot be over-
emphasized. At present development on industrial scale is not
being accorded the attention it deserves [1]. This has been
attributed to the dearth of information available on their varied
processing techniques as linked to their nutritional properties
for different end usage and applications. One major
impediment militating against their direct usage in food
applications for human consumption is the hulls or outer
coating [2]. Additionally, the oil content of many of these
legumes hinder their applications in food products that could
be stored over time, being predisposed to rancidity effect.
Hunteria umbellata falls into this category of less recognized
and under-exploited seed despite its promising economic
value. Hunteria umbellata (Family: Apocynaceae) is a West
Africa glabrous tree which is known as Demonuain (French)
and Abeere (Yoruba, South West Nigeria). In African
traditional medicine, water decoction made from the dry seeds
of Hunteria umbellata is highly valued in the local treatment
of pain, swellings, infections, gastric ulcer, diabetes mellitus,
obesity and management of labour at term [3, 4]. This work
reports a comprehensive study on the nutritional and inorganic
element composition of the dehulled and whole seed of
Hunteria umbellata.
Material And Method
Fresh and matured Hunteria umbellata seeds were bought
at Oja Oba, Isale Osun Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The
seeds were washed properly with distilled water to remove any
impurities. The seed were dried for 21days until constant
weights was obtained and were divided into two parts; A and
B. Sample A was grinded without further treatment while the
outer layer of sample B was removed before grinding with a
mechanical machine. The two samples were kept in separate
air tight container for further analysis. Sample A is regarded as
whole Hunteria umbellata seed (WHUS) while sample B is
known to be dehulled Hunteria umbellata seed (DHUS). The
proximate analyses of the two samples were determined using
the method reported by AOAC, [6]. Test for the presence of
minerals was carried out after acid digestion. The supernatant
was decanted and the liquid was analyzed for the levels of Ca,
K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Fe using standard procedures. Sodium
and Potassium were determined using a flame photometer.
Nitrogen was determined by Kjeldahl method [7] and
converted to protein by multiplying by a factor of 6.25.
Moisture content of DHUS (9.57%) and WHUS (10.95%)
are very close to (11.2%) reported for baobab pulp seed [8]
and (9.2%) obtained for calabash whole seed [9]. The moisture
content indicates that the seed can be stored for a longer time
without spoilage. The ash content of DHUS (3.89%) and
WHUS (3.45%) are very close to (3.36%) value obtained for
Prunus persica seed [10], 3.70% obtained for calabash seed
by [11] and similar to 4.0% reported for calabash whole seed
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© 2017 Elixir All rights reserved
Article history:
Received: 16 January 2017;
Received in revised form:
10 August 2017;
Accepted: 21 August 2017;
Dehulled seed,
Whole seed,
Hunteria umbellate.
Comparative study and nutritional assesment of dehulled and whole
hunteria umbellata seed
Onawumi, OOE1, Olagunju EO2, * and Afolabi SO2.
1Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke University of Technology, Ogbomoso,Oyo State, Nigeria
2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Osun State Polytechnic Iree, Osun State, Nigeria.
The nutritional compositions of Hunteria umbellata were examined in this study.
Proximate, mineral and inorganic elements of dehulled Hunteria umbellata seed (DHUS)
and whole Hunteria umbellata seed (WHUS) were analyzed. The proximate composition
(%) of the DHUS and WHUS seed are as follows; crude protein (13.65) and (9.0), crude
fibre (26.79) and (2.74), crude fat (2.87) and (14.97), ash (3.89) and (3.45), moisture
(9.57) and (10.95) and carbohydrate (43.23) and (58.88). Hunteria umbellata are good
source of macro and micro nutrient (mg/100g) with Potassium (1130) and 1150,
Magnesium(180) and (189), Calcium (76) and (78), Sodium (87.5) and (90), Iron (60)
and (63), Manganese (5) and (7) also present in appreciable quantities. The result of
inorganic element (mg/100g) also revealed in Hunteria umbellata; Nitrogen (7.14) and
(2.11), Carbon (52.1) and (68.4), Hydrogen (4.22) and (6.11), Sulphur (2.33) and (2.26)
and Oxygen (34.3) and (21.1) respectively. Nitrogen content was determined by micro-
Kjeldahl method. Total carbohydrate was calculated by the difference method while
mineral analysis was carried out after acid digestion using spectrophotometer and flame
photometry. The high value obtained for potassium, carbohydrate, and carbon reveal that
Hunteria umbellata seed has potential of serving as supplement for food, source of
synthetic and antimicrobial drugs, and traditional herbal medicine.
© 2017 Elixir All rights reserved.
Elixir Appl. Chem. 109 (2017) 48056-48058
Applied Chemistry
Available online at (Elixir International Journal)
Onawumi, OOE et al./ Elixir Appl. Chem. 109 (2017) 48056-48058
Table 1. Proximate Composition of DHUS and WHUS.
WHUS Values (%)
The ash content shows the presence of inorganic elements
in Hunteria umbellata seed. Good amount of fibre is an
indication that DHUS can serve as a good source of fibre
which might aid digestion, help reduce serum cholesterol
level, risk of coronary heart diseases and hypertension [12].
The crude fibre was found to be 26.79% in the dehulled seed
and higher to 23.90% value reported for dehulled seed of
calabash [9] and higher than 12.68% and 15.6% reported for
Canna bidentata and baobab seed respectively. High level of
crude fibre in DHUS also shows that the seed will be very
useful in maintenance of internal digestion for a normal
peristaltic of the internal tract [13]. WHUS 2.74% is very
close to 1.86% obtained for Prunus persica but lower than
15.6% reported for baobab pulp seed and 3.47% reported for
calabash whole seed. Furthermore, dietary fibre decreases the
absorption of cholesterol from the gut in addition to delaying
the digestion and conversion of starch to simple sugars, which
is an important factor in the management of diabetes. Dietary
fibre also functions in the protection against cardiovascular
disease, colorectal cancer and obesity [14]. Since ash content
in both samples are greater than 1.5-2.5% reported by
Pomeranz and Cliffton [15], who suggested that the seed
above 2.5% cannot be used in feeding animal, therefore
Hunteria umbellata seeds will not be suitable for animal feed.
Fat content in WHUS (14.97) is very close to 13.4% recorded
for baobab pulp seed. Due to the low presence of fat in
Hunteria umbellata seed, both DHUS and WHUS can help the
body and skin to reduce obesity but DHUS will be more
efficient due to the high percentage of fat in the outer cover of
Hunteria umbellata seed. The value obtained for DHUS crude
fat (2.87%) is similar to 2.65% reported for Solanum.
dasyphyllum, and 3.25% reported for Canna bidentata but
lower than 8.15% reported for Hydrocotyle aziata [5]. Protein
content in DHUS (13.65%) is higher than WHUS 9.01% but
both are low compared to 19.05% and 19.70% reported for
baobab pulp seed and Prunus persica. Protein helps to repair
the worn out tissue in the body. The dehulled crude protein
content 13.65% is higher than the value reported for Cola.
millenii, Megaphrynium. mascosterchyum and Rauwolfia.
Victoria which are 12.52%, 10.78%, and 8.65% but lower than
19.67% reported for Ceasalpinia bonduc [5]. The
carbohydrate value was found to be 58.88% in WHUS but
lower in DHUS 43.23%. This implies that the outer cover of
Hunteria umbellata seed contain notable amount of
carbohydrate which is removed when dehulled. The
carbohydrate content of DHUS (43.23%) is very close to
44.60% reported for Adansonia digitata [16] and very high
compared to 9.10% obtained for calabash whole seed.
Carbohydrate level in WHUS (58.88%) is higher than 44.6
and 47.44% reported for baobab pulp seed and Prunus persica
respectively. Carbohydrate is a good source of energy.
These minerals are vital for the overall mental and
physical well being; and are important constituent of bones,
teeth, tissues, muscles, blood and nerve cells [17]. They
generally help in maintenance of acid-base balance, response
of nerves to physiological stimulation and blood clotting [18].
Table 2. Mineral Analysis of Dehulled and Whole
Hunteria Umbellata Seed.
DHUS Value
WHUS Value
Vit. C
Calcium’s importance is found in formation and stability
of cell walls and in maintenance of membrane structure and
permeability, activates some enzymes, regulates many
responses of cells to stimuli The calcium value (76mg/100g)
of DHUS and (78mg/100g) of WHUS are greater than
68.55mg/L reported for Canna bidentata [5]. The presence of
Calcium in Hunteria Umbellata seed will help body structure
and bones to be very strong. Potassium acts as Cofactor that
functions in protein synthesis and activation of enzymes. The
potassium value for DHUS (1130mg/100g) and WHUS
(1150mg/100g) are in line with 1410.35mg/100g reported for
baobab pulp [16] but extremely high compared to
29.52mg/100g obtained for Blighia sapida [8]. Potassium can
be used to balance fluid and nerve transmission. The value
(87.5mg/100g) DHUS and (90mg/100g) WHUS obtained for
sodium is higher than the value 29.20mg/100g and
42.7mg/100g reported for Blighia sapida and Baobab seed
respectively [8] and [16]. Na/K ratio of less than one is
recommended [19] in our diet therefore; Na/K (0.077) and
(0.078) will be good for hypertensive patients. Iron acts as
component of cytochromes, electron transport, activates some
enzymes, and plays a role in chlorophyll synthesis. Iron value
(60mg/100g) of DHUS and (63 mg/100g) of WHUS are
higher than 10.12 mg/100g, 5 mg/100g and 1.95mg/100g
stated for Baobab seed, Calabash seed and Blighia sapida
respectively [16], [11] and[8]. High value of iron indicates that
Hunteria umbellata seed will be very useful in prevention of
anemia and other related diseases. Iron is an essential trace
element for haemoglobin formation, normal functioning of
central nervous system and in the oxidation of carbohydrate,
protein and fats [20]. Manganese is very active in formation of
amino acids, activates some enzymes, coenzyme activity,
required for water-splitting step of photosynthesis, chlorophyll
synthesis. The value (5mg/100g) of DHUS and (7mg/100g) of
WHUS obtained for Manganese are higher than the value
0.07mg/100g reported for Blighia sapida [8]. Manganese is
another microelement essential for human nutrition. It acts as
a cofactor of many enzymes [21]. Vitamin C was also
detected in both samples. It is needed for the growth and
repair of tissues in all part of the body. Vitamin C content in
DHUS (0.15mg/g) and WHUS (0.73mg/g) are low compared
to 1.82mg/100g value reported by calabash whole seed [9].
However the quantity shows that Hunteria Umbellata seed
contain vitamin C.
Table 3. Results of Inorganic Elements of Dehulled Seed of
Hunteria Umbellata.
DHUS Values (%)
WHOLE Values (%)
Onawumi, OOE et al./ Elixir Appl. Chem. 109 (2017) 48056-48058
Nitrogen is an essential part of amino acids and play vital
role in protein synthesis. The Nitrogen value (7.14%) of
DHUS is higher than WHUS value (2.11%). This is traceable
to high fat content in the outer cover of Hunteria umbellata
seed which reduce the protein level in WHUS and Nitrogen
value. Both values are low compared to the value (3.47%)
reported for Cotton seed [22]. Due to low value of nitrogen in
WHUS compared DHUS, the amino acids needed to build
peptides and proteins will be lower in WHUS than DHUS.
Carbon is the basic building block to most cells in the body.
Carbon content 52.1% found in DHUS is lower than 68.4%
found in WHUS and also similar to (61.47%) value obtained
for cotton seed [22]. Presence of carbon in this seed shows
that DHUS will help in cellular respiration by which body
releases energy stored in glucose. Most of the hydrogen in the
body is bound with oxygen to form water. Hydrogen value
(4.22%) in DHUS is lower than (6.11%) of WHUS but both
values are comparable to 4.01% reported for cotton seed [22].
DHUS can help the antibody lock on the antigen through a
series of interactions including hydrogen bonds. Sulphur
content in both samples DHUS (2.33%) and WHUS (2.26%)
are very close to the value (1.88%) for cotton seed [22].
Sulphur is present in three amino acids which are cystine,
cysteine and methionine. Connective tissue, skin, hair and
nails are rich in Sulphur. Also, thiamine and biotin (member
of vitamin B complex) and coenzyme A contain sulphur in
their molecules [23]. Proteins vary widely in sulphur content,
depending on their amino acid composition. The preformed
amino acid and sulphur deficiencies are reflected as sulphur-
containing amino acid deficiencies. High level of oxygen is
very essential for optimum health. Oxygen combines with
metabolic waste products to allow their elimination from the
body. Oxygen value (34.3%) is higher in DHUS than WHUS
(21.1%) but both values are very close to 29.17% values
reported for cotton seed [22]. The presence of oxygen in
DHUS will help to oxidize food in the process of respiration.
The result of this research showed the nutritional
adequacy of Hunteria umbellata. It will be a very good and
cheap source of macro and micro elements for human
consumption. It could also be used to cure nutrient-deficiency
related diseases, reduce the heartbeat rate, and decrease blood
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... Nutritional analysis of dried seeds of H. umbellate showed that it contained important dietary nutrients and molecules [46]. Proximate composition of the dried seed revealed the presence of moisture (9.57%), crude protein (13.65%), crude fiber (26.79%), ...
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Background: Hunteria umbellate (K. Schum.) Hallier f. (Apocynaceae) is a tropical rainforest tree commonly found in sub-Saharan region of Africa. It is a useful and very popular plant among the locals due to the outstanding anti-diabetic activity of the seeds. Methods: A comprehensive literature search on articles published on phytochemical analysis and various pharmacological activities of Hunteria umbellate was carried out using search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct. Results: In this review, it was deduced that H. umbellate is employed in folk medicine as an elixir for obesity, fever, leprosy sores, menstrual pain, infertility, yaws, intestinal worms, abdominal discomfort and stomach ache. Due to their durability and immunity against termites, the stems are coveted and desired as timbers in the construction of houses, while the bark has been reportedly exported to Europe for medicinal uses. Pharmacological activities such as fertility enhancing, aphrodisiac, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, has been ascribed to the different morphological organs of H. umbellate. Moreover, compounds belonging to important classes of secondary metabolites with biological activities such as triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinic acids have been identified and characterized from the plant. Conclusion: From this review, it can be inferred that, numerous and bioactive principles with known biological usefulness are present in the extracts of H. umbellate and might be responsible for the observed biological and pharmacological activities.
Full-text available
Proximate, mineral and selected physicochemical characteristics of baobab (Adansonia digitata) seed, pulp and seed- oil were determined using standard analytical methods. The proximate composition (%) of the seed and pulp were as follows; moisture (3.8 ± 0.2 and 11.2 ± 0.2), protein (19.5 ± 0.5 and 3.5 ± 0.1), fat (13.4 ± 0.1 and 0.4 ± 0.1), ash (3.1± 0.1 and 4.5 ± 0.5), crude fibre (15.6 ± 0.5 and 6.1 ± 0.1) and carbohydrate (44.6 and 74.3). Baobab seed, pulp and seed-oil are good source of macro and micro nutrients with potassium (K) being the most predominant element with magnessiun (Mg), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) also present in appreciable quantities. The physicochemical properties also revealed slightly acidic P H for the pulp (5.6 ± 0.2) and oil (6.1 ± 0.1) while the seed was alkaline (8.2 ± 0.1). From the soluble solid content, the pulp contains more sugar than the seed while the titrable acidity of the oil with 3.51 ± 0.10 is higher than 0.65 ± 0.04 of the pulp. The saponification, iodine and acid values of the oil were 218.41 ± 0.20mgKOH/g, 92.10 ± 1.50mgI 2/100g and 6.52 ± 0.02 mgKOH/g respectively while the refractive index and specific gravity were 1.498 ± 0.002 and 0.928 ± 0.001. The results presented here established the edibility of the pulp, seed and oil as well as a pointer to its industrial usage. Keywords: Proximate, mineral, physicochemical, saponification, pulp, oil, seed, edible.
Full-text available
Dry seeds of the plant, Hunteria umbellata K. Schum (family: Apocynaceae), are highly valued in African traditional medicine in the treatment of various human diseases, including diabetes mellitus and obesity. In the present study, the hypoglycaemic and weight loss effects of 50 - 200 mg/kg of the aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata (HU) were investigated in normal and drug-induced hyperglycaemic rats. In addition, the acute oral toxicity using the preliminary and the main tests of the Up-and-Down Procedure according to OECD/OCDE Test Guidelines on Acute Oral Toxicity was conducted. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous seed extract was also carried out. Results showed that HU caused progressive and significant (p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001) dose-related reduction in the blood glucose concentrations in normal and drug-induced hyperglycaemic rats, an effect, which was more than that of glibenclamide and mediated via inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake and adrenergic homeostatic mechanisms. HU also caused significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) dose-dependent reduction in the average body weight of treated rats when compared to untreated rats. The acute oral toxicity study showed that the plant extract had an LD50 of 1020 mg/kg and as such slightly toxic. Results of the phytochemical analysis of HU revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Thus, the data generated in the present study has a strong positive correlation with its folkloric use in the treatment of suspected type 2 diabetic patients, although its use should be with great caution. Industrial relevance: The data generated in this study suggest that HU could be very useful in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus although several further studies will still be required at identifying the active hypoglycaemic phytocomponent(s) and their possible mechanisms of action.
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Velvet bean seeds were collected from a farm Ibadan. The mature seed samples were analyzed for proximate and mineral compositions, fatty acid profiles and amino acid composition. The mean values of various parameters for proximate composition (%) were: Moisture (6.02±0.11), crude protein (25.65±0.14), ash (3.60±0.01), ether extract (14.52±0.05), crude fibre (7.23±0.05) and carbohydrate (by difference) (42.98). The calculated fatty acids were (12.49) and gross energy was (1703.95). The investigated seed samples contained higher amounts of crude protein and lipids when compared with most of the commonly consumed pulses. Mineral element (mg/100g) include: Calcium (148.88±0.2), potassium (1472.33±0.2), phosphorus (377.12±0.2), magnesium (23.66±0.3), iron (3.44±0.2) and manganese (5.28±0.1). The fatty acid profiles of the seeds revealed that the seed lipids contained higher concentration of palmitic acid and linoleic acid. Linoleic acid was the dominating fatty acid, followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid. The seed proteins of sample contained higher levels of the essential amino acids such as, threonine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and histidine. Amino acid analysis revealed that velvet bean flour contained nutritionally useful quantities of most of the essential amino acids.
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In this study, we are reporting for the first time a comparative study of the physicochemical and nutritional values and mineral contents of pulp, seed and shell of the local cultivar of Prunus persica, called Chinensis. The percentage of moisture in pulp (87.6) was much higher than that of seed (7.0) and shell (15.0). Seed had highest percentages of ash (3.36), fat (37.7), crude protein (2.7) and carbohydrates (47.4) while for pulp were 0.5, 0.2, 0.6, 9.2 and shell were 0.2, 0.086, 0.078, and 10.5 respectively. The percentage of fiber content was highest in the shell (74.2) which was 2.0 in the pulp and 1.9 in the seed. The pulp, seed and shell all contained higher quantity of potassium than sodium and other estimated minerals. They contained 35, 50 and 30 mg/100 g of potassium respectively while they had almost same amount of sodium (15 to 16 mg/100 g). The seed has highest quantity of zinc (4.3 mg/100 g) while copper was highest in shell (1.0 mg/100 g). The pulp and seed contained almost equal quantity of iron (1.3 mg/100 g) which was much higher than that in the shell (0.04 mg/100 g). The composition of fatty acids in the seed oil was determined by Gas-Liquid Chromatography and palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were found as major components. The seed oil of Chinensis was also compared with that of another indigenous variety, Red Indian, in the acid, iodine, saponification, and ester values, nonsaponifiable matter, free fatty acids, specific gravity, density, refractive index and triglycerides.
Minerals are inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts from less than 1 to 2500 mg per day, depending on the mineral. As with vitamins and other essential food nutrients, mineral requirements vary with animal species. For example, humans and other vertebrates need large amounts of calcium for construction and maintenance of bone and normal function of nerves and muscles. Phosphorus is an important constituent of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nucleic acid and is also essential for acid-base balance, bone and tooth formation. Red blood cells can not function properly without iron in haemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells. Iron is also an important component of the cytochromes that function in cellular respiration. Magnesium, copper, selenium, zinc, iron, manganese and molybdenum are important co-factors found in the structure of certain enzymes and are indispensable in numerous biochemical pathways. Vertebrates need iodine to make thyroid hormones. Sodium, potassium and chlorine are important in the maintenance of osmotic balance between cells and the interstitial fluid. Magnesium is an important component of chlorophyll in plants. The interactions between nutrition and diseases, nutrition and drug metabolism have been reported. Excessive intake of some minerals can upset homeostatic balance and cause toxic side effects. For example, excess sodium intake is associated with high blood pressure and excess iron can cause liver damage. Also, severe shortages or self-prescribed minerals can alter the delicate balance in body functions that promotes health. The knowledge of the biochemistry of the mineral elements is also essential because individuals suffering from a chronic illness or taking medications that affect the body's use of specific nutrients need to be enlightened. The aim of this paper is to review the biochemical functions and the importance of the mineral elements in health and disease conditions of humans, animals and plants as this will assist in the prevention of nutrition-related diseases and maintenance of good health for humans and animals that depend on plants for food. This paper could also serve as a ready source of literature review for researchers involved in nutritional sciences.
Vegetables included in daily schedule of diet viz. Sweet Pepper, Cauliflower, Carrot, Cabbage, Lettuce, Spinach, Tomato, Potato, Reddish, and Bottle Gourd were analyzed for their proximate composition, vitamin and mineral contents to evaluate their importance in human nutrition. The results showed that almost all vegetables contain appreciable amount of essential nutrients. Moisture content was high ranging from 77% in potato to 94.5% in bottle gourd followed by carbohydrate in all selected vegetables. Crude protein, Crude fiber and ash were in range from 0.9 to 2.1%, 0.3 to 1.2% and 0.5% to 1.1% respectively. Sweet pepper was found to be highest in crude fiber content. Vegetables intake is beneficial for obese, as they furnish fat to a lesser extent. Minerals in dry weight basis were found in different concentration in all vegetables. K was the most abundant mineral followed by P and Ca. Some vegetables constitute appreciable amount of Na. Potato contained 240 mg/100gm K, but Calcium (8 mg/100gm) was deficient in it. Na was found high (63.9 mg/100gm) in reddish. P and Ca concentration was found 84mg/100gm and 76 mg/100gm respectively in Spinach, which is also an efficient source of Fe 6mg/100gm. comparatively, tomato contained less amount of P (27 mg/100g). Cabbage was found deficient in Fe (0.51 mg/100gm). All the vegetables analyzed, are poor source of Cr. Vitamin analysis confirmed that selected vitamins were found high in spinach followed by cauliflower and tomato. Carrot contains minimum amount of water soluble vitamin among various vegetables. Thiamine was relatively in higher amount than niacin and riboflavin.
The Chemical Analysis of Foods" 7th Edn
  • D Pearson
Pearson, D., "The Chemical Analysis of Foods" 7th Edn., Churchill Livingstone, London, ISBN-13: 9780700014576, pp 7-11, 1976.
Effect of Dehulling on the Nutritive and Antinutritive Components of Calabash
  • G O Oyeleke
  • W K Sulaimon
  • G O Adebayo
Oyeleke G.O., Sulaimon W.K., Adebayo G.O., "Effect of Dehulling on the Nutritive and Antinutritive Components of Calabash" International Journ. Chem.. (21), pp 3, 2011.