Article

Adaptive Significance of Female Physical Attractiveness: Role of Waist-to-Hip Ratio

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Abstract

Evidence is presented showing that body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is correlated with youthfulness, reproductive endocrinologic status, and long-term health risk in women. Three studies show that men judge women with low WHR as attractive. Study 1 documents that minor changes in WHRs of Miss America winners and Playboy playmates have occurred over the past 30-60 years. Study 2 shows that college-age men find female figures with low WHR more attractive, healthier, and of greater reproductive value than figures with a higher WHR. In Study 3, 25- to 85-year-old men were found to prefer female figures with lower WHR and assign them higher ratings of attractiveness and reproductive potential. It is suggested that WHR represents an important bodily feature associated with physical attractiveness as well as with health and reproductive potential. A hypothesis is proposed to explain how WHR influences female attractiveness and its role in mate selection.

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... Because women's fertility declines sharply as a function of age, men tend to have a preference for younger women whose fertility peaks around the early and mid-20s (Dunson, Colombo, & Baird, 2002). The physical features that men find attractive in women (e.g., firm skin, long and luscious hair, and low waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) are predictive of their health and fertility (e.g., Buss & Schmitt, 1993;Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002;Singh, 1993). ...
... The hourglass shape (i.e., WHR; Singh, 1993) and body mass (indexed by the body mass index [BMI]; measured by weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) have been argued to hold reliable information about a woman's reproductive condition. There is some debate with regard to the relative importance of BMI and WHR for women's attractiveness. ...
... This competitive pressure arises from the threat of losing out in the mating game. Whereas WHRs are largely influenced by estrogen levels (Cashdan, 2008;Singh, 1993), thinness not only may be influenced by hormones but also may be controllable to some extent through dieting. As such, women may have evolved to be sensitive to perceptions of premature obesity and to strive for being as thin as or thinner than the young female competitors in their environment (Abed, 1998). ...
Chapter
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Intrasexual competition is a key component of sexual selection. Evolutionarily, women compete for access to and retention of mates on key dimensions that men have evolved to value and prioritize in their long-and short-term mates, in particular physical attractiveness. Such competition evolved to be adaptive in ancestral environments as the perceived competition consisted of real individuals. However, underlying psychological mechanisms for competition are excessively triggered and more continuously engaged in modern environments, because these psychological mechanisms for social comparison and competition, at a deep level, do not differentiate between real people and imagined intrasexual competition in the form of mass media images. Utilizing an evolutionary mismatch framework, this chapter explores ways that women are psychologically influenced by the pervasive presence of virtual same-sex competitors for mates. Various negative psychological states in modern societies (e.g., depression, eating disorders) may be linked to virtual intrasexual competition.
... A robust literature supports this notion that social perceivers use women's body shapes when making certain inferences about them. Specifically, women with significant gluteofemoral (but little abdominal) fat-that is, with lower waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs)-are deemed more physically attractive Marlowe et al., 2005;Pawłowski & Dunbar, 2005;Singh, 1993;Singh & Luis, 1995;Sugiyama, 2004;Tovée et al., 1999). This effect is cross-cultural and somewhat robust against fat amount (e.g., Lassek & Gaulin, 2018a, 2018bSingh & Luis, 1995;Sugiyama, 2004) such that even higher BMI bodies are often found physically attractive when fat is distributed in this way, thereby underscoring the importance of body shape in social perception. ...
... This latter figure is included to reflect the traditional depictions of obesity in existing scales (e.g., Gardner & Brown, 2010;Gardner et al., 2009;Harris et al., 2008;Robinette et al., 2002;Stunkard et al., 1983;Swami et al., 2008). 4 Targets with gluteofemoral fat were also designed to have some additional fat in the "chest" area as well, given work on WHR and shape, wherein such fats are often concomitant (Dixson, et al., , 2011Dixson, Sagata, et al., 2010;Singh, 1993Singh, , 1994. 5 For ease of describing results, we refer to such targets simply as having gluteofemoral fat. ...
... Even when controlling for body size, people stigmatized higher weight women more when those women carried abdominal versus gluteofemoral fat. This effect accords with implications derived from biological, medical, and evolutionary social science work on fats (e.g., Andrews et al., 2017;Frisch, 2004;Jasienska, 2013;Singh, 1993). Although not previously shown in empirical work, this finding might also be viewed as reflecting women's lived experiences and/or intuitions; women have long considered shape to an important factor affecting appearance perceptions (e.g., Stevens, 1995;Tovar, 2012). ...
Article
Heavier bodies—particularly female bodies—are stigmatized. Such fat stigma is pervasive, painful to experience, and may even facilitate weight gain, thereby perpetuating the weight-stigma cycle. Leveraging research on functionally distinct forms of fat (deposited on different parts of the body), we propose that body shape plays an important but largely underappreciated role in fat stigma, above and beyond fat amount. Across three samples varying in participant ethnicity (White and Black Americans) and nation (United States, India), patterns of fat stigma reveal that, as hypothesized, participants differently stigmatized equally overweight or equally obese female targets as a function of target shape, sometimes even more strongly stigmatizing targets with less rather than more body mass. Such findings suggest value in updating our understanding of fat stigma to include body shape and in querying a predominating, but often implicit, theoretical assumption that people simply view all fat as ‘bad’ (and more fat as ‘worse’).
... A robust literature supports this notion that social perceivers use women's body shapes when making certain inferences about them. Specifically, women with significant gluteofemoral (but little abdominal) fat-that is, with lower waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs)-are deemed more physically attractive Marlowe et al., 2005;Pawłowski & Dunbar, 2005;Singh, 1993;Singh & Luis, 1995;Sugiyama, 2004;Tovée et al., 1999). This effect is cross-cultural and somewhat robust against fat amount (e.g., Lassek & Gaulin, 2018a, 2018bSingh & Luis, 1995;Sugiyama, 2004) such that even higher BMI bodies are often found physically attractive when fat is distributed in this way, thereby underscoring the importance of body shape in social perception. ...
... This latter figure is included to reflect the traditional depictions of obesity in existing scales (e.g., Gardner & Brown, 2010;Gardner et al., 2009;Harris et al., 2008;Robinette et al., 2002;Stunkard et al., 1983;Swami et al., 2008). 4 Targets with gluteofemoral fat were also designed to have some additional fat in the "chest" area as well, given work on WHR and shape, wherein such fats are often concomitant (Dixson, et al., , 2011Dixson, Sagata, et al., 2010;Singh, 1993Singh, , 1994. 5 For ease of describing results, we refer to such targets simply as having gluteofemoral fat. ...
... Even when controlling for body size, people stigmatized higher weight women more when those women carried abdominal versus gluteofemoral fat. This effect accords with implications derived from biological, medical, and evolutionary social science work on fats (e.g., Andrews et al., 2017;Frisch, 2004;Jasienska, 2013;Singh, 1993). Although not previously shown in empirical work, this finding might also be viewed as reflecting women's lived experiences and/or intuitions; women have long considered shape to an important factor affecting appearance perceptions (e.g., Stevens, 1995;Tovar, 2012). ...
Preprint
Heavier bodies—particularly female bodies—are stigmatized. Such fat stigma is pervasive, painful to experience, and may even facilitate weight gain, thereby perpetuating the obesity-stigma cycle. Leveraging research on functionally distinct forms of fat (deposited on different parts of the body), we propose that body shape plays an important but largely underappreciated role in fat stigma, above and beyond fat amount. Across three samples varying in participant ethnicity (White and Black Americans) and nation (U.S., India), patterns of fat stigma reveal that, as hypothesized, participants differently stigmatized equally-overweight or -obese female targets as a function of target shape, sometimes even more strongly stigmatizing targets with less rather than more body mass. Such findings suggest value in updating our understanding of fat stigma to include body shape and in querying a predominating, but often implicit, theoretical assumption that people simply view all fat as bad (and more fat as worse).
... Waist circumference was obtained by measuring narrowest portion between ribs and iliac crest [10]. Women with waist circumference (80-87.9)cm ...
... However, our findings showed that out of seventeen obese polycystic ovarian syndrome women, eleven were brown colored which might indicate that browncolored polycystic ovarian syndrome women were more susceptible to complain from obesity than white-colored obese polycystic ovarian syndrome women. Results in table (10) revealed no significant increase in the mean levels of estradiol2 for mixed food consumers compared to mean levels of estradiol2 of vegetarian group among polycystic ovarian syndrome women. was designated as significant. ...
... Testosterone stimulates fat deposition in the abdominal region and inhibits fat deposition in the gluteofemoral region producing android obesity. Estrogen stimulates fat deposition in the gluteofemoral region and inhibits fat deposition in the abdominal area producing gynoid obesity [10]. To explain our findings that android type of body fat distribution for polycystic ovarian syndrome women showed no significant increase in both estradiol2 and testosterone mean levels compared to gynoid type of body fat distribution for these women was that these women principally were suffering from endocrine disorders and that they were with high testosterone mean levels and thus these high testosterone mean levels overcame the impact of increased estradiol2 mean levels and consequently accumulated more adipocytes in the abdominal region rather than gluteofemoral region. ...
Article
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This study aimed to calculate body fat of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women according to different measurements. It investigated correlation between estradiol2 (E2)and testosterone (T) levels and type of obesity, correlation between skin tan and body mass index, correlation between E2 and T levels and food intake, and impact of high caffeine consumption on infertility. Thirty-two infertile PCOS women were included. Different body fat distribution measurements were calculated. On cycle day 2, E2 and T levels were measured. There were recognizable differences in number of obese PCOS women according to different body fat measurements. No significant increase was in E2 and T levels (p=0.41, p=0.18, respectively) for android obese compared to gynoid obese. No significant association was between BMI and skin tan (p=0.57). Notable increase was in number of brown-colored obese compared to white-colored obese. No significant increase was in E2 and T levels for mixed food consumers compared to vegetarian (p=0.82, p=0.11, respectively). Type of infertility and caffeine intake were independent factors. Out of seven high caffeine consumption secondary infertile, five complained from spontaneous miscarriage. Obesity adversely affected fertility. Brown-colored was more susceptible to obesity. Inadequate food intake participated in infertility. High caffeine intake increased susceptibility to spontaneous miscarriage.
... According to evolutionary theory, men are attracted to women who have physical body characteristics that point to ability to achieve conception and deliver offspring (Campos, Otta and Siqueira, 2012). Among those physical characteristics theorized to reflect female fecundity and enhancewomen's physical attractiveness to men are age, breast size (Feinman and Gill, 2008;Campos, Otta, and Siqueira, 2012), buttocks size (Singh, 2013) and the body mass index determine by the body weight relative to height (Ojo and Babalola, 2018;Tovee, Maisey, Emery and Cornelissen, 1999). In consonance with this theory, a researcher has reported younger women as beautiful as and more attractive than their older peers (Jackson, 2014). ...
... This result is also not surprising considering the rate at which many ladies of today strive to do buttocks and breast enlargement to make them look attractive to men. This is in line with the findings of researchers who asserted that what engenders women's physical attractiveness especially to men are breast size (Gallup, 2012), buttock size (Singh, 2013), and body weight relative to height (Tovee, Maisey, Emery and Cornelissen, 1999). Consistent with this, younger women are perceived as more attractive than older women (Jackson, 2014). ...
... Two scales were constructed on images obtained from pre-established databases such as BMI base silhouettes gathered from the Canadian Dietetic Association [25] and sketches from The Atlas of Men [33]. Figural scales developed based on predefined BMI categories [25] and WHR [34] levels were also found. ...
... One series depicted a "preadolescent" female and the other, an older "adolescent" female. Singh(Singh, 1993); USA 12 (F) F Adults Y Y N Stimuli consisted of 12 line drawings of female figures in the same height representing four levels of WHR (0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0) and three levels of body weight (normal, under-weight, and overweight) Stunkard(Stunkard, 1983); USA 9 male and nine female front-view contour drawings of precisely graduated sizes were drawn with clearly defined facial and bodily features. ...
Article
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Background and aims Figure Rating Scales (FRS) are psychometric instruments developed to measure individual's perception of physical appearance and subsequently, to determine the level of body dissatisfaction. The following systematic review summarizes existing FRSs and the techniques used to development them. Methods A systematic search was conducted in the following databases; PubMed®, Web of Science®, Scopus® using key words “figure rating scale” AND “Stunkard". Results From 466 potentially relevant articles, 24 publications were included, 22 publications reporting original FRSs with the other two scales being modifications of the original for children and babies. Fifteen were figural drawings or silhouettes and nine were developed by photographic techniques, video methods or using computer software. Most of the figural scales were applicable for adults and consisted of nine images. Ten of the 15 figural scales were without facial features and four scales had minimal facial features. Technological advancements including 3D modeling have played a pivotal role in the development of FRSs. Conclusions FRSs have been developed by a mix of traditional and modern techniques. The development and validation of ethnic specific FRSs using modern technology should be the priority for future studies.
... testosterone stimulates fat storage in the abdomen, resulting in higher WHR [11][12][13] . Lower WHR (i.e., 0.7 or 0.8) reliably signals cardiovascular health and fertility in women [14][15][16][17][18][19][20] , while higher WHR (0.9) is considered healthy for men 19,21 . However, despite some cross-cultural cues for physical attractiveness 22 , recent research has indicated that individual differences in psychological traits can also lead to variations in mate preference [23][24][25][26][27] . ...
... Assessment of physical attractiveness. Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) are potential determinants for physical attractiveness 14,15,70 . To assess individual mate preference we used a computerized, modified version of Singh's photographs 21,51 . ...
Article
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Mate preference in short-term relationships and long-term ones may depend on many physical, psychological, and socio-cultural factors. In this study, 178 students (81 females) in sports and 153 engineering students (64 females) answered the systemizing quotient (SQ) and empathizing quotient (EQ) questionnaires and had their digit ratio measured. They rated their preferred mate on 12 black-line drawing body figures varying in body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) for short-term and long-term relationships. Men relative to women preferred lower WHR and BMI for mate selection for both short-term and long-term relationships. BMI and WHR preference in men is independent of each other, but has a negative correlation in women. For men, digit ratio was inversely associated with BMI (p = 0.039, B = − 0.154) preference in a short-term relationship, and EQ was inversely associated with WHR preference in a long-term relationship (p = 0.045, B = − 0.164). Furthermore, men and women in sports, compared to engineering students, preferred higher (p = 0.009, B = 0.201) and lower BMI (p = 0.034, B = − 0.182) for short-term relationships, respectively. Women were more consistent in their preferences for short-term and long-term relationships relative to men. Both biological factors and social/experiential factors contribute to mate preferences in men while in women, mostly social/experiential factors contribute to them.
... Although the social advantage linked with being physically attractive has been firmly established, profound gender differences exist. In the domain of romantic courtship, physical attractiveness is consistently shown to be among the most sought-after characteristics in a female mate (Buss, 1989;Li et al., 2013;Singh, 1993). Kordsmeyer et al. (2018) have suggested that men are evaluated more on their social status/dominance and earning capacity. ...
... A number of studies suggest that the value of male versus female physical attractiveness, may be similar but different in homosexual men and women (Ha et al., 2012;Jankowiak et al., 1992;Lippa, 2007). This dissimilarity may be driven largely by heterosexual men, who can discern a considerable amount of mate-relevant information from observing the physical quality of a woman (Anderson, 2018;Schulman & Hoskins, 1986;Singh, 1993). Observed MC effects (e.g. the effects of female friends' attractiveness) may be unique to heterosexuals. ...
Article
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Humans are a social species with a high degree of information sharing. Character information is transferred between individuals frequently. Making a decision about who to mate with is one of the most consequential choices an individual makes, hence it pays to attend to any cheaply available mate-relevant information on offer. Building on previous research reporting a mating advantage for men romantically associated with women, here we present 3 studies examining the effects of being popular with the opposite sex. In all three studies men and women were presented with (and asked to evaluate) visual profiles of individuals of the opposite sex. Study 1 (N = 294) found that both men and women evaluate a man as more creative and socially skilled when he is attractive, and that women regard him as having higher mate value when his female friends are attractive. Study 2 (N = 233) found that men, but not women, considered profiles that were highly popular with the opposite sex to be more desirable. Study 3 (N = 765) found that neither men’s nor women’s desirability ratings of opposite-sex others were influenced by how popular that individual was with members of the opposite sex. It was concluded that while both men and women can be influenced by social information implicitly offered by others, this phenomenon is quite nuanced. Several possible theoretical and methodological explanations are considered, adding valuable knowledge to the existing body of research about mate copying propensity.
... In this context, it is important to clarify which influencing variables have an impact on the aesthetic perception when judging people. Many studies have referred to the face (Dunn et al., 1996;Langlois et al., 1994) or the body (Furnham et al., 2003;Singh, 1993;Singh & Luis, 1995). Two elements will be highlighted that are related to the way we look at art. ...
... These elements can also be found in beauty judgments relating to the body. Singh (1993) studied the waist-to-hip ratio and its influence on beauty judgments. As a result, it was found that especially female bodies with a waist-to-hip ratio of 0.7 were judged as attractive. ...
Article
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The objective of this essay is a holistic view of aesthetics, ethics, and neuroaesthetics. After a few introductory case studies, aesthetics is systematically introduced as a philosophical subdiscipline. This perspective is then expanded from aesthetics to neuroaesthetics. Using various art forms as well as current media formats, the aspects of beauty and ugliness are discussed, and aesthetic properties are expanded to include ethical implications. These can be expressed through ideals of beauty and the compulsion for body transformation. This perspective is then expanded from aesthetics to neuroaesthetics. From this point of view of art, the so-called golden ratio will play a central role. It will be shown how representations affect people and what ethical implications are associated with the effects. Therefore, this essay first has to look at art from the perspective of neuroaesthetics, and then consider the ethical aspects of the beautiful and the ugly. The considerations lead to a brief discussion of Socrates's three sieves.
... Honekopp (2006) (Crossley et al., 2012;Furnham et al., 1997;Henss, 1995;Streeter et al., 2003). 그 이유는 진 화론적으로 남성에게는 신체적 매력이 여성보 다 배우자 또는 파트너 선택에 있어서 덜 중 요하기 때문이다 (Andrews et al., 2017;Henss, 1995;Singh, 1994 (Singh, 1994, Singh et al., 2010 (Chaiken & Eagly, 1983;Eagly et al., 1991;Dion et al., 1992;Little et al., 2006 (Singh, 1993a;Buss, 1989 (Crossley et al., 2012;Morse et al., 1976, Henss et al. 1995. 이는 같은 문화에서 같은 사회 적 규범을 공유하듯 여성의 신체적 매력에 대해서 같은 미의 기준을 공유하기 때문이다 (Kopera et al., 1971;Morse et al., 1976;Udry, 1965 (Singh, 1993a(Singh, , 1994Buss, 2016; Trivers, 1972 Chung-Ang University ...
... 그 이유는 진 화론적으로 남성에게는 신체적 매력이 여성보 다 배우자 또는 파트너 선택에 있어서 덜 중 요하기 때문이다 (Andrews et al., 2017;Henss, 1995;Singh, 1994 (Singh, 1994, Singh et al., 2010 (Chaiken & Eagly, 1983;Eagly et al., 1991;Dion et al., 1992;Little et al., 2006 (Singh, 1993a;Buss, 1989 (Crossley et al., 2012;Morse et al., 1976, Henss et al. 1995. 이는 같은 문화에서 같은 사회 적 규범을 공유하듯 여성의 신체적 매력에 대해서 같은 미의 기준을 공유하기 때문이다 (Kopera et al., 1971;Morse et al., 1976;Udry, 1965 (Singh, 1993a(Singh, , 1994Buss, 2016; Trivers, 1972 Chung-Ang University ...
... Another long-standing view in the literature defined women's physical attractiveness as a ratio between the hips and waist (WHR) of 0.7 and large breasts as cues of youth, health, and fecundability (Singh, 1993). While research among industrialized populations supported this view (Dixson et al., 2007(Dixson et al., , 2010aPazhoohi et al., 2020b;Sidari et al., 2021), male preferences among the Bakossi in Cameroon, Shiwiar, in the Amazon, Matzigenka, in Peru, and in the Hadza, Tanzania, revealed preferences among men for more masculine WHRs of 0.8-0.9 ...
... The observed strong associations between self-perceived attractiveness, reports of minor ailments, and mental health outcomes in both sexes support and extend previous results on the relationship between phenotypic indicators of attractiveness and developmental psychopathologies (e.g., Ehlinger & Bashill, 2016). According to previous literature, perceived high attractiveness is associated with higher physical fitness (Hönekopp et al., 2004), greater reproductive success (Singh, 1993), better social competence (Eagly et al., 1991), better immune function , and good self-esteem (Bale & Archer, 2013; but see Mares et al., 2010). This would explain why, in the present study, higher self-perceptions of attractiveness contributed to the expression of lower psychopathological symptoms. ...
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Objective Phenotypic markers associated with developmental stability such as fluctuating asymmetry, facial attractiveness, and reports of minor ailments can also act as indicators of overall physical health. However, few studies have assessed whether these markers might also be cues of mental health. We tested whether self- and other-perceived facial attractiveness, fluctuating asymmetry, and minor ailments are associated with psychopathological symptoms in a mixed sample of 358 college students, controlling for the effects of body mass index, age, and sex. Methods We applied the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaire to assess psychopathological symptoms, a battery of questionnaires about self-perceptions of facial attractiveness, and gathered information about the number of previous minor ailments as well as demographic data. Other-perceived attractiveness was assessed by an independent mixed sample of 109 subjects. Subjects’ facial fluctuating asymmetry was determined by geometric morphometrics. Results The results revealed that in both men and women, higher self-perceived attractiveness and fewer minor ailments predicted lower scores of Somatization, Obsessive–Compulsive, Interpersonal Sensitivity, Depression, Anxiety, Phobic Anxiety, Paranoid Ideation, Psychoticism, and a General Psychopathology Index. Higher facial fluctuating asymmetry was associated with higher Interpersonal Sensitivity, but did not contribute to its prediction when controlling for the other studied variables. Conclusions The observed strong associations between self-perceived attractiveness, minor ailments, and psychopathology indicate common developmental pathways between physiological and psychological symptomatology which may reflect broader life history (co)variation between genetics, developmental environment, and psychophysiological functioning.
... By applying sexual selection to human mating, evolutionary psychologists have identified many traits contributing to attractiveness as well as the selective pressures shaping preferences for them. These endeavors have underscored the importance of specific traits such a muscularity (Frederick & Haselton, 2007;Gray & Frederick, 2012), strength (Sell, Lukazsweski, & Townsley, 2017), height (Salska et al., 2008), waist-to-hip ratio (Platek & Singh, 2010;Singh, 1993), and many others (Gallup & Frederick, 2010;Gangestad & Scheyd, 2005;Sugiyama, 2005). ...
... Bu doğrultuda, erkeklerin eş tercihinin, toplam vücut ağırlığından bağımsız bir biçimde 0.7 ve çeperindeki bel-kalça oranına sahip kadınlara yöneldiği pek çok defa ortaya konmuştur (bkz. Furnham ve ark., 2003;Singh, 1993 ...
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Psikoloji araştırmalarının teori-merkezli mi yoksa sonuç-merkezli bir yapıya mı sahip olması gerektiğine ilişkin tartışmalar, yaklaşık kırk yıl gibi uzun bir zaman dilimine tarihlenmektedir. Özellikle, teori tarafından yönlendirilen araştırma pratiğinin, doğrulama yanlılığına ve dogmatik bir bilim anlayışına yol açtığına yönelik argümanlar, bu tartışmanın ana odağını oluşturmaktadır. Bu derlemede ise, teori-merkezli ve sonuç-merkezli araştırma yönelimlerinin, psikoloji biliminin meta-teorisi olma iddiasıyla ortaya çıkan evrimsel psikoloji içerisinde nasıl bir konum edindiği incelenmiştir. Sonrasında, adaptasyonist program özelinde teori-merkezli evrimsel psikoloji araştırmalarına yöneltilen başlıca eleştiriler özetlenmiş ve psikoloji biliminin bu kadim tartışması ile bağlantı kurulmuştur.
... Facial attractiveness is a facial attribute that conveys significant biological advantages (Shen et al., 2016) (e.g., as expressed in mating success (Pashos & Niemitz, 2003), earning potential (Frieze et al., 1991), and longevity (Henderson & Anglin, 2003). There is a long line of research showing that waist-hip ratio is a predictive measure of female attractiveness (Singh, 1993) while height, body shape, and penis size in males predicts female attraction (Mautz et al., 2013). ...
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The social environment presents the human brain with the most complex of information processing demands. The computations that the brain must perform occur in parallel, combine social and nonsocial cues, produce verbal and non-verbal signals, and involve multiple cognitive systems; including memory, attention, emotion, learning. This occurs dynamically and at timescales ranging from milliseconds to years. Here, we propose that during social interactions, seven core operations interact to underwrite coherent social functioning; these operations accumulate evidence efficiently – from multiple modalities – when inferring what to do next. We deconstruct the social brain and outline the key components entailed for successful human social interaction. These include (1) social perception; (2) social inferences, such as mentalizing; (3) social learning; (4) social signaling through verbal and non-verbal cues; (5) social drives (e.g., how to increase one’s status); (6) determining the social identity of agents, including oneself; and (7) minimizing uncertainty within the current social context by integrating sensory signals and inferences. We argue that while it is important to examine these distinct aspects of social inference, to understand the true nature of the human social brain, we must also explain how the brain integrates information from the social world.
... Interestingly, the bias toward a local processing of male bodies was attenuated for those observers that had greater BMI and greater internalization of muscularity as a body ideal. Previous research has indicated that the BMI of an individual is an important factor in how both men and women perceive physical attractiveness (see Singh 1993;Henss, 1995;Furnham, Tan, & McManus, 1997;Tovée, Reinhardt, Emery, & Cornelissen, 1998, Tovée et al., 1999a, b, Tovée, Tasker, & Benson, 2000Thaler et al., 2018;Tovee & Cornelissen 1999, 2001. Hence, in keeping with these studies, we might expect an impact of BMI on women's and men's familiarity with male bodies and, ultimately, with their ability to inspect male bodily features and body morphology useful for sexual selection and mating success. ...
Article
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We examined whether visual processing mechanisms of the body of conspecifics are different in women and men and whether these rely on westernised socio-cultural ideals and body image concerns. Twenty-four women and 24 men performed a visual discrimination task of upright or inverted images of female or male bodies and faces (Experiment 1) and objects (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, both groups of women and men showed comparable abilities in the discrimination of upright and inverted bodies and faces. However, the gender of the human stimuli yielded different effects on participants’ performance, so that female faces, and male bodies appeared to be processed less configurally than female bodies and male faces, respectively. Interestingly, the reduction of configural processing for male bodies was significantly predicted by participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) and their level of internalization of muscularity. Our findings suggest that configural visual processing of bodies and faces in women and men may be linked to a selective attention to detail needed for discriminating salient physical (perhaps sexual) cues of conspecifics. Importantly, BMI and muscularity internalization of beauty ideals may also play a crucial role in this mechanism.
... Most characters were coded as either average/ ordinary or attractive. Attractive characters were differentiated from average/ordinary if there was an explicit focus on the character's appearance or if they possessed many physical features considered attractive in Western culture (for example, women: large eyes, an hourglass figure, small nose and chin, prominent cheekbones, large smile, lustrous hair, average body weight, good muscle tone, and skin complexion; men: tapering V-shaped physique and large eyes, prominent cheekbones, large chin, a big smile, good muscle tone, and skin complexion; Cunningham, 1986;Singh, 1993). Based upon these definitions, most of the princesses and their romantic interests were considered attractive (e.g., Cinderella). ...
... There is further evidence that a feminine body shape (associated with higher oestrogen levels in women) is perceived as attractive. Women with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) have been shown to be perceived as more attractive than women with a higher WHR; specifically, waist circumference that is approximately 0.7x hip circumference is rated highest on attractiveness (Cornelissen et al., 2009;Singh, 1993aSingh, , 1993bTovée & Cornelissen, 2001). ...
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The dominant evolutionary theory of sexual attraction posits that attraction serves as a psychological mechanism for identifying healthy, fertile, and appropriate mates. According to this theory, humans and animals display cues that reflect their mate quality and are perceived as attractive by potential mates. There is evidence for such valid cues in human faces, bodies, and in non-bodily traits, which include adornments and items that signal provisioning ability, creativity, artistic skills, or conspicuous consumption. In this chapter, we discuss the evidence for the existence of these facial, bodily, and non-bodily cues, and for their role in communicating aspects of partner quality, including health, fertility, developmental stability, genetic quality, and potential for parental investment. We further discuss sex differences in the kinds of physical cues that men and women rely on in mate choice. We conclude by noting how central and evolutionarily important physical cues are even in contemporary sexual selection, and how the importance of physical cues of partner quality manifests in evolutionarily novel inventions such as physical self-enhancements, social media, and online dating.
... The SCH is based on the fact that throughout human evolutionary history the female shape has been a reliable indicator of the female's reproductive history and consequently her reproductive potential (Bovet and Raymond, 2015;Singh, 1993). Youth and good health have always been major determinants of female mate value not least because of the finite reproductive window in humans that abruptly ends with menopause (Buss, 1987). ...
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In an ideal world, psychiatry would be appropriately informed by evolutionary theory and we expect that this will happen one day. In this chapter salient evolutionary contributions regarding the definition and demarcation of mental disorder are considered as well as evolutionary proposals for rethinking the classification of mental disorder. Although evolutionary analysis of mental disorders rests on a set of principles shared with the rest of medicine, these principles remain unfamiliar to the majority of psychiatrists. We examine these principles and advocate consideration of the phylogenetic or ultimate causes of disorders and how Tinbergen’s four questions may be applied to psychiatry. Leading evolutionary literature on a number of psychiatric conditions is explored including: schizophrenia spectrum disorders, depression, alcohol and drug addictions, eating disorders and others. Some preliminary evolutionary thoughts on placebo responses, pharmacological treatments and future research are also presented in brief. Mainstream psychiatry, like the rest of medicine, continues to focus on proximate causation of disease and disorder. Evolutionary science has not permeated the syllabus of most undergraduate or postgraduate medical and psychiatric education, with a few notable exceptions. Consequently, most psychiatrists have scant understanding of even the basics of evolution let alone its impact on the behavioural sciences. Therefore, the majority of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals remain largely unaware of the potential of Darwinian theory to further our understanding of human vulnerability to mental disorder. Evolutionary work consequently has not yet significantly influenced the mainstream research agenda in mental health nor has it had much impact on clinical practice. Various barriers to the incorporation and dissemination of evolutionary thinking into psychiatry are discussed, some of which are shared by the rest of medicine. Finally, we contemplate the potential contributions evolutionary science can generate for both theory and practice of psychiatry and advocate for pertinent areas of evolutionary biology to be taught at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels as a basic science.
... Since men have placed much more emphasis on a woman's physical appearance than on her other characteristics, the rivalry among women to allure men through the use of their physical attributes is rooted in their views of attractiveness (Buss, 2003). Men tend to favor mates who display youthful, attractive qualities (e.g., smooth skin, soft hair) and sexual maturity (Singh, 1993b). A women's reproductive status is contingent upon age because evolution has played a definitive role in these preferences, considering that a woman's fertile window diminishes rapidly after 30 years of age and ceases during menopause (Buss & Schmitt, 1993). ...
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The purpose of this study was to study the influence of the use of cosmetics and nose piercing on interpersonal attraction in young adults. A sample of 70 young adults was selected for this study (age group 18-25). An interpersonal attraction questionnaire (James McCroskey, 1974) was administered along with five photos of five different females were shown under the following conditions wherein nose piercing was the constant variable (with makeup, without makeup, lipstick and foundation, foundation and eye-makeup, lipstick and eye-makeup). To test the significance of the results, a Friedman’s test of analysis was used. The Friedman test is used to test for differences between groups when the dependent variable has an ordinal measurement. There was a significant difference found in individuals who use cosmetics and nose piercings and who have only nose piercings using the Friedman test of analysis on SPSS (version 21) and the findings were discussed with respect to existing research and theoretical explanations. The present study contributes to the data that the use of cosmetics and nose piercing is related to interpersonal attraction. It also shows that there is a high relation between the use of cosmetics and interpersonal attraction in young adults and adolescents. The study also had twice the number of female respondents than male respondents. Female respondents were 44 and Male were 26. In this case, the study may not actually be able to predict how males perceive others to be as attractive or non-attractive. The present study’s findings have a further practical application that this similar study could be conducted with different areas and types of nose piercing and with an equal number of male and female respondents. Thus, the hypotheses of the study were validated. Keywords: use of cosmetics, nose piercing, interpersonal attraction
... Intuitive attributions from the human face have a physiological underpinning; positive valence and prosocial traits are more often attributed to feminine and children's faces, whereas anti-social traits of negative valence are more often attributed to masculine faces (Montepare & Zebrowitz, 1998;Perrett et al., 1998;Zebrowitz & Montepare, 2008). Vision is crucial for assessing silhouette attributes, such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) (Fan et al., 2004), and body symmetry, which can all be indicative of attractiveness, general and reproductive health (Dobbelsteyn et al., 2001;Jasieńska et al., 2004;Singh, 1993;Singh & Luis, 1995). However, recent studies indicate that preferences for silhouettes can develop in the absence of visual input (Karremans et al., 2010), suggesting an important role of non-visual input in the perception of attractiveness. ...
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Social perception is a multimodal process involving vision and audition as central input sources for human social cognitive processes. However, it remains unclear how profoundly deaf people assess others in the context of mating and social interaction. The current study explored the relative importance of different sensory modalities (vision, smell, and touch) in assessments of opposite- and same-sex strangers. We focused on potential sensory compensation processes in mate selection (i.e., increased importance of the intact senses in forming impressions of an opposite-sex stranger as a potential partner). A total of 74 deaf individuals and 100 normally hearing controls were included in the study sample. We found diminished importance of vision and smell in deaf participants compared with controls for opposite- and same-sex strangers, and increased importance of touch for the assessment of same-sex strangers. The results suggested that deaf people rely less on visual and olfactory cues in mating and social assessments, highlighting a possible role of sign language in shaping interpersonal tactile experience in non-romantic relationships.
... Given this potential impact on fitness, human mating preferences have been of considerable interest to evolutionary psychologists (e.g., Buss, 1989;Geary et al., 2004;Sugiyama, 2005). The frequently repeated view that men are attracted to women with low waist-hip ratios (WHRs) and low body mass indices (BMI) (in well-nourished populations) because these traits indicate health and fertility (Grammer et al., 2003;Marlowe 2005;Pawlowski & Dunbar, 2005;Singh, 1993aSingh, , 1993bSingh, , 2002Singh & Singh, 2006, 2011Weeden & Sabini, 2005) does not appear to be well supported (Bovet, 2019;Lassek & Gaulin, 2018a, 2018b. Indeed, a low WHR and BMI are most likely to occur in young women in their late teens who have never been pregnant (nulligravidas) (Andrews et al., 2017;Butovskaya et al., 2017;Lassek & Gaulin, 2019), women who have demonstrably lower fertility and greater liability to infection than women in their 20s (Lassek & Gaulin, 2018a, 2018b. ...
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The idea that human males are most strongly attracted to traits that peak in women in the nubile age group raises the question of how well women in that age group contend with the potential hazards of a first pregnancy. Using data for 1.7 million first births from 1990 U.S. natality and mortality records, we compared outcomes for women with first births (primiparas) aged 16–20 years (when first births typically occur in forager and subsistence groups) with those aged 21–25 years. The younger primiparas had a much lower risk of potentially life-threatening complications of labor and delivery and, when evolutionarily novel risk factors were controlled, fetuses which were significantly more likely to survive despite lower birth weights. Thus, nubile primiparas were more likely to have a successful reproductive outcome defined in an evolutionarily relevant way (an infant of normal birth weight and gestation, surviving to one year, and delivered without a medically necessary cesarean delivery). This suggests that prior to the widespread availability of surgical deliveries, men who mated with women in the nubile age group would have reaped the benefit of having a reproductive partner more likely to have a successful first pregnancy.
... While many of the preferences were collected via paper and pencil tasks, more sophisticated methods have been employed including eye-tracking and brain imaging (Platek and Singh, 2010;Dixson et al., 2011). Content analyses have been conducted of female escorts' online advertisements of their waist-to-hip ratios stemming from 48 countries across Europe, Asia, Oceania, Latin America, and North America (Saad, 2008), of Playboy centerfolds and Miss America winners across a number of decades (Singh, 1993), of 286 ancient Egyptian, African, Greco-Roman, and Indian sculptures and statuettes from several millennia ago (Singh, 2002), of 155 prehistoric Jomon figurines (Hudson and Ayoyama, 2006), and of Western artworks covering roughly 2,500 years (Bovet and Raymond, 2015). While some temporal variations do exist (consistent with the fact that the waist-to-hip preference is a near-universal), the general hourglass effect holds across these studies. ...
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Many detractors of evolutionary psychology (EP) presume that adaptive arguments are nothing more than whimsical and unfalsifiable just-so stories. The reality though is that the epistemology of EP is precisely the opposite of this antiquated canard in that it fixes the evidentiary threshold much higher than is typically achieved by most scientists. EP amasses evidence across cultures, time periods, disciplines, paradigms, methodologies, and units of analyses in validating a given scientific explanation. These nomological networks of cumulative evidence stimulate greater interdisciplinarity, lesser methodological myopia, and increased consilience (unity of knowledge). A component in building such nomological networks is to examine phenomena that are cross-culturally invariant (human universals) versus those that vary cross-culturally as adaptive responses (the domain of behavioral ecologists and gene-culture coevolution modelers). The epistemological efficacy of this unique approach is highlighted using two cases studies, the sex-specificity of toy preferences and men's preference for the hourglass figure.
... Waist-to-hip ratio is the circumference of a woman's waist divided by the circumference of her hips, and is known to be a cue to women's fertility and fecundity (Jasieńska, Ziomkiewicz, Ellison, Lipson, & Thune, 2004;Zaadstra et al., 1993). As men are attracted to the female traits signaling fecundity and fertility, they rate waist-to-hip ratios associated with greater reproductive capacity as more sexually attractive (Butovskaya et al., 2017;Pazhoohi, Arantes, Kingstone, & Pinal, 2020a;Singh, 1993;Singh & Young, 1995). Moreover, as uniquely permanent enlarged in our species, firm breasts are an honest signal of residual reproductive value in women (Marlowe, 1998), and may signal higher fertility rate and more efficient or effective breastfeeding ability (Jasieńska et al., 2004;Żelaźniewicz & Pawłowski, 2019). ...
Chapter
As proposed by Trivers in 1972, Parental Investment Theory addresses sex differences that result from the trade-off between parenting and mating efforts. This half-century-old theory has contributed profoundly to our understanding of sexual behavior and psychology. According to Parental Investment Theory, the sex that has higher parental investment will be more selective when choosing a mate, while the sex with lower investment will compete intrasexually for mating opportunities (Trivers, 1972). Parental investment is defined as “any investment by the parent in an individual offspring that increases the offspring’s chance of surviving (and hence reproductive success) at the cost of the parent’s ability to invest in other offspring” (Trivers, 1972, p. 139), such as investment in the forms of gestation, lactation, food provisioning, protection, and the training of offspring. In many species, including humans, females invest substantially more in parenting compared to males. This chapter considers the sexual behaviors that have evolved as a function of differences in parental investment, with a specific focus on Homo sapiens.
... This might reflect a hypothesized difference in the ability of facial traits and bodily traits to convey information about a woman's reproductive value and fertility (Cloud & Perilloux, 2014;Confer et al., 2010). Facial traits (e.g., wrinkled skin and sagginess; Fink, Grammer, & Thornhill, 2001) are argued to provide relatively richer information about reproductive value, with bodily traits (e.g., waist-to-hip ratio; Singh, 1993) conveying stronger cues of fertility. These two qualities peak at different ages-reproductive value at approximately age 17 and fertility at approximately age 24 (Symons, 1979;Williams, 1975)-suggesting that men might need to make trade-offs between these two qualities when selecting a mate. ...
... Most characters were coded as either average/ ordinary or attractive. Attractive characters were differentiated from average/ordinary if there was an explicit focus on the character's appearance or if they possessed many physical features considered attractive in Western culture (for example, women: large eyes, an hourglass figure, small nose and chin, prominent cheekbones, large smile, lustrous hair, average body weight, good muscle tone, and skin complexion; men: tapering V-shaped physique and large eyes, prominent cheekbones, large chin, a big smile, good muscle tone, and skin complexion; Cunningham, 1986;Singh, 1993). Based upon these definitions, most of the princesses and their romantic interests were considered attractive (e.g., Cinderella). ...
... Currently, the gluteofemoral depot is the primary source of brain-building fats (above). That fact is consonant with the extensive psychological literature showing that men selectively attend to women's waist/hip ratios in evaluating female attractiveness (e.g., Singh, 1993;Sugiyama, 2005;Singh and Randall, 2007;Dixson et al., 2010aDixson et al., ,b,c, 2011Brooks et al., 2015), with some researchers arguing that preference data suggest the waist/hip ratio is a supernormal stimulus (Marković, 2017). Several reviews have evaluated and rejected the idea that waist/hip ratios broadly track health and fertility (Lassek and Gaulin, 2018a,b;Bovet, 2019), thus suggesting it provides more specific information content. ...
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Human sexual dimorphism has been widely misunderstood. A large literature has underestimated the effect of differences in body composition and the role of male contest competition for mates. It is often assumed that sexually dimorphic traits reflect a history of sexual selection, but natural selection frequently builds different phenotypes in males and females. The relatively small sex difference in stature (∼7%) and its decrease during human evolution have been widely presumed to indicate decreased male contest competition for mates. However, females likely increased in stature relative to males in order to successfully deliver large-brained neonates through a bipedally-adapted pelvis. Despite the relatively small differences in stature and body mass (∼16%), there are marked sex differences in body composition. Across multiple samples from groups with different nutrition, males typically have 36% more lean body mass, 65% more muscle mass, and 72% more arm muscle than women, yielding parallel sex differences in strength. These sex differences in muscle and strength are comparable to those seen in primates where sexual selection, arising from aggressive male mating competition, has produced high levels of dimorphism. Body fat percentage shows a reverse pattern, with females having ∼1.6 times more than males and depositing that fat in different body regions than males. We argue that these sex differences in adipose arise mainly from natural selection on women to accumulate neurodevelopmental resources.
... Research on gender differences has consistently indicated that whereas men highly prize readily observable characteristics, such as physical beauty in a female partner (Buss, 1989;Buss & Barnes, 1986;Singh, 1993;Singh & Young, 1995;Symons, 1992;Townsend & Wasserman, 1998;Walster et al., 1966;Weeden & Sabini, 2005), women are far more concerned with a man's socioeconomic status (SES), parental ability and capacity for the acquisition of resources among other things (Barber, 1995;Buss, 1989;Kenrick & Keefe, 1992;Shackelford et al., 2005;Singh, 1995;Wood & Eagly, 2002). Such qualities are strongly related to a man's ability to provide nourishment and protection to his mate and their offspring. ...
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One of the most important decisions an individual can make involves investing in a mating relationship. For women, the process of mate selection can be time-intensive and fraught with costs and dangers. However, these risks can be minimised by attending to relevant social information and modelling the mate choices of others. The propensity of imitating another’s mate choices is referred to as mate copying. Most research has focused on this behaviour in non-humans, but evidence of its existence in humans is emerging. The current study sought to determine conditions that modify a man’s desirability. The present study examined 267 women’s evaluations of men depicted in silhouetted images who varied in terms of their intentions for fatherhood and relationship history. Results showed that a man’s desirability as a long term mate was enhanced if he wished to become a father, and/or if he had a previous relationship experience, indicating he had been formerly chosen or preferred. These findings add to the existing body of knowledge on mate copying and attention to social information by demonstrating how women incorporate social learning and innate evolutionary predispositions to facilitate decision-making and behaviour relating to mate selection.
... For example, the role of sexual selection in the evolution of sexually-selected characteristics such as male and female preferences for waist-to-hip ratios (e.g. Singh, 1993a) (Bourdieu, 1993). ...
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The following research presents a study into consumer aesthetic evaluations of product designs in the New Zealand context. The aim of the study was to investigate how aesthetics contribute to the meaning that consumers get from product designs and the role that aesthetics play in consumer choice. The current research employed the generative structuralist theoretical perspective. It investigated how the moderating variable, cultural capital, influences both aesthetic preferences, as well as how aesthetic evaluations are expressed as a function of this moderating variable. These phenomena were examined through engaging the study participants in a quasi- experimental design which involved the trialling of a series of products within a category (lemon squeezers), and then requiring them to complete an open-ended written interview. The study collected both quantitative and qualitative data from the participants, which were coded and analysed to assess the relationship between the moderating variable and a number of criterion including: design preferences, response length and expressed conceptual and linguistic complexity. During the data analysis phase, a number of other interesting phenomena emerged. Generally, findings confirmed the theoretical proposition that cultural capital does have a moderating influence on the nature and expression of consumer aesthetic evaluation in the New Zealand context. While the results of this study are somewhat limited, they do have implications for both the fields of marketing and product design management. These implications also extend to other elements in the marketing mix.
... A more physically attractive target reduces participants' intentions to use a condom by increasing their desire for sex via lowering their perceptions of risk (Agocha & Cooper, 1999). Indeed, physically attractive people are frequently judged as being healthier, more physically fit, and as posing less of a health risk (e.g., Fishbein et al., 2004;Gold et al., 1991;Hong et al., 2006;Singh, 1993; but see Dijkstra et al., 2000). If physical attractiveness is related to partner quality (see, e.g., Frederick & Haselton, 2007), an increased willingness to engage in risky sexual behavior with attractive partners could increase conception with high quality partners and, by extension, increase fitness (i.e., if those qualities are passed on to offspring and make them more likely to survive to adulthood). ...
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A great deal of research has focused on women’s attention to the physical and behavioral cues of potential romantic partners. Comparatively little work has investigated how these cues influence women’s sexual risk-taking. The current study investigated the relationship between women’s perceptions of various factors associated with their partner’s genetic or investment quality, and women’s risky sexual behaviors (i.e., behaviors that could lead to unintended pregnancy). This work also investigated the influence of estimated menstrual cycle phase using a between-subject design. Analyses failed to reveal menstrual cycle effects, but women reported a greater tendency to engage in risky sexual behaviors when they had more physically attractive partners and when they use sexual inducements as a mate retention strategy. Also, conception-risking behaviors occurred most often when the woman reported being more socially dominant and she reported being less upset by a potential pregnancy. Moreover, the self-reported likelihood that women would carry an unintended pregnancy to term with their partner was predicted by feeling less upset by a potential pregnancy, taking fewer social risks, religiosity, and by more favorable ratings of their partners’ masculinity. These results are discussed in line with evolutionary theory surrounding mate choice.
... Thus, it appears that given a choice, people's judgments of female beauty are based on average body weight and low waist-hip ratio. The preference for average weight would be expected considering that psychological mechanisms to assess attractiveness from body characteristics were shaped by the Stone Age environment (Singh 1993). ...
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This article aims to highlight the relationship between body fatness and beauty, focusing on the role of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI). Beauty is a personal insight rather than a universal one. Attractiveness or ideal body size varies across cultures and societies. The perceptions tend to differ on the issue of the origins of some beauty standards. A complex brain, like the brain of a human being, is required to sense beauty. Also, there lies a difference between healthiness and attractiveness. Anthropologists and evolutionary scientists have proposed that beauty is a reliable indication of human health, fertility, and socioeconomic measures.
... According to this theory, the ideal body is based on a social and cultural construct. Several studies have found that a low Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) (about 0.70) and a Body Mass Index (BMI) of approximately 18-19 kg/m 2 is considered the most attractive in female bodies in Western societies [34,35], whereas the most attractive male body for women is characterized by high muscle mass, higher BMI (about 26 kg/m 2 ) and low Waist to Chest ratio (about 0.70) [30]. Another study demonstrated that the most attractive amount of body fat in women's bodies is slightly below the healthy range [36]. ...
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The study analyzed the differences between sexes in body image perception and body ideals to assess possible dissatisfaction and misinterpretation in the body image considered attractive for the other sex. Moreover, the influence of anthropometric traits and sports practice on body dissatisfaction and misjudgment was evaluated. Using a cross-sectional design, 960 Italian university students were investigated. Anthropometric characteristics were measured directly. Assessment of body image perception was performed using Thompson and Gray’s silhouettes. We developed two new indexes to assess the possible discrepancy between (1) the perceived silhouette of one’s body and that of the same sex deemed attractive to the other sex (FAD); (2) the silhouette is deemed attractive to the opposite sex and the average attractive silhouette selected by the opposite sex (AMOAD). As expected, females showed greater dissatisfaction with their bodies than males concerning both their own ideal and the silhouette they considered attractive to the opposite sex. Although both sexes misjudged the attractive silhouette for the opposite sex, women were found to be more wrong. According to the outcomes of multivariate regression models, stature, body composition parameters, amount of sport, sex, and FAD were significant predictors of dissatisfaction and misjudgment. In addition to action aimed at correcting misperceptions, the study revealed the importance of sports participation in improving the perception and acceptance of one’s body image.
... Al mismo tiempo, se aprecian los rostros promedio en tamaño y morfología. Aquellos que se apartan demasiado de la media o exhiben elevado a escrutinio (Singh, 1993). Ya sea en investigaciones que utilizan dibujos o fotografías a color como estímulos, una diferencia más baja del índice es considerada más seductora para los observadores masculinos (Henss, 2000). ...
... Additionally, age may bring sexual self-image problems, especially for women. Singh (1993) found that over time, and as men perceive their wives to have decreased in physical attractiveness, the value that men place on physical attractiveness increases. Sexual satisfaction remains relevant and important in later stages of marriage despite increased sexual dysfunction and interference in older age (Hinchliff & Gott, 2004). ...
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The effect of marital education on marital and sexual satisfaction.
... Receiving less attention, however, are findings showing that, above and beyond weight amount, weight location (i.e., body shape) also affects at least one form of social valuation-perceptions of physical attractiveness. Specifically, women with lower waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs)-that is, more weight distributed in the hips, thighs, and buttocks, compared with the waist or abdomen-are viewed across societies as more physically attractive than women with higher WHRs (e.g., Andrews et al., 2017;Brown & Konner, 1987;Lassek & Gaulin, 2018a, 2018b, 2019Marlowe et al., 2005;Singh, 1993;Singh & Luis, 1995;Sugiyama, 2004). ...
Article
Overweight and obese (“heavyweight”) people devalue themselves because, it has been proposed, they are socially devalued. However, for women, social valuation depends not only on how much weight they carry but also on where on their bodies they carry it. Here, we investigated whether weight-based self-valuation and perceived social valuation similarly depend on body shape. Study 1, using a nationally representative sample from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; N = 1,093 reproductive-aged women), showed that, controlling for body fat, weight labeling (by self and others) and wanting to lose weight depended on body shape. Study 2, in a direct test of predictions using an undergraduate sample of women ( N = 215), showed that with increased body fat, women with an abdominal weight distribution reported more self-devaluation (e.g., lower self-esteem) and perceived social devaluation (e.g., higher perceived weight discrimination); women with a gluteofemoral weight distribution, however, were shielded—partially or fully—from these adverse effects of increased body fat.
... Universally accepted aesthetic conceptions of the female gluteal area, irrespective to ethnicity, are determined by a ratio between the waist circumference at its narrowest and the thighs ("hips") circumference at the maximum projection of the buttocks (waist-to-hip ratio) equal to 0.7. [3][4][5] Ethnicity-related differences in sensibility on gluteal aesthetics have been described by Roberts et al. as referring to buttock volume, lateral buttock prominence, and lateral thigh fullness [5]. ...
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Background Duration and take of gluteal lipografting are unpredictable. More importantly, unsafety of intramuscular lipofilling has been recently proven. Stromal Enriched Lipograft (SEL) is likely to enhance survival of injected fat. The purpose of this study is to describe the use of SEL for gluteal augmentation through injection into the subcutaneous layer.MethodsA retrospective study was performed to assess outcomes and patient satisfaction with subcutaneous gluteal augmentation through SEL in 194 patients between 2015 and 2017. A control group (non-SEL) in which fat injection was performed through a traditional Coleman’s technique between 2010 and 2013 was compared with the SEL group.Demographics and the amount of injected tissue were sought in patients’ charts. Complications and aesthetic outcomes were taken into account. The mean surgical gain of hip circumference was determined. Comprehensive improvement after gluteal fat augmentation was rated on a scale of 1 to 5, in which 1 is “worse,” 2 is “no change,” 3 is “improved,” 4 is “much improved,” and 5 is “very much improved.” The evaluation was made at 12 months by an independent assessor.ResultsAt 12 months postoperatively, the mean gain in terms of hip circumference was 3.3 cm in the SEL group and 0.9 in the non-SEL group and this outcome was statistically significant. No cases of infection or liponecrosis of the grafted area occurred. At 12 months, 75% of cases were rated as much improved or more and 16% were classified as improved.Conclusions More research is needed, but when SEL is utilized, the increased and prolonged duration of the grafted fat is such that repeat procedures are rare, which allows to target the subcutaneous layer as the recipient site, instead of the muscular plane, with increased safety.Level of evidence: Level IV, Therapeutic study.
... L'étude consommateurs porte exclusivement sur les femmes. Elles attachent une plus grande importance à leur apparence (Buss, 1989), les vêtements sont pour elles des moyens d'accroître leur attractivité (Singh, 1993). Enfin, elles sont la cible principale des professionnels de la location dans ce secteur. ...
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De nouvelles formes de partage et location apparues ces dernières années permettent d’accéder au produit sans le posséder et bouleversent ainsi le rapport à l’objet et la perception de sa valeur. L’objectif de cette recherche est de mobiliser le concept de valeur perçue dans le contexte de ces deux modes de non-possession de vêtements,afin d’en cerner les différentes composantes (bénéfices et sacrifices) et d’appréhender les éventuelles disparités entre ces pratiques. Une approche qualitative, basée sur des entretiens individuels auprès de 27 femmes et cinq entretiens auprès de professionnels, permet de cerner la valeur conférée à l’emprunt et la location de vêtements. L’analyse des entretiens contribue à enrichir le concept de valeur grâce à la mise en exergue de cinq types de bénéfices et quatre types de sacrifices et leurs composantes. Ce constat permet de faire des recommandations aux professionnels du partage et de la location dans la mode, et par extension à d’autres catégories de produits. Mots-clés : partage, accès, location, valeur perçue, non-possession, vêtements.
... The male body schema thereby was presented with large shoulders and slim hips, the female schema with narrow shoulders and large hips. The preferences for one or the other changed during the age of puberty and stayed invariant (Singh, 1993). Our perception seems easily trapped by dummies. ...
Article
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Art in general perception is something that transcends our notion of reality. In view of the earliest findings in Paleolithic sites, their abstract appearance and sometimes ceremonial context increased their status of a secret language. Even the first figurative cave paintings remained in a context of an encoded semantic whole. The highly symbolic value of art seemed invulnerable. It was just the claim for "mimesis" in Greek antiquity (Plato) that urged artists to "realistically" depict what can be seen-as to stay in track of eternal messages behind. This devaluated the artistic oeuvre to a purely imitating craft and had to overcome at once several inherent obstacles. First, that reality (the phenomenal world) is in general only a pale reflection of what lays behind (Platonic ideas) and second, that the human eye, unlike the human mind, cannot penetrate to more than ephemeral impressions. Moreover, it mixed up reality with what we are able to see (i.e. visual perception), thus supposing a pinpoint representation of the world by our senses. Aristotle was the first to qualify art as picturing more than we usually are meant to see, filling the gap between the sensual and the spiritual world. Aristotelian aesthetics includes concepts of reduction and selection of composition and emotion, thus a summarized view within any performance of poetics or painting. And it took centuries to close the gap between natural and aesthetic perception or art. Life sciences in the 20th century discovered the evolutionary basis of sensory perception as being highly biased and organized, concept as emotion-driven and thus, mentally equipped as well. This sets a new approach in our understanding of perception, art, and aesthetics as an ongoing communication in process on common bases. Art may cooperate or disagree, but never can cut the nexus with its perceptual prejudices and substrate.
... As mentioned, it only differed from the predilection in one age group (over 50 years), reaffirming in the rest of the age groups their inclination for the golden ratio. Singh 6 has devoted himself to extensive research of body proportions and WHRs. The author discovered that the ideal shape of the woman is more influenced by the WHR than by the general size of the body. ...
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Over the centuries, our appreciation of beauty has changed, as has the social environment that influences our perspective. Currently we are trying to use measurable instruments to achieve a better aesthetic result in each patient, using as a reference the "golden ratio," which is found in harmonies of all kinds-in art, nature, architecture, and today, in medicine-to aspire to the ideal proportion. Methods: We conducted a survey in which we showed participants 4 digitally modified images of a model with different body proportions, 1 with the golden ratio and 3 with other variable proportions. In total, 900 people were surveyed, of which 131 had attended cosmetic surgery consultation, and 769 respondents were recruited on our social networks. Results: Of the 900 respondents, 607 were women and 293 were men. Fifty-nine percent of the surveyed women chose image C (shown in Fig. 3) and similarly, so did 59.4% of surveyed men, which was not statistically significant; however, when considering age, we found the groups of 21-30, 31-40, and 41-50 chose image C at 46%, 65%, and 67%, respectively, whereas 44% of those over 51 years preferred image B, which is statistically significant. Conclusions: The image whose waist-hip harmony meets the golden ratio (1.61) is most often chosen as "the most beautiful," by both men and women. It is also the preferred image for all age groups under 50.
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