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Investigating Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Station Locations for Agartala, India


Abstract and Figures

Selecting the location for installing electric vehicles charging stations is important to ensure EV adoption and also to address some of the inherent risks such as battery cost and degradation, economic risks, lack of charging infrastructure, risky maintenance of EVs, problems of its integration in smart grid, range anxiety, auxiliary loads and motorist attitude. In this article, we investigate these problems by studying three aspects – 1) three types of electrical vehicle charging stations (Level 1, Level 2 and DC), 2) different types of batteries and 3) different types of electric vehicles. We compared and contrasted the features of these charging stations, batteries and EV to identify the best choice for a given scenario. We applied the framework proposed in [1], and used Agartala, India as a case study to identify location for charging stations in and around Agartala suburbs.
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Investigating Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Station Locations for
Agartala, India
Somudeep Bhattacharjee1, Saima Batool2, Champa Nandi1 and
Udsanee Pakdeetrakulwong3,*
1Tripura University
2School of Information Systems, Curtin Business School, Curtin University
3Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University
Selecting the location for installing electric vehicles charging stations is important to ensure EV
adoption and also to address some of the inherent risks such as battery cost and degradation, economic risks,
lack of charging infrastructure, risky maintenance of EVs, problems of its integration in smart grid, range
anxiety, auxiliary loads and motorist attitude. In this article, we investigate these problems by studying three
aspects 1) three types of electrical vehicle charging stations (Level 1, Level 2 and DC), 2) different types of
batteries and 3) different types of electric vehicles. We compared and contrasted the features of these charging
stations, batteries and EV to identify the best choice for a given scenario. We applied the framework proposed in
[1], and used Agartala, India as a case study to identify location for charging stations in and around Agartala
Keywords: Electric vehicle, charging stations, electric vehicle battery, charging stations location conditions,
1. Introduction
An electric car is actually an alternative-design automobile that basically uses an electric motor to
provide power to the car, with the electricity being provided by a battery. On the other hand, a conventional car
does have a lead-acid battery as part of its standard equipment but this battery is used for operating the starter
and not providing power to the vehicle. This technology works in this way that the electric vehicle uses a motor
just like conventional, internal combustion engine cars. The main difference is that the electric vehicle power
supply is derived from its battery-stored electricity and not from the mechanical power derived from burning
gasoline. The electric vehicle replaces the traditional gasoline or diesel engine and fuel tank with an electric
motor, a battery pack and controllers. The vehicle uses a controller that provides power to the electric motor that
uses rechargeable batteries as its energy source. The motor itself can be either AC or DC. The main advantage
of electric vehicle is mainly the motor and battery configuration. This allows the vehicle to run more fuel-
efficiently. PHEV (plug in hybrid electrical vehicle) is a hybrid vehicle that can be plugged into the power grid
for charging the battery. In this vehicle, a medium-capacity battery is available that helps the electrical vehicle
in allowing it in all-electric modes , to achieve several kilometers , and acceleration rates and also it help to
attain top speeds comparable to those of gasoline-powered vehicles. Examples: Chevrolet Volt (often classified
as an E R E V), Ford C-Max and Fusion Energi, Cadillac E L R and Toyota Prius P H E V. On the basis of
different types of power trains (or drive trains), hybrid electric vehicles can be classified into three categories:
(1) Parallel hybrid, (2) Series hybrid, and (3) Power-split hybrid. Among these, the parallel hybrid electric
vehicle is commonly adopted. PHEVs are usually consists of an electric motor and an additional ICE for
propulsion. This mixed propulsion system helps in enabling PHEVs to be driven in two modes: charge
depleting (CD) mode and charge sustaining (CS) mode. When this type of electric vehicles operated in CD
mode then it mainly drawn energy from on-board battery packs. If the battery state of charge (SOC) has been
depleted to a pre- determined level, PHEVs will then switch to CS mode and utilize the ICE system for further
propulsion. When it is operated in CS mode, PHEVs combine both power sources so that it can operate as
efficiently as possible. Meanwhile, the controller can monitor the battery SOC level and then maintain it with in
a pre- determined band.
* Corresponding author; e-mail:
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2. Objectives
Global warming is becoming a major problem and the best way to combat it is to reduce air pollution.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered a best option to reduce air pollution and making environment safe again.
In order to operate, electric vehicles need charging stations at suitable places. If appropriate and recommended
places are not chosen then it will decrease the utilization, visibility and effectiveness of a charging station,
which results in adoption of traditional carbon- emitting gasoline vehicles and a decrease in EV sales. Hence, it
is very essential to carefully select locations for EV charging stations for promotion of EVs and the cause of
avoiding global warming.
The main objective of this study is to determine the best locations for installing EV public charging
stations in Agartala, India. Our selection for EV charging station location will depend on the set of conditions
that have to be met in order to qualify for a place to be established as an EV public charging station. In addition,
we will also determine the best type of charging station based on the type and charging duration of the particular
EV type. Finally, this research will provide a specific and thorough insight of establishing EV public charging
station in growing cities like Agartala, India.
3. Research Methodology
The framework proposed by [1], is used as a guideline to assess the implementation of EV charging
infrastructure for Agartala city. To achieve this, 3 areas are studied 1) Different types of charging stations, 2)
EV types, 3) battery types. First of all, different types of charging stations are studied and compared. Next,
various types of EVs are analyzed thoroughly. Moreover, the charging vehicle location selection conditions,
infrastructure and the best suitable places in Agartala are selected based on the electric vehicle charging station
location selection conditions and the map of Agartala.
Preliminary Concepts
We know that as the global benefits of a serious energy crisis, alternative energy for sustainable
development is renewable energy .The generation of this energy is pollution free and so this is the first choice
of many countries of the world like the United states, Japan and Europe and so the development of electric
vehicles is a way to save nature and to resolve important issue of planning the national grid. An electrical
vehicle requires charging station and so the locations of charging station have to be determined carefully. A
charging station is a location where an electric vehicle can be plugged in to have electric charge deposited in to
their batteries. They are not chargers, but can be considered as an electrical energy source.
Different types of charging stations:
There are mainly three types of charging stations which are categorized as Level 1, Level 2 and DC
charging stations.
LEVEL 1 Charging Station (120 volts and up to 16 amps):
In all electrical vehicles, an on-board Level 1 charger is equipped that can be plugged into any normal
power outlet (C S A 5-15R*). It gives an advantage of not requiring any electrical work, or at least minimizes
any installation costs. Table 1 shows the charging time using a Level 1 charger based on distance driven. 12-A
charging cable and 120-V outlet is considered. Charging cable rated less than 12A require longer charging times
LEVEL 2 Charging Station (240 volts and 12-80 amps):
In this type, the charging time of Level 2 charging stations can be limited by the specifications of the
on-board charger and the state of the battery, irrespective of the rated power of the charging station. It is
believed that the charger capacity is going to increase in future, for example, Tesla already offers on-board 10
kW and 20 kW chargers. Table 1 shows that level 2 charging stations takes less time to charge as compared to
the level 1 charging stations even though the distance traveled is similar. Level 2 charging stations have smart
and timeless design. It is simple to use (plug the EV in and let it charge). It helps in reducing energy
consumption. In addition, it offers Ethernet network for Radio Frequency Identification (RFI) authorization and
vehicle ground monitoring circuit. The cord holder keeps the cord organized and out of the way of parking
spaces, sidewalks and streets, etc. One example of this is Schneider EV link Indoor Charging Station, which has
ground monitor and user friendly LEDs to display status like charging, detected fault, power etc. It has the
capability for automatic recovery and restart after ground fault interrupt or main power loss [1].
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DC Fast Charging Station (480 volts and up to 125 amps):
DC fast-charge stations generally support two standards:
The North American S A E J 1772 Combo standard and the Japanese J E V S G105-1993* standard.
The configuration of the charging plug and the electrical vehicle socket follows the same basic principle
compared to the communication protocol between the charging station and the electrical vehicle but have
different standards [1]. Table 1 shows the time required to charge a battery with a 100-km range to 80% of its
full capacity.
Analysis of Different Charging Stations
Table 1 shows the comparison of different charging stations which are categorized as Level 1, Level 2
and DC charging stations based on electric vehicle distance travelled in km, estimated energy consumption of
electric vehicle in kWh, charging station power of electric vehicle in kW, approximate charging time in hour.
Table 1: The comparison between different charging stations levels (Adopted from [1])
Different types
of charging
LEVEL 1(120
volts and up to
16 amps)
LEVEL 2 (240
volts and 12-80
for 15-A station
(240-V, 20-A
two pole circuit
LEVEL 2 (240
volts and 12-80
amps) for 30-A
station (240-
V,40-A two pole
circuit breaker):
DC fast charging
(480 volts and up
to 125 amps):
Why Level 2 charging station is more suitable?
The answer to this question lies in this fact that the most important condition for selecting an electric
vehicle charging station location is that how much time is spend by the consumer for charging his vehicle in the
charging station. So the time spend is an important factor.
From these charts, it is clear that for the same amount of distance travelled in km, electric vehicle
required different charging time in each type of charging station .Also it is shown that Level 2 charging station
provides facility to consumer to charge his vehicle in a very short time as compared to other types of charging
station. The charts that are shown above prove this.
Types of Electric Vehicles (EVs)
EVs can be divided into the following categories. First, on-road highway speed vehicle that is an
electrical vehicle capable of driving on all public roads and highways. The performance of these electrical
vehicles is similar to Internal Combustion Engine vehicles. Second, the city electric vehicles, normally, the city
electric vehicles have been BEVs (Battery Electric Vehicle - these vehicles can be powered 100% by the battery
energy storage system available on-board the vehicle) that are capable of driving on most public roads, but
basically not driven on highways. The maximum speed is typically limited to 55 mph. Third category of EVs is
also known as low speed vehicles (LSVs). Actually they are BEVs that are limited to 25 mph and are allowed in
certain jurisdictions to operate on public streets posted at 35 mph or less. Commercial On-Road Highway Speed
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Vehicles is the last category of EVs. The commercial electric vehicles include commercial trucks and buses.
These vehicles are available in both BEVs and PHEVs (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle the vehicles utilizing
a battery and an internal combustion engine (ICE) which is powered by either gasoline or diesel). Table 2
provides information on several different on-road highway speed electric vehicles, their battery pack size, and
charge times at different power levels to replenish a depleted battery.
Table 2: Different types of EVs with battery pack size and charging times at different power levels (Adopted
from [1])
110 VAC,
15 amp
110 VAC,
20 amp
220 VAC,
40 amp
6 kW1
440 VAC,
85 amp
55 kW1
230 minutes
160 m
40 m
440 m
80 m
870 m
160 m
17 m
1308 m
960 m
240 m
1910 m
1400 m
350 m
500 m
Note: Power delivered to battery is calculated as follows: 110VAC x 12Amps x.85 eff.; 110VAC x 16Amps x
.85 eff.; 220VAC x 32 Amps x.85 eff.; 480VAC x √3 x 85 Amps x .85 eff. From Table 2, it is clear that
different electric vehicle configuration require different charging time for different battery size at different
power levels to replenish a depleted battery. This helps to find out the charging time in minutes required by
different electric vehicle configurations of different battery size at different power levels. Using Table 3, we
study the charging time for 100km of BEV range with power supply, power (in kW), voltage (in V) and
maximum current (in A). It helps to show the relation of charging time of fixed 100km distance with its power
supply, power (in kW), voltage (in V) and maximum current (in A). Thus, the driver finds charging an electric
vehicle as simple as connecting a normal electrical appliance. In addition, Table 12 provides comparison
between different recharge times of BEV for 100km range. Consequently, it seems clear that charging through
single phase takes longer time then 10 minutes of direct current charging, that is the reason for advocating for
DC charging infrastructure for EVs.
Table 3: Charging time for BEV range of Electric Vehicles (Adopted from [1])
Charging time for
100km of BEV
Power supply
Power(in kW)
Voltage(in V)
Maximum current
(in A)
6-8 hours
Single phase
230 V AC
3-4 hours
Single phase
230 V AC
2-3 hours
Three phase
400 V AC
1-2 hours
Three phase
400 V AC
20-30 minutes
Three phase
400 V AC
20-30 minutes
Direct current
400- 500 V DC
10 minutes
Direct current
300-500 V DC
The electric vehicle battery is the core component of an electric vehicle with one of the two propulsion sources
of HEV and PHEV. Basically, the battery is the sole propulsion source for BEV. There are still some constraints
on present EV battery technology, which works as a barrier for wider EV uptake. The current EV battery has
relatively low energy density. This low energy density directly affects the maximum all-electric drive range of
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the EV. In addition, high battery cost of EV is also a big disadvantage as the purchase cost of EV is considerably
higher than conventional internal combustion engine vehicle. Some concerns are also present about the battery
life cycle and its safety features. However, EV battery goes through some tremendous improvements in the past
decades. EV battery technology goes through a few development phases for inventing the battery with high-
energy density, high power density, inexpensive, safe and durable. Lead-acid battery was the initial battery
technology used in transportation and its name comes from the combination of lead electrodes and acid used to
generate electricity. Lead-acid battery is a really a matured technology and also cheap. However, some apparent
drawbacks of lead-acid battery are present, such as low energy density, heavy, require inspection of electrolyte
level and are not environmentally friendly.
Table 4: Comparison of EV Battery Types and their specifications (Adopted from [3])
Battery type
voltage (V)
density (Wh/
Volumetric energy
density (Wh/L)
power (W/kg)
Lead acid(Pb-acid)
Nickel-metal hydride(Ni-MH)
Lithium-ion (Li-ion)
Lithium-ion polymer (LiPo)
Lithium-iron phosphate (LiFePO4)
Zinc-air (Zn-air)
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S)
Table 5: Comparison of EV Battery Types and their specifications (Adopted from [3])
Battery type
per month)
cost ($/kWh)
Lead acid(Pb-acid)
-15 to +15
Nickel-cadium (Ni-Cd)
-20 to +50
-20 to +60
+245 to +350
Lithium-ion (Li-ion)
-20 to +60
polymer (LiPo)
-20 to +60
-45 to +70
Zinc-air (Zn-air)
-10 to +55
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S)
-60 to+60
Lithium-air (Li-air)
-10 to +70
Charging Vehicle Location Selection
The sites of the charging station have a very significant impact loads, at this point, charging station is
very similar to traditional gas station, charging station requires a higher penetration of electric vehicles in areas
surrounding the construction of a natural high, such as new urban planning to support key enter prices and so on.
Our work contributes to identify suitable locations for construction of public charging stations. In this paper we
have analyzed possibilities of establishing a public EV charging station in Agartala, India in particular. Charging
stations located along the highways are also in high demand since high speed EVs usually requires fast
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Public Charging Stations
In this section we will list and describe the most suitable charging locations for the installation of
public charging stations. These charging stations can be located at parking lots that serve train stations, shopping
centres, restaurants, hotels and resorts. When selecting a potential charging station, the following criteria should
be considered.
Traffic density
The first criterion is traffic density. Traffic density is a necessary factor because the size of the
installation should be related to be expected number of users. If the charging station is located near a major road,
with high traffic density, then maximum number of people may use it for charging their electrical vehicles.
However, areas with high traffic density are in densely populated locations, where the land value is significantly
higher. One way to address this concern is to use land that is already allocated for traditional parking lots and
convert them to EVSPLs (Electric vehicles solar parking lots) [4]. Further, these lots can also be converted to
multi-level parking’s where the EV can be on the top where they receive sunlight whereas the traditional
vehicles can be underneath.
EV Charging Duration
The second criterion is EV charging duration; i.e. how long does it take to charge an electric vehicle.
Electric vehicle need time to charge so it is necessary that the charging stations should be located near public
places like shopping centres, work places, educational institutions so that people do not have to wait while their
EVs are charging. The charging can happen while they are doing their usual activity such as being at work,
weekly shopping etc. As (Nunes et al., 2016) suggests that public charging stations should be installed on
worksites and public parks. This allows EV users to charge their EVs without having to wait [4].
Surrounding Vehicle Movement
The third criterion is the surrounding vehicle movement. This is important because charging vehicles
must not hinder normal traffic flow, as it will become a hurdle, which may even cause accidents. Further, this
location must not hinder pedestrian traffic or be subject to high pedestrian traffic because of the associated risk
of vandalism. Public EV charging stations have numerous effects on its surrounding environment, transportation
and energy needs and hence these implications have to be examined carefully [4]. One way of implementation
would be along the street side parking bays. Electric vehicles (EV) have a very diverse characteristic, as it can
act both as consumer and producer. In first case, EV’s act as consumer, it is depended on renewable energy
resources, batteries, smart grid (G2V- Grid to vehicle) and electric chargers to recharge. In second case, it is
producer as well, as EVs can be an essential part of the smart grid. It can act as an energy producer since it
stores energy and can provide it back to smart grid when the demand is at peak, this process is known as
discharge or (V2G- vehicle to grid). Whereas, there are some concerns about customers’ behaviour in
participating in V2G programs that is uncertainty about their participation. Describing the solar panels on
parking panels and its impacts on energy in the surrounding areas, it is evident that parking lots are a lot more
visible and hence can attract potential customers for electric vehicles making EV adoption much more easier [4].
Consequently, EV adoption can have significant positive impacts on human health [4]. Another impact of solar
parking lots is their benefit to local market. Since customers will choose a shopping centre with solar parking
lots because it will charge their cars while they do their shopping. This will boost the local economy [4]. In
addition, there will be lots of employment opportunities for the local technicians to install and maintain a solar
parking lot [4]. Hence, installing a solar parking lot is beneficial in a number ways for a particular location like
Agartala, India and its surrounding areas.
Winter Accessibility
The fourth criterion is winter accessibility. The location must be cleared and accessible during winter
since some countries have severe winters [1]. The use of EVs should not depend on weather and hence EV
public charging stations should be available at all times. Photovoltaic covered EV charging stations protect it
from severe weather conditions like condensation, freezing rain and frost etc. [5].
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Protection from Collisions
The fifth criterion is protection from collisions. The location must provide protection against collisions.
It is necessary to provide protection for avoiding accidents and public property damage. Also for maintaining
peace in the environment of the road by avoiding fights which may occur due to the collisions of vehicles [1].
Cellular network
The sixth criterion is cellular network access. Access to a cellular network is necessary if required by
charging station [1]. Charging stations need to be in line of communication with smart grid since utilities like
load management, peak demand and V2G programs depend on the communication that requires cellular network
and Internet access as well. These two facilities can attract customers also since they cannot be out of coverage
while present at a charging station. WIFI access can also help them connect to apps associated with their EVs
and charging stations. In fact, public stations may provide telecommunications features, which will be different
for different manufacturers. Many models contain transmitters compatible with cellular telephone networks and
do not require additional infrastructure, while others will require a local wireless network, such as a ZigBee
protocol network, which involves careful sitting of stations and transmitters. Also many stations communicate
over a wired link, such as a twisted-pair or fiber-optic Ethernet network, which should be included in the design
of the electrical installation.
The seventh criterion is visibility of charging station. Visibility of the charging station to encourage its
use by drivers is an important factor [1]. It helps to increase number of users. If users can see the station from
far places then it will help them to locate the charging station that increases the use of charging station.
Feasibility of required excavation work and Proximity of distribution panel
The eight criterion is feasibility of required excavation work and the ninth criteria are proximity of
distribution panel [1]. Where a distribution panel is the component of an electric panel, its function is is to
divide the electricity feed to the “subsidiary” circuits [5]. Both of them are very important factor, which help to
make the location more suitable for charging station. The proximity to the electrical service is an important
factor in locating the public parking areas.
Table 6: Prime locations in Agartala and their mapping in different criteria
Traffic Density
vehicle movement
Protection from
Cellular network
Holy cross school
Don Bosco School
the Agartala international school
Henry Derozio School
Momos n More
Raaste Cafe
Hotel Sonari Tori
Hotel invitation, Royal Veg,
Curry Club Restaurant
Coffee Tea and Me
Tripura Sundari College of nursing
Women’s College
Maharaja Bikram College
BBM College
Tripura Government College.
CBI Office
Agartala municipal council office
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Traffic Density
vehicle movement
Protection from
Cellular network
Directorate of higher education office
Tripura Public Service commission office
Krishi Bhawan office.
Office of the AG
Hotel Welcome Palace
Hotel City Center
Executive INN
Hotel Jaipur Palace
Rajdhani Hotel
Royal Guest House (Hotel)
Ginger Hotel.
ILS Hospital
GB Pant Hospital
Devlok Hospital
GB Hospital Medical College
Tripura Medical College
Agartala Government Medical College
GB Hospital
Green Touch Resort
Shyamali Tourist Resort
Hotel Woodland Park
Rose Valley Amusement park.
Laxminarayan Bari Mandir
Jagannath Mandir
Iskcon Bari, Durga Bari
Ummaneshwar temple
Fourteen Gods Temple
Tripura Sundari temple
M L Plaza, Metro Baazar
Bag Bazar
Agartala City Center,
Femme Zone/FEM Salon and spa
Saradamani Shopping mall.
Agartala airport parking place
Railway station parking place
Rupasi cinema hall
Balaka cinema hall
Tripura puppet theatre
Location Feasibility Analysis
For fast charging station infrastructure requires a concrete base and their installation is similar to that of
street side locations. For this station, the conditions are:
The configuration of the station
The locations of any underground lines and tanks
The distance from the street(the charging cable must never extend over the sidewalk)
It required excavation work
The proximity of distribution panel
The planning of any underground conduits and excavation work.
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It requires consultation with Info-Excavation before starting work.
The possibility of installing a concrete base
It requires contractor expertise (must have appropriate R B Q and C M E Q licenses).
For publicly available charging, the sitting requirements are involve many questions such as ownership,
vandalism, payment for use and maintenance. Also we must take care that flood prone area restrictions must be
considered as well as issues of standing water or high precipitation. The people will not be comfortable when
operating with the EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment these equipment helps in the transfer of energy
between the electric utility power and the electric vehicle.) in standing water. The area designated for Public use
should be in a preferred parking area.
Installation Flowchart for Public Charging
The above flowchart summarizes the whole process of installing an EV public charging station. It starts
with step one which is “consultation with utility” it includes utility consideration. The second step is
“consultation with the governing authority”, it includes all the steps associated with public planning. Then, the
constructors “consult with the EV enthusiasts”, these are the individuals or parties who want to promote and
advertise EV and public charging stations. Subsequently, step four the builders consults the EV suppliers and
EVSE suppliers that is determining the level of charging stations i.e level- 1, level-2 or fast DC charging
stations. The step five of this charging station installation flow chart includes consultation with the local
business owners for examples determining the quantity of solar energy for EVs. Step six, involves
communication with electric contractors to assess the safety and accessibility measures for electric vehicle
parking lots. Step seven, includes consultation with property owners and EV promoters. Step eight, involves
the major step of developing the site plan development. It includes drawing the designs for electric vehicles
parking lots. Step nine, includes obtaining required permits from government. Here all particular building rules
should be satisfied. Step ten is the second last step of conducting installation. Step eleventh, in this step the
construction of completed charging station is inspected and if every required is fulfilled then it is approved.
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Figure 4 Installation flow chart for installing Public EV charging Station (Adopted from [6])
Proposed Locations for Charging Stations in Agartala
Based on the criteria discussed above, we have identified some places for placing an electrical vehicle
charging station that is further divided into some categories:
Schools with parking place
Schools with parking places especially solar parking lots where EVs can recharge is one of the best
scenarios. An EVSPL (electric vehicle solar parking lot) is suitable for schools since parents of the students can
recharge their EVs while they come to school for any engagement. In the same way since schools have large
parking lots specially so it can be an alternative place for recharging EVs when other solar parking lots are fully
packed. In addition, number of schools are greater then rare EVSPLs so school locations with EVSPLs can be
an effective of reducing “range anxiety” and can result in successful EV adoption.
Keeping in view the earlier mentioned criteria for EVPLs we have identified some schools. These
schools’ parking lots can be transformed in to EVSPLs. These schools are Holy cross school, Don Bosco
School, the Agartala international school, Henry Derozio School.
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Restaurant with parking places
Similarly the following places are suitable for EVSPLs. Momos n More, Raaste Cafe, Coffee Tea and
Me, Hotel Sonari Tori, Hotel invitation, Royal Veg, Curry Club Restaurant.
College with parking place: Colleges that are suitable for constructing EVSPL are : Tripura Sundari College of
nursing, Women’s College, Maharaja Bikram College, BBM College, Tripura Government College.
Government offices with parking places: Government offices with EV charging stations can be an effective
solution as well for strengthening EV market. CBI Office , Office of the AG, Agartala municipal council
office, Directorate of higher education office, Tripura Public Service commission office, Krishi Bhawan office.
Hotel with parking places
These hotels with EV charging stations is ideal since they are public and potential customers spend
more hours there. Hotel Welcome Palace, Hotel City Center, Executive INN, Hotel Jaipur Palace, Rajdhani
Hotel, Royal Guest House (Hotel), Ginger Hotel.
Hospital with parking place
Hospitals with EV charging stations can be count on in times of emergency as well. ILS Hospital, GB
Hospital, GB Pant Hospital, Devlok Hospital, Apollo Gleneagles Hospital Information Center, GB Hospital
Medical College, Tripura Medical College, Agartala Government Medical College.
Resort with parking place: Resorts are also a better place to install public charging stations. Since, not only
visitors visit this place but hotel staff and general public can also come to resorts for festive seasons. Hence, it
becomes a densely populated area with requirement for a electric vehicle public charging stations. Some are of
the suitable places for this purpose in Agartala India are Green Touch Resort, Shyamali Tourist Resort, Hotel
Woodland Park, Rose Valley Amusement Park.
Temple with parking place
Temples are best locations for installing public electric vehicles charging stations since this is one of
the public places with good space. Some of the appropriate places for setting up EV charging stations in temples
of Agartala are: Laxminarayan Bari Mandir , Jagannath Mandir, Iskcon Bari, Durga Bari , Ummaneshwar
temple, Fourteen Gods Temple, Tripura Sundari temple.
Shopping center with parking place
In addition, shopping centers are one of the most suitable place for public charging stations due to its
parking requirements and the frequency of potential EV customers’ visit. Some public charging stations can be
installed in these shopping centres in Agartala i.e ML Plaza, Metro Baazar, Bag Bazar, Agartala City Center,
Femme Zone/FEM Salon and spa, Saradamani Shopping mall.
Agartala airport parking place
Agartala airport parking place is another example of suitable place of installation of EV parking place
due to the availability of parking space and public reach. Agartala airport can provide convenience for airport
visitors, cab owners and staff of the airport. A public charging station installed at airport can also attract new EV
customers due to its convenience.
Other public places for EV public charging stations installation
Subsequently, railway stations, petrol stations and cinema halls with parking spaces are ideal for
constructing public EV charging stations. Due to high traffic density, visibility, availability of cellular network
and the entire criterion based on above table we can suggest that the EV public charging stations should not only
be installed here but it will also strengthen EV customer base in Agartala, India. Some places identified in this
regard are Rupasi cinema hall, Balaka cinema hall and Tripura puppet theatre.
4. Future Work
It is better to visit each parking place then make a record of the number of users using these place,
infrastructure is needed to make favorable electrical vehicle charging station or making a website showing
locations of private and public charging stations in Agartala. It will increase more users and a website can be
developed displaying the cost ratings and quality of charging stations in Agartala. We further check which type
of charging stations are more suitable for the location based on the number of users utilising it.
The 2nd International Conference of Multidisciplinary Approaches on UN Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDGs) |
Bangkok Thailand | 28-29 December 2017
EET | 13
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Photovoltaic covered-parking systems using lightweight, thin-film PV
  • T Lepley
  • P Nath
T. Lepley and P. Nath, "Photovoltaic covered-parking systems using lightweight, thin-film PV," in Conference Record of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference -1997, 1997, pp. 1305-1308.