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Positive Psychology as a Theoretical Foundation for Constructive Journalism

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Abstract

This article seeks to provide a theoretical foundation and justification for the innovative and interdisciplinary field of constructive journalism. Constructive journalism involves applying positive psychology techniques to the news process in an effort to strengthen the field and facilitate productive news stories, while holding true to journalism’s core functions. It is this application of positive psychology methods that makes constructive journalism distinct. This paper expands existing work by identifying the broad psychological framework that is applied to journalism and the more specific constructs that apply to six individual constructive techniques. Constructive journalism has been gaining popularity in the industry but is in need of more academic research. This conceptual article intends to clarify the theory and practical application of constructive journalistic methods in an effort to provide a foundation for further research on the topic.

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... Fromm and Kristensen, 2018) and sometimes nested within the other (e.g. McIntyre and Gyldensted, 2018). We see these approaches as separate but intertwined, and we hope this paper will help clarify how they are related to each other in the existing literature. ...
... The scholars who have written about the distinction between constructive and solutions journalism have positioned constructive journalism as an umbrella term and cited solutions journalism as one technique (among others) to practice more constructive reporting. McIntyre (2015) first introduced solutions journalism as a component of constructive journalism in her dissertation, and McIntyre and Gyldensted (2017Gyldensted ( , 2018) went on to further conceptualize these approaches in journal articles. They defined constructive journalism as 'journalism that involves applying positive psychology techniques to news processes and production in an effort to create productive and engaging coverage, while holding true to journalism's core functions' (McIntyre and Gyldensted, 2017, p. 23). ...
... Authors most commonly defined solutions journalism as a form of constructive journalism. This is consistent with the conceptualization proposed by McIntyre and Gyldensted (2018), who described constructive journalism as an umbrella term encapsulating different approaches of socially responsible journalism, including solutions journalism. Solutions journalism specifically involves reporting on how people are responding to problems. ...
Article
Academic activity surrounding constructive and solutions journalism has surged in recent years; thus, it is important to pause and reflect on this growing body of work in order to understand where the field can and should go in the future. We conducted a systematic review of existing literature on solutions and constructive journalism ( N = 94), in an effort to (1) describe the state of this field by identifying the patterns and trends in the methodological and conceptual approaches, topics, institutions, countries and practices involved in this research, and (2) illuminate potentially important gaps in the field and suggest recommendations for future research.
... Studies support the inclusion of positive emotions (e.g. elements of hope and inspiration) and solution-based information to optimize the impact of constructive reporting (Fredrickson, 2000;Kahneman et al., 1993;McIntyre and Gyldensted, 2018), and therefore both these elements were included in the headline, lead, headers and the final paragraph of the constructive versions of the news articles (full-text material in Dutch or a more detailed description of the material can be obtained via the corresponding author). ...
... Constructive journalism applies positive psychology techniques to news processes and production in an effort to create coverage which leaves people feeling more hopeful and that stimulates involvement (Gyldensted, 2015). In doing so, it broadens people's mindset, and is expected to improve individual's and societal well-being (Fredrickson, 2004;McIntyre and Gyldensted, 2018). As previous research mainly focused on the effects of constructive news on people's negative and positive emotions, our study is one of the first to show that constructive news leaves respondents feeling more inspired. ...
... The results of our study are in line with earlier studies that found that reading a story with constructive elements leads to stronger behavioural motivations and intentions (Baden et al., 2019;McIntyre and Sobel, 2017;Meier, 2018) and provides some support for the assumption that constructive news can encourage engagement via actual online behaviour (cf. Hermans and Drok, 2018;McIntyre and Gyldensted, 2018). However, more research is needed to provide insight on the effects of constructive elements in news on engagement via (online) behaviour, because aspects such as entertainment and sensation also seem to play a role (Purdy, 2017). ...
Article
News media seem to have insufficient knowledge on how to reach Millennials. An important question is how professional journalism can prevent the disillusion that a growing number of Millennials experience when consuming news. Constructive journalism is often propagated as a way to improve the well-being and engagement of readers. To test this, the current study investigated the effects of constructive news on emotions and online engagement. In an experiment, 20–40-year-old participants ( n = 341) read a story containing constructive elements or not. Findings showed constructive news elicited lower levels of negative and higher levels of positive and inspirational emotional responses. Furthermore, reading constructive news partly affected readers’ actual online behaviour: Millennials who read the constructive news ‘liked’ this news more often. These results suggest that constructive journalism might be a viable strategy to attract younger news users, especially when the news topic is relevant to their lives.
... Researchers who constructed constructive journalism advised an added dimension to journalism with positive psychology. Positive psychology techniques will help journalists portray the world more accurately, prevent negativity bias in the news, and increase civic engagement (McIntyre & Gyldensted, 2018). Positive psychology was originally a theory in the world of psychology. ...
... climate change articles did not incorporate the solutions to the problems reported in the articles. A fundamental value in journalism is portraying the world accurately, and that's only possible if journalists report the "diseases" of the world and the well-being of the world (McIntyre & Gyldensted, 2018). The lack of solutions may also cause readers not to be informed on how to solve it or make it seem like climate change issues are unsolvable. ...
Article
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Climate change poses a significant threat globally. Due to the heavy nature of the issue, climate change news tends to be very negative. Overly negative news can cause psychological disruption and make people avoid the news. The news media plays a huge role in climate mitigation, adaptation, and people’s perspectives on climate change, making it crucial for them to communicate climate change effectively. Constructive journalism may be the solution to this issue. With constructive journalism, journalists avoid negativity bias by focusing not only on the negatives but also on the solutions and positives when reporting a story. This study conducted a quantitative content analysis on 123 climate change articles reported by Kompas.com in 2020 using the six elements of constructive journalism. This research found that Kompas.com’s climate change articles in 2020 were not constructive. The articles emphasized the consequences of climate change with minimal constructive elements to balance the negativity.
... I build on recent research on constructive journalism, a journalistic approach that emerged in newsrooms as a way to mitigate the effects of negative news (From and Kristensen 2018;Haagerup 2017), typically by infusing news stories with positivity or solutions-oriented information (McIntyre and Gyldensted 2018). This can make news consumers feel more positive (Baden, McIntyre, and Homberg 2019;Dahmen, Thier, and Walth 2019;McIntyre 2019) and engaged in the news Hermans and Prins 2020;McIntyre 2015) as well as increase the media's credibility (Overgaard 2020;Thier et al. 2019; although see Meier 2018). ...
... Because this might negatively affect news audiences, some newsrooms have begun practicing constructive journalism (Aitamurto and Varma 2018;Haagerup 2017;Wagemans, Witschge, and Harbers 2019), which applies "positive psychology techniques to news processes and production in an effort to create productive and engaging coverage while holding true to journalism's core functions" (McIntyre and Gyldensted 2017, 23). Newsrooms enact constructive journalism in several ways, including making decisions about the selection, prioritization, and presentation of information (Haagerup 2017;McIntyre and Gyldensted 2018;Skovsgaard and Andersen 2020). Experimental investigations of constructive journalism have mostly focused on how information is presented (Baden, McIntyre, and Homberg 2019;Hermans and Prins 2020;Kleemans, Schlindwein, and Dohmen 2017;McIntyre 2015), whereas the selection of information remains relatively understudied (although see: Meier 2018;Overgaard 2020). ...
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By adopting a scholarly perspective on comparative journalism and intercultural communication, the present study delineates the conceptual common ground in terms of defining constructive journalism (CJ) and lays out the theoretical foundation for further discussion of this practical recontextualization in China’s social and cultural contexts. The indigenous tradition of “public opinion surveillance” (POS) in China is traced out in comparison with the experiment of CJ and its derivatives like public/civic journalism in Western countries. In spite of different news philosophies and media eco-systems, promoting social reform and serving the people or the public constitute the common goals for both Chinese and Western journalists and media professionals. Notably, exploring the theoretical validity and practical applications of CJ and POS would provide a feasible entry point to the cross-cultural dialogue between the East and the West about news media innovation.
... Data menjadi suatu hal yang penting dalam jurnalisme konstruktif. Dalam pemberitaan, perlu ada data untuk mendukung argumentasi (McIntyre & Gyldensted, 2018b). Jadi dalam menyikapi informasi yang mengkhawatirkan, perlu adanya argumentasi dan data yang mendukung untuk menjawab kekhawatiran tersebut dengan sesuatu yang konstruktif. ...
... Di dalam berita disebutkan lockdown total bukan pilihan yang tepat. Jurnalisme konstruktif juga menyebutkan tentang wawancara yang konstruktif (McIntyre & Gyldensted, 2018b). Dalam berita ini disebutkan saran ke depan dalam menyikapi varian baru hasil keterangan menurut pakar. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to review the text of news related to the new variant of Covid-19. This was because in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic news emerged related to new variants of the virus. The discussion focused on written news text related to the new variant of Covid-19 on the news portal okezone.com. This research used the concept of constructive journalism to analyze written news texts. The study used Roland Barthes semiotics to analyze the data. The result of this research was that some written news texts obtained some elements of constructive journalism. Keywords: constructive journalism, Covid-19, semiotics
... La littérature en communication classe le JS sous le parapluie du « journalisme constructif ». Le concept de constructivité en journalisme est peu mentionné au courant du XX e siècle (Chalmers, 1959 ;McIntyre et Gyldensted, 2018), n'étant introduit réellement et défini qu'en 2011 (Gyldensted, 2011 ...
... McIntyre et Gyldensted (2018) définissent le journalisme constructif comme suit : ...
Article
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Cet article présente, pour la première fois, un état des lieux du journalisme de solutions (JS) au Canada. Le JS relève du journalisme constructif. Il emprunte à la psychologie positive pour centrer la couverture journalistique sur les solutions plutôt que sur les problèmes, en conservant un regard critique et en respectant les valeurs traditionnelles du journalisme. Nous avons recensé 17 médias ou initiatives de journalisme de solutions canadiens. Nous affirmons prudemment que la pratique s'avère marginale, mais en émergence. Le JS ne saurait régler certains enjeux urgents menaçant les médias canadiens. Il comporte certaines zones d'interface avec le marketing ou l'activisme. Toutefois, rien n'empêche son mariage au journalisme d'enquête ou son utilisation pour susciter l'engagement du public, notamment dans un contexte local ou hyperlocal. ABSTRACT This paper presents, for the first time, a portrait of solutions journalism (SoJo) in Canada. Solutions journalism borrows from the positive psychology field to center journalism around solutions instead of problems, using a critical approach and staying true to the core values of journalism. We made an inventory of 17 media outlets or initiatives related to solutions journalism in Canada. We carefully state that SoJo practice is, although marginal, gaining traction in Canada. SoJo won't solve the crisis the media is facing and some interfaces with marketing or activism may be of some concern. Anyhow, nothing prevents SoJo and investigative journalism from working hand in hand, or the use of SoJo for a better engagement of the public in a local or hyperlocal setting.
... Some compare it to civic journalism, in that both promote citizen engagement (Loizzo et al., 2017;Midberry and Dahmen, 2017;Wenzel et al., 2017) highlighted its similarities to citizen journalism, because untrained individuals who contribute to the news also appreciate a solution-driven approach. Furthermore, the practice has been thought of as an element of constructive journalism, which involves applying positive psychology techniques to the news process (Loizzo et al., 2017;McIntyre and Gyldensted, 2018). It has also been compared with peace journalism, as both genres challenge conflict as a news value (Midberry and Dahmen, 2017;Thier, 2016;Wenzel et al., 2017). ...
... This idea describes what positive psychology scholars call the well-being model of the world, which includes themes that represent flourishing individuals and societies, and which contrasts with the disease model of the world, which includes negative themes and ideas that relate to unhealthy individuals and societies (Gyldensted, 2011;Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Scholars of constructive journalism, a form that is related to solutions journalism and underpinned by positive psychology argue that journalists spend too much time covering the world of disease and not enough time covering the world of well-being (Gyldensted, 2015;Haagerup, 2015;McIntyre and Gyldensted, 2018). The journalists in this study saw solutions journalism as a way to provide more balanced coverage. ...
Article
Solutions journalism is rigorous news reporting about how people are responding to social problems – a definition used by scholars but formulated by the Solutions Journalism Network, an independent organization that promotes the practice. The approach has a growing appeal in the professional world, but what little exists in academic research fails to offer thorough theoretical and conceptual definitions or a concrete operationalization of the practice. Through in-depth interviews, journalists familiar with solutions journalism offered insights about how to define and measure the practice. Specifically, journalists said solution-oriented news stories contribute to more accurate and balanced news coverage, they are sophisticated and rigorous, and they intend to motivate readers to contribute to societal change. Further findings help distinguish the Solutions Journalism Network’s conceptualization of the concept from how working journalists practice it, particularly in regard to the extent that solutions journalism overlaps with advocacy journalism. Finally, this study offers guidelines for measuring a solutions news story in an effort to spur consistent future research on the effects of the solutions journalism approach.
... Digital journalism also seeks to strengthen trust in a more transparent and involved form of news reporting, although in many cases with significant gaps between theory and practice (Schmidt et al., 2020). In this complex process of adaptation and reinvention, a renewed journalistic identity is emerging (Vos and Ferrucci, 2018) as are new forms of collaborative journalism with other professionals (Gans, 2018), together with more attention to the psychological framework (McIntyre and Gyldensted, 2018). Also evident is that more attention is being paid to human-machine relations in news writing (Lewis et al., 2019), as well as to journalistic friction with advertising and public relations professionals (Hanusch et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The influence of social and technological factors —from the shadow of disinformation to automation and emerging forms of journalism— redefines the role of journalism and its practices. Journalistic metamorphosis has not been traumatic, but it has been complex, leading to tensions, reflections and controversies. The challenges facing journalism during the global pandemic caused by COVID-19 are assessed with a focus on Spain. The research consists of a survey of 197 Spanish journalists and nine interviews with prestigious academics and internationally recognized professionals. Changes within journalism are addressed in five major themes: the role of journalism today; the relationship between journalism and politics; the incidence of bots and artificial intelligence; mobile journalism and social media; and emerging forms of journalism. The results show that the role of journalism remains unchanged, but the pandemic has strengthened some of its functions. The influence of politics in journalism is very prominent, as well as the concern about automation and misinformation. To face the future, high specialization is needed due to the fast technological evolution and the emergence of new techniques. * This work was supported by the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (Government of Spain) and the ERDF structural fund within the research project “Digital native media in Spain: Storytelling formats and mobile strategy” (RTI2018-093346-B-C33).
... An alternative to the present reporting could be to name opportunities and threats in a more balanced way. Another alternative could be to increasingly integrate elements used in constructive journalism, especially the reporting of promising aspects of events and the emphasis on possible solutions to problems (e.g., Kleemans et al. 2017;McIntyre and Gyldensted 2018). ...
Article
Media are a central source from which children and adolescents form their perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes about relevant topics such as flight and migration. However, it is largely unclear how news media for children/adolescents report on migration and refugees, and in which way this reporting differs from reporting of news media produced for adults. Thus, a standardized analysis was conducted of (audio)visual content published in 2018 by nearly 40 German journalistic outlets. News media for children/adolescents (N = 434) and adults (N = 2,626) were analyzed regarding the regional focus of reporting, frame elements, evaluation of immigration, and verbal contributions and characteristics of the refugees reported on. Results show that, on the one hand, the reporting of news media for children/adolescents and adults was similar in many ways. On the other hand, news media for children/adolescents reported to some extent in a more balanced, diverse and reflective manner than those for adults. Thus, the reporting of news media for children/adolescents seems to be better suited for triggering in-depth opinion-formation processes among young people. Moreover, it might contribute better to the integration of (underaged) refugees.
... Amongst professional journalists themselves, constructive journalism arose supplementary to traditional journalism practices. It stresses the importance of having knowledge about the impact of journalism on the audience, based on behavioural sciences like positive psychology (McIntyre and Gyldensted, 2018). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the way people process information after watching constructive news. In this regard, an experiment ( N = 575, 18 – 90 years old) was conducted to investigate how constructive, compared to nonconstructive, news reporting affected information processing (i.e., factual and perceived knowledge) of television news, and whether emotions caused by the news mediated this relation. For this experiment the topics of two socially relevant issues were used; plastic waste in the ocean and the housing market. Results showed that constructive reporting elicited lower levels of negative emotions and higher levels of positive emotions compared to nonconstructive news. Moreover, we found that the mediation of emotions was largely dependent on the topic of the news. While more negative feelings led to more factual knowledge of the housing market topic, an increase of positive emotions led to higher perceived knowledge scores on both the housing market and plastic waste topic. These results stress the importance for both researchers and journalists to balance constructive news elements in news reporting in order to optimize information processing of the audience.
... Kansalaisjournalismi pyrkii vahvistamaan deliberativista yhteisöä. Rakentavan journalismin lähtökohta on positiivisen psykologiaan perustuva havainto siitä, että ratkaisuja sisältävä journalismi synnyttää lukijoissa toimintakykyä (Seligman ja Csikszentmihalyi 2014;McIntyre ja Gyldensted 2018). Dialogi voi auttaa sosiaalisten ongelmien ratkaisussa (Heikka 2017). ...
Article
Journalismi on reagoinut yhteiskunnallisen keskustelun kärjistymiseen luomalla uusia dialogiin perustuvia toimintamalleja. Dialoginen journalismi erottuu tässä tutkimuksessa muista kansalaisjournalismin pohjalta ponnistavista uudistusliikkeistä. Kansalaisjournalismi on pitänyt dialogia esivaiheena punnitsevalle keskustelulle ja demokraattiselle päätöksenteolle. Dialoginen journalismi puolestaan kytkeytyy hetkellisesti irti demokraattisista tavoitteista, kuten deliberaatiosta ja päätöksenteosta, ja suuntaa huomion kokemuspuheen tuottamiseen. Dialoginen journalismi rakentaa eksklusiivisia dialogeja, joiden osallistujat toimitus valitsee. Julkiseen keskusteluun liittyvää puntarointia ja väittelyä lykätään, jotta kaikki valitut osallistujat tulevat kuulluiksi ja erilaiset näkökulmat pääsevät osaksi keskustelua. Artikkelissa tutkitaan laadullisen sisällönanalyysin keinoin neljää dialogista kokeilua: Helsingin Sanomien Suomi puhuu ja Eurooppa puhuu -juttusarjoja, Kutsu Yle kahville -hanketta, ja dialogijournalismin kokeiluja Yhdysvalloissa Time-lehdessä ja Advance Localin paikallisilla uutissivuilla sekä Fresno Bee -lehdessä. Analyysi osoittaa, että hankkeissa käytetään dialogille tyypillisiä toimintatapoja, kuten turvallisen tilan rakentamista ja ohjausta kokemuspuheeseen, keinoina luoda ymmärrystä erilaisten sosiaalisten todellisuuksien välille. Näitä dialogisia tarpeita selitetään Martin Buberin dialogikäsityksellä. Siinä osallistujat pyrkivät kokemuspuheen kautta ennakkoehdoista vapaaseen Minä-Sinä-suhteeseen.
... Because this might negatively affect news audiences, some newsrooms have begun practicing constructive journalism (Aitamurto and Varma 2018;Haagerup 2017;Wagemans, Witschge, and Harbers 2019), which applies "positive psychology techniques to news processes and production in an effort to create productive and engaging coverage while holding true to journalism's core functions" (McIntyre & Gyldensted 2017, p. 23). Newsrooms enact constructive journalism in several ways, including making decisions about the selection, prioritization, and presentation of information (Haagerup 2017;McIntyre and Gyldensted 2018;Skovsgaard and Andersen 2020). Experimental investigations of constructive journalism have mostly focused on how information is presented (Baden, McIntyre, and Homberg 2019;Hermans and Prins 2020;Kleemans, Schlindwein, and Dohmen 2017;McIntyre 2015), whereas the selection of information remains relatively understudied (although see: Kleemans, de Leeuw, et al. 2017;Meier 2018;Overgaard 2020). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic brought along with it concerns about anxiety, racial bias, and pushback against public health recommendations, all of which are intensified by the news and social media. This study investigated the effects of constructive journalism in the context of this crisis, by randomly assigning 492 subjects to view simulated social media news updates with different headlines and images. The results showed positive and constructive headlines led to less anger and anxiety than negative headlines. The sanitization of graphic images decreased anger, anxiety, COVID-19 risk perceptions, and anti-Chinese sentiment—a relationship that was mediated by anger and anxiety. These findings suggest constructive journalism can be useful in times of crisis, and that its visual aspect warrants more scholarly attention. Further, these results shed new light on the effects of news exposure via social media in times of crisis, and how this impact depends on specific attributes of the headlines and images of the content being shared. The findings are discussed in relation to the theory of affective intelligence and recent concerns about how news and social media influence the public in times of crisis.
... Research has also indicated that the tone of news can produce emotional responses in news consumers (de Hoog and Verboon 2020; Baden et al. 2019;Johnston and Davey 1997;Marin et al. 2012;McIntyre and Gibson 2016;McIntyre and Gyldensted 2018;McNaughton-Cassill 2001;Newman et al. 2019;Szabo and Hopkinson 2007). For example, in a recent psychological study of the effect of general news on emotions, de Hoog and Verboon (2020) had 63 American adults report their mood and news exposure five times per day for 10 days. ...
Article
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This study examines Australian teachers (n = 268) and parents’ (n = 206) self-reported perceptions of education news coverage and how the coverage affects them. Overall, the participants reported a perception that news coverage of teachers, schools, the education system and standardised testing was generally negative in tone. Participants reported typically feeling demoralised by negative stories and inspired by positive stories. A high importance was placed upon the public perception of education by participants. However, trust in the media reporting of educational issues was low. An exception to this general pattern of findings was that participants did not place as much importance upon the public perception of standardised testing and reported being less affected by negative or positive stories on that topic compared to the other education aspects. This research is one of the few studies to investigate the potential emotional impact that news coverage of education can have on media consumers.
... While previous research has found that information on sustainability solutions is rarely offered in the news (Bonfadelli, 2009), all frames from the current study elaborated ways to achieve sustainability (see also Table 1). This would have largely been expected, as per constructive journalism's aim to offer a solution-oriented framing to important societal issues (McIntyre & Gyldensted, 2018). Also contrary to previous findings that sustainability solutions tend to be reported "with a negative bias" (Bonfadelli, 2009, p. 275), articles from the present analysis consistently described working examples of possibility and progress regardless of whether solutions focused on market forces, scientific innovation or required rejecting the consumer culture. ...
Article
News reporting on sustainability has been criticized for (1) having a limited coverage of solutions, (2) reporting on solutions with a negative bias, (3) being dominated by sources from government and mainstream business, and (4) promoting frames that prioritize the role of the market and techno-scientific solutions, which leave unchallenged the unsustainable behavior of consumer societies and the focus on economic growth. This study was the first to examine how sustainability is reported in a constructive media outlet and found that articles (1) consistently elaborated solutions, (2) described them in optimistic ways, (3) quoted various sources, and (4) developed a frame that challenged consumerism and critiqued society’s preoccupation with growth while helping to imagine a desirable sustainable future. It is thus argued that this novel, constructive approach to journalism can help move society to a sustainable future by expanding the repertoire of culturally-resonant stories to live by.
Article
With the Joe Biden–Kamala Harris administration working toward the resetting of policies and strategies toward Africa and China, the question of whether African journalists will be accorded a chance to tell an African narrative amid the trilateral relationship has become more apparent. The influence exerted by China in African poses questions of whether China is “constructively” reporting Africa and whether journalists do see themselves as telling an African story. This study interrogates the role of African journalistic paradigms within a broader framework of what it means to constructively report Africa. It argues that despite the overwhelming challenges, the African media can tell its narrative if, (a). it seriously interrogates its journalism education system, (b). focus on in-depth reporting as opposed to efficiency and convenience, and (c). value its epistemologies and localize its content.
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Konstruktive Journalist:innen ergänzen durch ihre Berichterstattung bestehende qualitätsjournalistische Formate, indem sie sich an den Lösungen gesellschaftlich relevanter Konflikte orientieren und Handlungsoptionen aufzeigen. Wie alle Journalist:innen besitzen auch sie ein spezifisches journalistisches Rollenverständnis, das von sozialen und institutionellen Erwartungen sowie den eigenen subjektiven Einstellungen geprägt ist. Insofern gibt es verschiedene konstruktiv-journalistische Rollenverständnisse, die vom Arbeitsumfeld und vom Subjekt selbst abhängen. In dieser Studie lassen sich zwei grundlegende konstruktive Rollentypen unterscheiden, die durch die jeweiligen organisatorischen Strukturen, in denen die Journalist:innen arbeiten, determiniert sind. Journalist:innen, die bei explizit konstruktiven Medienorganisationen arbeiten, weisen ein partizipierendes Rollenverständnis auf, wohingegen öffentlich-rechtliche Journalist:innen das Rollenbild der neutralen Informationsvermittler:innen vertreten. Durch die Kombination aus qualitativer und quantitativer Datenanalyse kann der zweite Typus in ein theoretisches und praktisches Rollenverständnis ausdifferenziert werden.
Article
This paper intends to explore the concept and elements of constructive journalism in the Chinese context through the evolutionary principles and qualities of Chinese earthquake news to discover a future-proof path for constructive journalism. As the research sample, the study selects 35 earthquake news in China that were published between 1966 and 2020. Using the computational communication research paradigm and specific research methods like sentiment analysis, text mining, and econometric statistics, the study analyzes how these articles have changed over time. The research found that the Chinese earthquake news followed the abstract connotation and extension aspects of constructive journalism and had a "National Spirit" topic that differed from Western constructive journalism. From the nebulous "Socialist Spirit" and "Revolutionary Spirit" in the beginning to the symbolic "Anti-earthquake Spirit" and "Tangshan Spirit" in the middle period, and eventually to the distinctive "Disaster Association Community" and "National Community Awareness.” The emergence of the "National Spirit" topic has made it easier for news to switch between positive and negative moods, allowing for more objective and accurate reporting. This makes it possible for news to achieve its objective of promoting positive news and transforming positive feelings into positive action rationale.
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Since the 2010s, a new type of journalism has emerged, especially in North America and Western Europe, called constructive journalism. Its basic idea is to complement classic problem-centered reporting by covering problem-solving approaches that could inspire the recipients. It has been harshly criticized, especially for its alleged proximity to advocacy or activism. To clarify the role orientations of the protagonists of this trend, a survey of all German journalists that call themselves constructive or solution-oriented was conducted (n = 79). The results show that constructive journalists are as diverse in age as the total of all journalists in Germany, but tend to be more women journalists, freelancers, formally higher educated, and politically leaning toward green and left-wing positions. Regarding role orientations, the field of constructive journalism not only represents a new facet of the entire journalistic field but also consists of several nuanced approaches itself: In factor analysis, we found eight role dimensions, of which the most important were the Social Integrator, the Transformation Agent, the Active Watchdog, the Emotional Storyteller, and the Innovation Reporter. In comparison to the average German journalist, the German constructive journalist shows stronger ambitions to control political and business elites, to motivate people to participate, and to contribute to social change. This can be explained as a countermovement not only to a possible negativity bias in the news but also to an increased attitude of detachment in German newsrooms.
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Sažetak: Od 2015. u komunikološkoj teoriji i praksi spominje se fenomen kon-struktivnog novinarstva. Teoretičari su saglasni da je riječ o novosti, no još uvijek postoje terminološke nedoumice kada je u pitanju precizna konceptualizacija ovog pravca. Konstruktivno novinarstvo identifikuje se kao pravac, alat, forma, vrsta, koncept, nova filozofija ili kultura vijesti. U ovom radu izvršena je metateorijska analiza dostupnih kvalitativnih i kvantitativnih znanstvenih istraživanja o konceptu konstruktivnog novinarstva. Ponudili smo jedinstvenu definiciju, karakteristike, ulogu, osnovne principe, specifičnosti u odnosu na ostale novinarske pravce i historijski razvoj konstruktivnog novinarstva. Nazvali smo konstruktivno novinarstvo novom vrstom izvještavanja fokusiranom na pozitivan interpretacijski okvir prožet optimizmom u kojoj novinar nastupa proaktivno i ide dalje od prezentovanja postojećeg problema. U ovoj vrsti izvještavanja novinar pokušava otkriti moguća rješenja i primjere dobrih odgovora na problem koji su negdje već uspješno implementirani, a koji bi se mogli imitirati u konkretnom druš-tvenom kontekstu u sadašnjosti ili budućnosti, te tako odgovara na pitanje Šta dalje. U konačnici ono doprinosi kreiranju nove kulture vijesti u kojoj se definitivno mijenja interpretacijski okvir, ali ne i agenda medijskog izvještavanja. U drugom dijelu rada predstavljeni su rezultati empirijskog istraživanja autorice dobijeni metodama kvan-titativne analize sadržaja i ispitivanja tehnikom pismene ankete. Analiza sadržaja bosanskohercegovačkih medija (N=663) pokazala je da u njima dominira klasični model izvještavanja s fokusom na probleme, s akcentom na konflikt i negativnosti kao ključne vrijednosti vijesti.
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Traditional problem-focussed news often cast audiences in passive and reactive ways, which can disempower them from participating in civic life. With influences from positive psychology, solutions journalism (SOJO) is proposed as a way to improve audiences’ mental wellbeing and engagement with the news. However, research seldom systematically examines how SOJO psychologically empowers audiences, leaving a gap for a more thorough understanding of the potential of SOJO in fulfilling the democratic role of journalism. Drawing on the theory of psychological empowerment (PE) and through 59 in-depth interviews with members of the public in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, we examine UK audience responses to the concept of SOJO. Normatively promising findings emerged from our study. SOJO was considered to be useful in intrapersonal empowerment (i.e., increasing perceived control and self-efficacy), interactional empowerment (i.e., enhancing critical awareness), and behavioural empowerment (i.e., motivating community involvement and coping behaviours). Theoretically, this study establishes a firm connection between SOJO and PE which, we argue, has important implications for journalism’s often troubled relationship with civic engagement. As such, we call for a rethinking of the often taken-for-granted problem-focussed news practices.
Article
Throughout COVID-19, the proliferation of misinformation and the impact of negative news on mental health highlights a tension between news media as a source of essential public health information and news as a source of distress. A suggested approach to reporting which remains informative while tempering audience distress is constructive journalism. We investigated the benefits and applications of constructive news reporting during COVID-19 from the perspectives of journalism professionals interested in constructive approaches. Eleven participants from four continents were interviewed in the first two months of the pandemic. The data were analysed using thematic analysis, and two themes produced: “Sober not sensational” and “What’s positive in a pandemic?” Six subthemes were also produced: “beyond the numbers”, “slower reporting”, “understanding uncertainty”, “solutions”, “we’re all in the same boat” and “awakening”. Constructive approaches were seen to help journalists navigate their roles as educators and to provide hope without inciting undue panic. Our interviews suggest constructive news reporting could assist in balancing informativeness and public mental health throughout the pandemic. More work is needed, however, that incorporates randomised controlled testing to establish whether constructive journalism techniques meaningfully impact audience mental health beyond standard approaches.
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Penelitian ini membahas mengenai Praktik Jurnalisme Konstruktif saat pandemi Covid-19 pada isu moral panic di Indonesia dalam Media Televisi CNN Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan bagaimana CNN Indonesia menerapkan konsep jurnalisme konstruktif pada pemberitaannya selama awal pandemi Covid-19 masuk di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan kerangka analisis framing Robert N. Entman untuk mrengetahui bagaimana media CNN Indonesia Tv dalam menyeleksi dan menonjolkan isu mengenai moral panic Corona di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif dengan pendekatan framing, serta proses pengumpulan datanya menggunakan metode observasi tidak terstruktur dan dokumentasi yang dilakukan pada kanal youtube CNN Indonesia pada periode 2, 3, 4 Maret 2020. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa CNN Indonesia menampilkan isu moral panic akibat corona di Indonesia itu sebagai isu yang tidak patut untuk ditakutkan secara berlebihan. Dalam memberitakan isu moral panic akibat corona di Indonesia, CNN Indonesia juga telah menerapkan Jurnalisme Konstruktif melalui informasi-informasi yang berorientasi solusi, bagaimana mencegah dan menghadapi virus corona baik pada saat itu dan dalam jangka waktu panjang. CNN juga berusaha melakukan edukasi terhadap masyarakat mengenai tindakan yang perlu dilakukan dan tidak boleh dilakukan di saat pandemi corona, karena itu sangat berpengaruh bagi situasi dan kondisi dalam masyarakat akibat trend hoax dan gaduh yang bermunculan.
Article
An informed electorate is vital for a well-functioning democracy. Yet many citizens intentionally avoid the news because it evokes negative feelings of disempowerment and distrust. This study ( n = 270) investigated how social media exposure to a new journalistic approach, constructive journalism, influences news consumers. The results showed that constructive social media posts, as compared to negative posts, led to higher levels of positive affect, self-efficacy, and perceived news credibility. In line with the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the effects on self-efficacy and news credibility were mediated by positive affect. A similar mediating role was found for negative affect, counter to the theoretical expectations. These findings shed new light on the broaden-and-build theory, suggesting parts of it generalize to the context of news exposure on social media. The findings also suggest that constructive journalism may be an effective way to mitigate some of the main drivers of news avoidance in the 21st century.
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Handbook for journalism educators; teaching the reporting on matters that concern migrants, refugees and their host communities. 13 modules, based on research, advised by teaching journalism students and aimed at improving the reporting.
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Zusammenfassung Konstruktiver Journalismus ist eine relativ neue Form des Journalismus mit dem Ziel, die aktuell überwiegend negativ orientierte Medienberichterstattung durch lösungsorientierte Elemente zu ergänzen. Mithilfe von Techniken der positiven Psychologie sollen dem Publikum gesellschaftlich relevante Informationen vermittelt werden, um zu einer mündigen Bevölkerung beizutragen. Dabei nimmt die Stärkung prosozialer Verhaltensintentionen eine zentrale Rolle ein. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, inwieweit der konstruktive Journalismus dem eigenen Anspruch einer Förderung proaktiver Verhaltensweisen gerecht wird. In einer experimentellen Befragung wurden prosoziale Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen, motivationale Faktoren und direkte Verhaltensintentionen untersucht. Die Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass prosoziale Verhaltensintentionen durch die Rezeption konstruktiver Nachrichten gestärkt werden. Ein signifikanter Zusammenhang zwischen der Rezeption konstruktiver Nachrichten und einer gesteigerten Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung ließ sich nicht erkennen.
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COVID-19 has provoked fears that the heavy reporting of pandemic developments may cause climate change to slip from public attention. Views have also converged that the focus should be on the positive lessons of COVID-19 for addressing climate change. This paper examined Guardian Online and Positive News to identify examples of good practice in reporting the synergistic effects of climate change and COVID-19, as both are committed to covering climate change and practice solutions-oriented constructive journalism that provides context by explaining relations between issues. The study sought to identify the types of synergistic effects that were reported and how they were reported through metaphors-key conceptualisation tools. Analysis of 153 news articles published in the first year of the pandemic showed that the coverage of synergistic effects was solutions-oriented and synergistic effects were discussed mainly through Movement and Colour metaphors-particularly the colour Green. War metaphors which have dominated reporting when climate change and COVID-19 have been discussed separately were rare. Reliance on Movement and Colour metaphors can be interpreted as a positive practice, as Movement metaphors are familiar, vivid and more flexible than War metaphors, while Green metaphors are closely associated with environmentalism and have positive connotations.
Article
By examining the history of the Chinese journalism and typical cases in this field since reform and opening up, this paper analyzes from a historical perspective how the Chinese press has played a constructive role, and how it has changed in parallel with media evolution and technological progress. The “constructiveness” of the Chinese press is manifested as follows: directly participating in public governance through collaboration with the government; supervising public power by starting from and aiming at finding solutions to problems; actively intervening in and helping address issues about people’s livelihood with well-planned news reports and relevant activities; mobilizing and organizing the public with constantly updated strategies and methods; and establishing think tanks to extend its services to society. Faced with both societal and industry crises, the Chinese press needs to explore new means to give full play to its constructive role.
Article
В данной статье рассматривается новая концепция – конструктивная журналистика. Приверженцы этого направления предполагают, что на общество позитивно влияют публикации материалов, не только описывающие общественные проблемы, но и предлагающие пути их решения. Таким образом медиаисследователи и журналисты-практики в европейских странах обозначают новое определение функций и задач журналистики, тогда как традиционные формы практики испытывают кризис. В работе предпринята попытка объяснить причины возникновения данного направления и сравнить его с другими тенденциями журналистской деятельности.
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This study examined instructor and learner experiences in a Journalism for Social Change (JSC) Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) designed to introduce learners around the world to constructive, solutions-based journalism techniques, as well as engage learners in developing news stories promoting positive change about critical child welfare (CW) issues. Mixed-methods were used to identify five themes across instructor and learner experiences. Results suggest MOOCs have the potential to increase learners’ journalism content knowledge and to mobilize citizen journalists around social justice topics impacting communities. This study adds to an ongoing body of work investigating MOOC design for changing attitudes.
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A partir de uma visão politizada da mudança climática, este trabalho critica o jornalismo convencional por falhar em promover um debate agonístico e democrático sobre como seguir em frente. Com base em uma busca direcionada por exemplos nas reportagens (e respectiva reflexão) de dois sites de notícia alternativos em língua holandesa (DeWereldMorgen e De Correspondent), nós buscamos ilustrar como seus respectivos jornalistas (do clima) buscam a verdade, geram debate democrático e responsabilizam o poder combinando práticas do jornalismo construtivo, do slow journalism (“jornalismo desacelerado”) e da advocacia jornalística. Nós consideramos que esses jornalistas se focam em padrões, causas e valores subjacentes, ao invés de novidades ou eventos excepcionais. Além disso, denuncia-se explicitamente um estilo de comunicação imparcial e neutro em favor de uma escolha aberta e reflexiva de produção de notícias baseada na advocacia.
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This article reports key findings from a comparative survey of the role perceptions, epistemological orientations and ethical views of 1800 journalists from 18 countries. The results show that detachment, non-involvement, providing political information and monitoring the government are considered essential journalistic functions around the globe. Impartiality, the reliability and factualness of information, as well as adherence to universal ethical principles are also valued worldwide, though their perceived importance varies across countries. Various aspects of interventionism, objectivism and the importance of separating facts from opinion, on the other hand, seem to play out differently around the globe. Western journalists are generally less supportive of any active promotion of particular values, ideas and social change, and they adhere more to universal principles in their ethical decisions. Journalists from non-western contexts, on the other hand, tend to be more interventionist in their role perceptions and more flexible in their ethical views.
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The phenomenon of citizen journalism and the wider trend of user generated content are creating new challenges and opportunities for mainstream media. Traditional news media, like newspapers, tend to show increasing interest in the ways in which user generated content can be integrated into the professional news making process. Yet, scarce but growing research on participatory journalism suggests that the adoption of user generated content in the newsroom is hindered by several contextual factors on different levels of the newsroom organisation. By taking a social constructivist approach to examine the development of participatory journalism, we have tried to gain a better understanding of what these factors are and how they shape the adoption of user generated content. Empirical evidence was sought through twenty semi- structured interviews with the newsroom staff of two Belgian newspapers and one local community website. One of our main conclusions is that participatory journalism is developing rather sluggishly; however this is often due to newsroom structures, work routines and professional beliefs rather than unwillingness among professionals to open up the news production process to user contributions.
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This study aims to shed light on the news selection process by examining the news values currently operational in British newspapers. The study takes as its starting point Galtung and Ruge's widely cited taxonomy of news values established in their 1965 study and puts these criteria to the test in an empirical analysis of news published in three national daily UK newspapers. A review of Galtung and Ruge's original study as well as a wider review of related literature is provided. The findings of the news content analysis are used to evaluate critically Galtung and Ruge's original criteria and to propose a contemporary set of news values.
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This article is a contribution to the debate on audience participation in online media with a twofold aim: (1) making conceptual sense of the phenomenon of participatory journalism in the framework of journalism research, and (2) determining the forms that it is taking in eight European countries and the United States. First, participatory journalism is considered in the context of the historical evolution of public communication. A methodological strategy for systematically analysing citizen participation opportunities in the media is then proposed and applied. A sample of 16 online newspapers offers preliminary data that suggest news organisations are interpreting online user participation mainly as an opportunity for their readers to debate current events, while other stages of the news production process are closed to citizen involvement or controlled by professional journalists when participation is allowed. However, different strategies exist among the studied sample, and contextual factors should be considered in further research.
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In this paper we suggest a way to measure the well-being of society based upon our own development of the Social Quality model. The Social Quality model has the advantage of being sociologically grounded as a measure of the well-being of society and the individuals within it. We test our model of Social Quality against life satisfaction as an indicator of how successful it is in delivering these aspirations. The model was tested on all European countries using the European Quality of Life Surveys in 2003 and 2007 and was found to explain a large amount of variance, which was consistent across time and space. We suggest that it is possible to operationalise this model using small number of variables, ones that are frequently used in comparative surveys and this should enable the quality of society to be measured in a parsimonious and effective way.
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How and why do moral judgments vary across the political spectrum? To test moral foundations theory (J. Haidt & J. Graham, 2007; J. Haidt & C. Joseph, 2004), the authors developed several ways to measure people's use of 5 sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. Across 4 studies using multiple methods, liberals consistently showed greater endorsement and use of the Harm/care and Fairness/reciprocity foundations compared to the other 3 foundations, whereas conservatives endorsed and used the 5 foundations more equally. This difference was observed in abstract assessments of the moral relevance of foundation-related concerns such as violence or loyalty (Study 1), moral judgments of statements and scenarios (Study 2), "sacredness" reactions to taboo trade-offs (Study 3), and use of foundation-related words in the moral texts of religious sermons (Study 4). These findings help to illuminate the nature and intractability of moral disagreements in the American "culture war."
Book
The news media is traditionally the watchdog of democracy. Today, it is also one of the most pervasive global industries. In this lively and accessible book, Schultz systematically analyses the role of journalism in Australia and the scope of its democratic purpose. She examines key news stories, and looks at the attitudes of Australian journalists themselves. The fourth estate remains the ideal of most journalists, but the reality has been impaired by the increasing concentration of media ownership and by political, ethical and occupational interests. While Australian journalism has become bolder and more investigative, increasing commercialism and decreasing ethical standards have left the public sceptical. Schultz argues for a revival of the fourth estate based on journalistic independence and poltical autonomy, together with increased accountability and responsiveness.
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We propose to expand the boundaries of the news process by introducing, defining and subsequently coining the interdisciplinary concept of constructive journalism as an emerging form of journalism that involves applying positive psychology techniques to news processes and production in an effort to create productive and engaging coverage, while holding true to journalism’s core functions. First, we review the critical issues in journalism that highlight the need for this approach. Next, we coin constructive journalism and situate the concept in the field. Finally, we outline techniques by which constructive journalism can be practiced, including the psychological frameworks supporting these applications. Overall, this essay suggests a needed direction for journalism by means of constructive reporting which aims to positively impact journalism’s diminished reputation and weary news audiences.
Article
This article begins by describing the recently created classifications of elements of constructive journalism and present examples of the media profession applying these elements. Constructive journalism draws on behavioural sciences, specifically positive psychology. From this, it is assumed that including constructive elements such as solution orientation, future orientation, depolarising techniques and seeking co-creation with the public contribute to the well-being of individuals as well as society. Following a public-oriented perspective, audience research is performed to understand how people value the incorporation of constructive elements in the news. Using an online survey, data were gathered from 3263 people in the Netherlands, aged 20–65. Results show an overall positive valuation, with some constructive elements appreciated more than others. Age, educational background and news interest seem to play a role in the nature of this valuation. Constructive journalism is steadily finding its way into journalism practice. There are also indications that people value news that incorporates constructive elements. It is important to further develop and define the concept in the coming years.
Article
This experiment examined the impact of photo–text congruency regarding solutions journalism. We tested the effects of solution and conflict-oriented news stories when the photo paired with the story was congruent or incongruent with the narrative. Results revealed that a solution-oriented story with a congruent photo made readers feel the most positive, but surprisingly readers were most interested in the story and reported the strongest behavioral intentions when the story was paired with a neutral photo.
Article
This study adds visual analysis to the body of work on solutions journalism. Guided by visual theory focusing on the dominating nature of messages included in visual content versus text, we use content analysis to explore the use of photos in solutions-oriented news stories, specifically to see whether the photos published alongside solutions-based news stories also represent solutions or whether they portray an incongruent message. Among our results, we found photos reflect the solution depicted in the story only 63.5 percent of the time. Photos taken by an internal source (e.g. staff photographer) are more likely to depict the solution than if obtained by an external source (e.g. wire service). In addition, the higher the emotional appeal and positive emotion found in the photo, the higher the likelihood that the photo reflects a solution. A contradictory visual may complicate the message of the solutions in the story. Our findings suggest more emphasis must be placed on the study of visuals as they relate to solutions journalism, and on the selection of photos to accompany solutions-oriented stories.
Article
The media contribute to compassion fatigue—or public apathy toward human tragedy—in part by failing to present solutions to the social problems ubiquitous in today’s conflict-based news coverage. Some journalists have attempted to address this issue through a style of news labeled solutions journalism. This experiment tests the effects of this increasingly popular approach. Results revealed that discussing an effective solution to a social problem in a news story caused readers to feel less negative and to report more favorable attitudes toward the news article and toward solutions to the problem than when no solution or an ineffective solution was mentioned. Reading about an effective solution did not, however, impact on readers’ behavioral intentions or actual behaviors. This suggests that solution-based journalism might mitigate some harmful effects of negative, conflict-based news, but might not inspire action.
Article
Contextual journalism calls for depth of news reporting rather than “just the facts.” A national survey of local television (TV) journalists indicated the increasing popularity of this more comprehensive reporting form. Although news sociologists contend that local TV routines facilitate the production of quick, less substantive stories, TV respondents in the present study highly valued comprehensive, contextual news styles—even more than newspaper journalists. Building on the work of Weaver and colleagues’ “American Journalist” project, TV news workers in this survey preferred contextual roles, such as alerting the public of potential threats and acting in a socially responsible way, but also valued traditional broadcasting roles, such as getting information to the public quickly. TV news roles were compared to those of newspaper journalists to analyze how professionals in different media view their work identities.
Article
For a well-functioning democracy, it is crucial that children consume news. However, news can elicit overly negative emotions and discourage engagement in children. The question, therefore, is how news can be adapted to children's sensitivities and needs but can still inform them. This study investigated whether constructive reporting (solution-based narratives including positive emotions) in news about negative events improved emotional responses and encouraged engagement (intention and inspiration to engage). In an experiment, 8–13-year-olds (N = 332) read a story containing either constructive elements or not. Constructive news elicited lower levels of negative emotional responses and provided more inspiration for engagement than nonconstructive news. These promising findings open doors for follow-up investigations regarding constructive news reporting, also among adult audiences.
Article
In 1994 Rwanda, some journalists used their power for evil when government-run media houses perpetrated genocide through what scholars termed “hate media.” Since then, however, Rwanda’s media landscape has changed dramatically and the country has seen tremendous social and economic progress. Building on the tenets of social responsibility and framing theories and on literature regarding journalistic role functions, this study utilized qualitative interviews with Rwandan journalists to discover how they view their roles today and whether they have contributed to the reconstruction and recovery of the country by practicing constructive journalism. In keeping with the social responsibility theory of the press, constructive journalism calls for the news media to be an active participant in enhancing societal well-being. Results revealed that while journalists in Rwanda aim to fulfill traditional roles like informing and educating the public, they value a unique role to promote unity and reconciliation. They carry out this role by regularly practicing constructive journalism techniques, such as solutions journalism and restorative narrative, which involve reporting on stories that foster hope, healing, and resilience, and they strongly believe that this style of reporting has contributed to the country’s post-genocide reconstruction.
Article
Despite the well-established power of the media to shape public perceptions of social problems, compassion fatigue is believed to remain prevalent. So what does it take for someone to be compelled to act after reading a story or seeing an image of a prominent issue? This study, a 3-by-2 between subjects experiment, examined the effects of two journalistic techniques — shocking audiences into action with offensive stories or inspiring them to act with solution-based stories-in the context of sex trafficking. Results revealed that neither shock nor solutions stories led to increased empathy for trafficked individuals, greater understanding of the issue, increased desire to share the story or increased desire to act, but that readers of solutions stories felt more positive and were more likely to read similar stories about the issue. This suggests that solution-focused news stories might be at least somewhat more engaging than shocking and offensive stories.
Article
A survey (N = 1318) evaluated US newspaper journalists’ attitudes toward contextual reporting – stories that go beyond the immediacy of the news and contribute to societal well-being. Results indicated that journalists highly value professional roles associated with contextual reporting. Responses revealed new journalistic role functions, including the ‘Contextualist’, who placed high value on being socially responsible and accurately portraying the world. Analyses showed that younger journalists and female journalists highly valued three genres of contextual reporting: constructive journalism, solutions journalism, and restorative narrative. Additionally, a journalist’s belief in activist values such as setting the political agenda and pointing to possible solutions predicted more favorable views of all three forms of contextual journalism, while belief in an adversarial attitude predicted less favorable views of restorative narrative.
Article
As journalism schools continue to respond to industry disruption, some are adding curricula about practices that reframe traditional journalism. In this article, I examined experiences of some of the first university instructors of solutions journalism—critical reporting on responses to social problems—to explore the opportunities and challenges of initial coursework implementation. Using the nominal group technique and interpretative phenomenological analysis, I found two themes: (a) solutions journalism courses inspire and (b) teaching an emerging practice within an established field. Findings suggest this pedagogy is important as disruption continues and need increases to find effective journalism practices and education strategies.
Article
A recently labeled genre of journalistic storytelling, termed “restorative narratives,” intends to cover the story beyond the immediacy of the breaking news, and in doing so, to help individuals and communities move forward in the wake of large-impact events. Specifically, this research emphasizes visual reporting, which functions both effectively and in concert with the tenets of restorative narrative. Through photographic analysis and in-depth interviews with visual journalists, the study concludes that visual restorative narrative can potentially provide a venue for the professional photojournalist that is beyond the scope of what can be accomplished with citizen-provided content. And, in doing so, restorative narrative can indeed be a future—and thus a sustaining value—for visual journalism. © ,Copyright Visual Communication Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Communication.
Chapter
China’s quest to improve its international image has increased exponentially in the last decade through cultural diplomacy and the media. In recent years, both state-owned and private Chinese media have been increasingly visible in Africa, with the aim to further strengthen the understandings between China and the African continent, and to be the alternative but authentic storytellers of China and Africa in what Guo Zhenzi and Lye Liang Fook (2011) describe as a “Going Out Campaign” aimed at extending China’s soft power. Therefore, rather than simply rebutting the Western media’s overly critical and biased reporting of Sino-African relations, China’s state-led media are making efforts to produce their own content for African consumption. China’s expanding media presence is an exercise in soft power to increase international influence, and the Chinese government hopes to shape and construct the narrative that tells the story of China in Africa from a Chinese perspective, and also for the more balanced story of Africa to be told to China and the rest of the world (Li, 2013).
Book
Positive psychology exploded into public consciousness ten years ago and has continued to capture attention around the world ever since. The movement promised to study positive human nature, using only the most rigorous scientific tools and theories. How well has this promise been fulfilled? This book evaluates the first decade of this fledgling field of study from the perspective of nearly every leading researcher in the field. Scholars in the areas of social, personality, clinical, biological, emotional, and applied psychology take stock of their fields, while bearing in mind the original manifesto and goals of the positive psychology movement. Chapters provide honest, critical evaluations of the flaws and untapped potential of these various fields of study. The chapters design the optimal future of positive psychology by addressing gaps, biases, and methodological limitations, and exploring exciting new questions.
Article
This article explores De Correspondent as a specific example of slow journalism that aims to establish an alternative for quality journalism governed by the objectivity regime. It offers an analysis of the way the platform redefines journalism’s quality standards against the background of the tension between traditional modernistic claims to truth and competing postmodern ideas on the social construction of knowledge. Moreover, the article examines how these ideals are translated into journalistic texts. The article argues that both in its rhetoric and in its actual practice, the articles in De Correspondent deviate from the principles of quality journalism under the objectivity regime. They are structured around the mediating subjectivity of the journalists and are thus openly subjective. Yet, they also draw on empirical research and scientific knowledge. Moreover, they are transparent about the reporting process, which through their reflection becomes an integral part of the story itself. Thus, being transparent about their combination of different forms of knowledge, rooted in more traditional rational-positivistic inquiry as well as in personal experience and emotion, they try to reconcile the tension between the modernist and postmodernist claims to truth.
Chapter
It is useful to remember occasionally that life unfolds as a chain of subjective experiences. Whatever else life might be, the only evidence we have of it, the only direct data to which we have access, is the succession of events in consciousness. The quality of these experiences determines whether and to what extent life was worth living. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights reserved.
Article
Consuming and producing news reports have a substantial negative emotional impact on both users and journalism professionals. This is a concern for both the journalism profession and for society. Does positive reporting and positivity have a place within already existing foundational values and ethics in journalism? Key findings from positive psychology may be particularly relevant to media workplaces. To test this notion in the realm of news reporting, 710 participants completed an online experiment. Participants read a negatively valenced classic style news story and one of five experimentally manipulated variants, which drew on positive psychology principles to slightly alter the language and emotional valence. Participants completed measures of affect and offered impressions of the media. Across participants, affect significantly declined after reading the classic story. Results support the detrimental impact of classic-style news reports, and suggest that it may take multiple positive news stories to counter the emotional impact of a single negative story. Some positive versions proved more effectual for inducing positive emotion, whilst still being viewed as fair and balanced reporting. Despite strong core ethics in journalism of minimizing harm, news reporting is often more focused on repairing damage, thus promoting a disease model of human functioning and negatively affecting human flourishing. However, news media has strong potential for innovation by drawing on the principles of positive psychology. This potential is described and concrete suggestions given.
Article
The rise of user-generated content (UGC) is often thought to blur further the distinction between (media) producers and (media) consumers. Many media organizations, in particular newspapers, have developed extensive sections of their Web pages based on UGC. But there is still relatively little discussion of the exact relationship between producing and consuming in these sections. What is being produced and what is being consumed? Does the blurring of the producerÁconsumer represent a real shift in power away from traditional media/news organizations, or is the rise of UGC just a way for newspapers to get content produced ''for free''? This article analyses UGC provision in two tabloid newspapers, The Sun (UK) and Aftonbladet (Sweden)*both newspapers generally considered to be very successful in terms of their online presence*by comparing (1) the levels of involvement required by users, (2) the types of content produced, and (3) the modes of production used. The results show that both tabloids are similar in that they provide users with the opportunity to generate mostly popular culture-oriented content and personal/everyday life-oriented content, but little or no opportunity to generate news/information-oriented content.
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Prospection (Gilbert & Wilson, 2007), the representation of possible futures, is a ubiquitous feature of the human mind. Much psychological theory and practice, in contrast, has understood human action as determined by the past and viewed any such teleology (selection of action in light of goals) as a violation of natural law because the future cannot act on the present. Prospection involves no backward causation; rather, it is guidance not by the future itself but by present, evaluative representations of possible future states. These representations can be understood minimally as "If X, then Y" conditionals, and the process of prospection can be understood as the generation and evaluation of these conditionals. We review the history of the attempt to cast teleology out of science, culminating in the failures of behaviorism and psychoanalysis to account adequately for action without teleology. A wide range of evidence suggests that prospection is a central organizing feature of perception, cognition, affect, memory, motivation, and action. The authors speculate that prospection casts new light on why subjectivity is part of consciousness, what is "free" and "willing" in "free will," and on mental disorders and their treatment. Viewing behavior as driven by the past was a powerful framework that helped create scientific psychology, but accumulating evidence in a wide range of areas of research suggests a shift in framework, in which navigation into the future is seen as a core organizing principle of animal and human behavior. © The Author(s) 2013.
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Past models of norms in news reporting have been characterized by the particular geographical and historical, practical and theoretical context from which they have been constructed. This has limited their interdisciplinary applicability and, in the light of normative developments in recent years, it has become increasingly clear that we need a more contemporary explanatory model to capture current developments on both sides of the Atlantic. Such a normative model - drawing on the dichotomies of active or passive journalism, and deliberative or representative journalism - is introduced in this article. This model can be used as an analytical tool by researchers and as an operational tool by news providers with a need for a normative navigation instrument, and as such it may help create or reshape a common culture between two increasingly interrelated professions: news reporters and researchers.
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The rise of user-generated content (UGC) is often thought to blur further the distinction between (media) producers and (media) consumers. Many media organizations, in particular newspapers, have developed extensive sections of their Web pages based on UGC. But there is still relatively little discussion of the exact relationship between producing and consuming in these sections. What is being produced and what is being consumed? Does the blurring of the producer-consumer represent a real shift in power away from traditional media/news organizations, or is the rise of UGC just a way for newspapers to get content produced “for free”? This article analyses UGC provision in two tabloid newspapers, The Sun (UK) and Aftonbladet (Sweden)—both newspapers generally considered to be very successful in terms of their online presence—by comparing (1) the levels of involvement required by users, (2) the types of content produced, and (3) the modes of production used. The results show that both tabloids are similar in that they provide users with the opportunity to generate mostly popular culture-oriented content and personal/everyday life-oriented content, but little or no opportunity to generate news/information-oriented content.
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Lays out the basic components of hopeful thought. In brief, hope is a type of goal-directed thinking in which the protagonists perceive themselves as being capable of producing routes to desired goals, along with the motivations to initiate and sustain usage of those routes. Thus, hope is about pathways and agency. This chapter traces how hope theory developed, and contrasts it with other theories of hope that emerged during the general period from 1960 to 2000. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Journalism as it is currently practiced — conveying information, often with questionable objectivity — has contributed to the crisis in our public life. A middle ground exists between disinterest and activism by which the profession can assist in the replenishment of civic capital.
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Drawing from cognitive response models of persuasion, functional emotion theories, and theoretical and empirical work on the influence of message-relevant and message-irrelevant affect on attitudes, this paper presents a model of persuasion that suggests that discrete, message-induced negative emotions influence attitudes through a complex process that centers around the notions of motivated attention and motivated processing. Emotion type, expectation of the message containing reassuring information, argument strength, presence of peripheral cues, emotional intensity, and emotion placement within a message are expected to mediate information processing depth, message acceptance or rejection, and information recall. This model attempts to bridge the gap between the “emotional” and “rational” approaches to persuasion, and it extends current theorizing in the area of emotion and attitude change by (a) linking the concepts of motivated attention and motivated processing to that of expectation of message reassurance, and (b) considering the persuasive effects of negative emotions other than fear, like anger, disgust, sadness, and guilt.
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This paper tests the proposition that a free press may be a powerful control on corruption. We find evidence of a significant relationship between more press freedom and less corruption in a large cross-section of countries. This result is robust to specification and sample and the relationship is not sensitive to the choice of a particular measure of corruption or of press freedom. Furthermore we present evidence which suggests that the direction of causation runs from higher press freedom to lower corruption.
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Every question asked by a therapist may be seen to embody some intent and to arise from certain assumptions. Many questions are intended to orient the therapist to the client's situation and experiences; others are asked primarily to provoke therapeutic change. Some questions are based on lineal assumptions about the phenomena being addressed; others are based on circular assumptions. The differences among these questions are not trivial. They tend to have dissimilar effects. This article explores these issues and offers a framework for distinguishing four major groups of questions. The framework may be used by therapists to guide their decision making about what kinds of questions to ask, and by researchers to study different interviewing styles.
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The broaden-and-build theory describes the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment and love. A key proposition is that these positive emotions broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire: joy sparks the urge to play, interest sparks the urge to explore, contentment sparks the urge to savour and integrate, and love sparks a recurring cycle of each of these urges within safe, close relationships. The broadened mindsets arising from these positive emotions are contrasted to the narrowed mindsets sparked by many negative emotions (i.e. specific action tendencies, such as attack or flee). A second key proposition concerns the consequences of these broadened mindsets: by broadening an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire--whether through play, exploration or similar activities--positive emotions promote discovery of novel and creative actions, ideas and social bonds, which in turn build that individual's personal resources; ranging from physical and intellectual resources, to social and psychological resources. Importantly, these resources function as reserves that can be drawn on later to improve the odds of successful coping and survival. This chapter reviews the latest empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory and draws out implications the theory holds for optimizing health and well-being.