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Biological Effects of Low-intensity Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation – Time for a Paradigm Shift in Regulation of Public Exposure.

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Abstract

This study focuses on man-made radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR), which has increased exponentially around the globe over the last few decades due to a rapid expansion of mobile/wireless/satellite technologies. The WHO’s IARC classified RF-EMR as a Group 2B possible human carcinogen in 2011. The Scientific evidence emerged since, particularly epidemiological evidence linking mobile/cordless phone use to brain cancer and experimental evidence of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity has led to calls for an update to this classification. In many countries, including Australia, the current RF exposure regulation is based on the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-ionization Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Several scientific organizations, including the US National Toxicology Program and EPA, and the American and European academies for environmental medicine, have raised concerns about the thermal basis of ICNIRP guidelines which only takes into account acute tissue heating effects. There is strong scientific evidence of non-thermal biological effects occurring in the absence of heating. These effects cannot be prevented by current thermally-based guidelines. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has based its RF standard (RPS3) on the ICNIRP guidelines which inherit the same limitation – an inability to assure safety from chronic non-thermal effects. ARPANSA has been reluctant to accept potential health effects that may arise out of low-intensity (non-thermal) RF-EMR biological effects as ARPANSA claims a lack of an “established” mechanism other than heating. Our detailed study of the scientific literature challenges this paradigm. We present the experimental evidence of RF-EMR induced oxidative stress, a key non-thermal mechanism of biological effects at low intensity exposures. In our recent review of the scientific literature, 216 out of 242 studies that investigated endpoints related to oxidative stress were found to have reported significant effects. Evaluation of the scientific literature by ARPANSA (TRS164 report) has failed to critically review the literature on oxidative stress and assess its potential impact on public health. We present oxidative stress as a key central mechanism underlying adverse biological effects related to RF-EMR exposure, such as DNA damage. Considering the well-established role of oxidative stress in pathobiology of a wide array of chronic diseases, RF exposure standards require urgent reform.
Radiation
Protection
In
Australasia
A Joint Publication of the Journal and Newsletter of the
Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc.
November 2017, Vol, 34, No, 2
Incorporating Newsletter No, 57
ISSN 1444 – 2752
THE AUSTRALASIAN
RADIATION PROTECTION SOCIETY INC.
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... An analysis of ARPANSA' s 2014 literature review report TRS-164 titled "Review of Radiofrequency Health Effects Research -Scientific Literature 2000 -2012" 20 revealed that its conclusions were not substantiated by their nominated evidence. [21][22][23] Moreover, a review of 1955 peer-reviewed studies on the ORSAA database 13 (which contained the studies ARPANSA reviewed) revealed 68% of those publications had reported on significant biological/health effects. This refutes the claim that there is no evidence indicating health risks. ...
... The claim of "no established scientific evidence to support any adverse health effects" is refuted by several thousand peerreviewed scientific studies 3,4 that have demonstrated a wide range of biological or health effects, some of which we highlighted in our previous papers. [21][22] These effects include oxidative stress, DNA damage, mitochondrial/cell membrane damage (including that of RBC), disruption of neurotransmitter levels and ion channels, altered immune/endocrine functions, cancer initiation and promotion. ...
... This is in agreement with our finding that oxidative stress associated with RF-EMR exposure. 22 On the basis of the evidence of oxidative stress in disease pathology, 38 (and a range of other bioeffects) we have urged Australian authorities to take measures to reduce the exposure of people to all forms of RF-EMR to prevent deleterious effects on health, but our calls have been ignored/ dismissed without counterevidence. Therefore, a great risk to the health of the population has been left unattended; undermining the health and wellbeing of the population and the surety of a viable work force of the future. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses the need to raise a medical discussion on the health risks of wireless technology, particularly about new 5G that is lacking in the Australia - New Zealand region at present. It presents some evidence for the concerns raised in the global scientific community.
... An analysis of ARPANSA' s 2014 literature review report TRS-164 titled "Review of Radiofrequency Health Effects Research -Scientific Literature 2000 -2012" 20 revealed that its conclusions were not substantiated by their nominated evidence. [21][22][23] Moreover, a review of 1955 peer-reviewed studies on the ORSAA database 13 (which contained the studies ARPANSA reviewed) revealed 68% of those publications had reported on significant biological/health effects. This refutes the claim that there is no evidence indicating health risks. ...
... The claim of "no established scientific evidence to support any adverse health effects" is refuted by several thousand peerreviewed scientific studies 3,4 that have demonstrated a wide range of biological or health effects, some of which we highlighted in our previous papers. [21][22] These effects include oxidative stress, DNA damage, mitochondrial/cell membrane damage (including that of RBC), disruption of neurotransmitter levels and ion channels, altered immune/endocrine functions, cancer initiation and promotion. ...
... This is in agreement with our finding that oxidative stress associated with RF-EMR exposure. 22 On the basis of the evidence of oxidative stress in disease pathology, 38 (and a range of other bioeffects) we have urged Australian authorities to take measures to reduce the exposure of people to all forms of RF-EMR to prevent deleterious effects on health, but our calls have been ignored/ dismissed without counterevidence. Therefore, a great risk to the health of the population has been left unattended; undermining the health and wellbeing of the population and the surety of a viable work force of the future. ...
Article
This article addresses the currently lacking medical discussion on the safety of the new fifth generation wireless (5G) and the need to start one with input from medical scientists and clinicians given the scientific evidence of biological/health effects some of which is highlighted.
... In recent decades, the widespread use of cell phones has led to an enormous increase in cell phone towers placed in communities. These towers have electronic equipment and antennas that transmit cell phone signals using radiofrequency waves [1][2][3][4] . The radiation emitted via mobile phones and mobile sites causes many health problems (cancers, reproductive problems, neurological, and hormonal disorders). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research presents a statistical study of radiation generated from communication towers in the Nineveh Plain region Baghdeda. The intensity of radiation energy was measured at 10 meters away from the communication tower in different locations, using a (1PC XH-901 Dosimeter/ Personal Dose Alarm / Radiation Detector, dosage rate: 0.01 μSv/h to 150μSv/h) to measure the amount of radiation at various times. Energy densities were measured and compared with standard limits provided by other authorities, such as the International Committee for Radiation Protection. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 26 to implement the data. The results show that the means of the radiation levels measured at all the zones do not statistically differ from the highest values determined globally 0.50-1.70 μSv/y; they lie within the radiation-free zones. Civilians may not always have a choice where the mobile tower will place. As a result, it may rely on some quick fixes, such as certified radiation protection items that offer all-around protection from mobile tower irradiance. The radiation shielding technology used in these goods alters the nature of irradiation from a constant to a variable waveform, rendering it useless.
... RF-induced genotoxicity is now irrefutable, and one underlying mechanism is evidently oxidative stress. Most studies (216 out of 242) that investigated oxidative stress end-points in light of RF exposure were positive [24]. ...
... We have published our preliminary data on radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, which shows that 89% (216 of 242) of experimental studies that investigated oxidative stress endpoints showed significant effects. 7 This weight of scientific evidence refutes the prominent claim that the deployment of wireless technologies poses no health risks at the currently permitted non-thermal radiofrequency exposure levels. Instead, the evidence supports the International EMF Scientist Appeal by 244 scientists from 41 countries who have published on the subject in peer-reviewed literature and collectively petitioned the WHO and the UN for immediate measures to reduce public exposure to artificial electromagnetic fields and radiation. ...
... A staggering 216 (89%) of them found significant effects related to OS, similar to a previous review 17 . These are being further analysed following presenting at the recent Australasian Radiation Protection Society conference 18 . Mostly in vivo animal studies and in vitro studies have demonstrated increased markers of endogenous oxidative stress and/or affected antioxidant levels in different tissue/cell types upon exposure to RF-EMR. ...
Article
Introduction: A cellular base station is a sophisticated object, a source of radio and industrial frequency electromagnetic fields and of noise pollution. Cell sites generate a complex, time-varying, modulated multi-frequency signal of low intensity, yet having local gradients. The World Health Organization has introduced the notion of electromagnetic pollution of environment, the main source of which is a mobile phone base station. It is the fastest-growing anthropotechnogenic environmental impact since the 1950s. Objective: To analyze the impact of mobile phone base stations on the health of population using data of domestic and foreign literary sources. Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted for the years 2008 to 2022 on human health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cellular base stations using the relevant keywords in the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Medline, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Global Health, CyberLeninka, RSCI, and other databases. The initial sample included 50 articles, of which 15 were excluded after primary screening. Experimental studies on animals were not eligible for inclusion. Results: The review of 35 full-text publications on the topic revealed a sufficient amount of evidence of adverse health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, including the radio frequency sickness, cancer, changes in biochemical parameters, DNA damage, etc. Currently, there is an urgent need to resolve the problem of the so-called electrosmog. Conclusion: In order to prevent the diseases associated with the use of novel technologies, it is important to apply a preventive approach by limiting the exposure of groups at risk, such as children, adolescents, patients with chronic diseases etc., to sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.
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