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A literature review of the passenger benefits of real-time transit information

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Abstract

Recently, it has become common practice for transit operators to provide real-time information (RTI) to passengers about the location or predicted arrival times of transit vehicles. Accompanying this is a growing body of literature that aims to assess the impacts of RTI on transit passenger behaviour and perceptions. The main objective of this research is to compile a literature review of studies that assess the passenger benefits of RTI provision. The results suggest that the primary behavioural changes associated with providing RTI to passengers pertain to decreased wait times, reductions in overall travel time due to changes in path choice, and increased use of transit. RTI may also be associated with increased satisfaction with transit service and increases in the perception of personal security when riding transit. A second objective of this review was to identify areas for future research based on remaining gaps in the literature; two keys areas that were identified are assessing actual behavioural changes of path choice of transit riders and conducting cost–benefit analyses post implementation of RTI systems. The results of this study have immediate implications for public transit operators considering implementation or expansion of RTI systems and researchers seeking topics for future investigation.

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... Waiting times, particularly under uncertainty, have been shown to be perceived as being significantly more onerous than other time components of a PT trip (Wardman et al. 2016). However, both perceived and actual waiting times can be mitigated by the adoption of pre-trip or en route information (Brakewood and Watkins 2018). Moreover, in microeconomic consumer choice theory, the role of information is essential in forming the foundation for the individual's trade-offs between different utilities and disutilities. ...
... The literature on behavioural impacts and use of RTI may roughly be subdivided into an analytic and an empirical strand. Brakewood and Watkins (2018) provide a comprehensive overview of the literature regarding the effects of the use of RTI on passengers' actual and perceived waiting times, total travel times, ridership and perceived quality and security. In their synthesis, they report average waiting time gains of 2 min and perceived waiting time reductions by up to 30%, however subject to self-selection in the quoted surveys. ...
... Thus, it was used more in advance of or during trips in which multiple PT lines or stops were available in the perceived passenger choice set. According to Brakewood and Watkins (2018), only analytical studies have analysed the overall effects on total travel time from the provision of RTI. One such example is provided by Cats et al. (2011) in the results from their mesoscopic dynamic model of the Stockholm metro. ...
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Waiting times are important indicators of the degree of travel time optimisation and other behavioural traits among public transport (PT) passengers. As previous studies have shown, the level and usage of pre-trip information regarding schedule or real-time departures are important factors that influence the potential to realise travel time savings by enabling PT passengers to optimise waiting times. Most empirical evidence regarding the revealed PT travel behaviour concerning information levels is based on manual interviews or traditional travel surveys, in which there is a risk that the actual context of where and when the choice of departure time was made is not taken into account. This paper reports the results of a travel survey based on a dedicated smartphone application applied in a field study in a Swedish mid-size urban and regional context. Context-aware notification prompting was used to allow respondents to state their use of pre-trip information as well as whether they had pre-planned their trip and how contingent planning aids were used for time optimisation. The implications on passenger waiting times of the use of information regarding departure times by passengers were emphasised during analyses of the resulting data, along with personal characteristics, in which auxiliary sources such as timetable data and Automatic Vehicle Location were utilised to determine ground truth trip trajectories and trip-contextual factors. The results indicate the significance of having access to pre-trip information, especially for long trips above one hour’s duration, in order to pre-plan and thereby optimise waiting times. In addition, the use and source of pre-trip information differ among age and gender groups. Trip purpose and time of day to some extent determine waiting times and choice of trip optimisation strategy (arrival or departure time).
... Features that could allow commuters to; make advance arrangement for rides (passenger booking feature), e-payments to trotro drivers/mates (payment feature), cancel rides without a charge (ride-cancellation), track trotros in real time, report driver and mate misbehavior (reporting feature/trip evaluation feature), and use the digitized service with no-Wifi, were identified as being potential technology-based features of paratransit (Dzisi et al., 2021;Schmidt, 2013;Vanderschuren and Baufeldt, 2018). Brakewood and Watkins (2019) as well identified that, technology-based transit solutions (such as real time transit information) made transit riders generally more satisfied with transit services. Technology-based transit solutions via cellphone [and other personal devices] also increased frequency of transit use (Brakewood et al., 2015a,b;Ferris et al., 2010;Gooze et al., 2013;Tang and Thakuriah, 2012) and feelings of personal safety (Brakewood et al., 2014), while decreasing actual and perceived wait times of transit services (Brakewood et al., 2014;Brakewood et al., 2015a,b;Ji et al., 2017;Watkins et al., 2011). ...
... In this study, it was hypothesized that understanding service quality issues of the trotro and possible factors that could discourage commuters (of all groups) from using it, could help in addressing the issues of this mode of transport. The technological solutions assessed were also hypothesized to create better satisfaction (Brakewood and Watkins, 2019) with trotros and have bearing on its continued use (Cardozo, 1965). ...
... The features presented to commuters included; a booking feature (that could allow commuters to make advance arrangement for rides), a payment feature (that could allow commuters to make e-payments to trotro drivers/mates using the app), a ride-cancellation feature (that could allow commuters to cancel rides without a charge), a real-time trotro tracking feature (that could help commuters readily locate the next available trotro), a driver and mate reporting feature (that could allow commuters to report driver/ mate misbehavior), and a no-Wifi feature (that could allow commuters to use the MaaS service without WiFi). These features were selected based on (Brakewood and Watkins, 2019;Eszterg ar-kiss & Ker enyi, 2019;Schmidt, 2013;The World Bank, 2011;Acheampong, 2021;Dzisi et al., 2020). Features that were observed to have more than 50% of the respondents select them were considered most in-demand for the trotro service, and most likely to highlight also, areas of concern as regards service quality. ...
Article
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In Ghana, minibus taxis (trotros) are an important mode of transport that commute about 60% of the traveling public. In spite of their popularity, minibuses are generally inefficient, disorganized and have low service quality. In an attempt to assess service quality of the service, a modified SERVPERF tool was developed. Differences in perceptions of service quality between male and female respondents were also assessed, and the attractiveness of certain technological features as possible remedies to service quality issues were determined. Using an online Google forms version of the modified SERVPERF, responses from nearly one thousand commuters were collected. The link to the questionnaire was dispersed via social media (Whatsapp and Telegram) since the data was collected during the outbreak of COVID-19 in Ghana. Following a factor reduction, the most important service quality factors determined to affect trotro users were (i) Reliability of the service, (ii) Variability in cost and (iii) Responsiveness. Respondents also identified technologies that could help them (a) book, (b) report driver misbehavior, (c) make safe e-payments and (d) track the location of trotros, as most likely to improve their trotro service quality. The findings suggest that some mobility as a service features could have possible benefit for the trotro. The study is however limited in its ability to determine the exact impact of these technologies since it uses a stated preference approach. Future research could explore the willingness of other stakeholder groups such as operators in adopting these technologies since their participation would be key to the success of any such scheme.
... Online website such as Google Maps is one of the best examples of a real- Major benefits of implementing RTI are a decrease in waiting time, an increase in satisfaction, an increase in ridership, and an increase in personal security. [15] The most positive effect of RTI is the decrease in waiting time. By having the knowledge about when the next fleet arrives, it allows users to delay or hustle their departure to the waiting spot, and thus reduce their actual waiting time. ...
... Nevertheless, it is fair to believe that the major benefit from RTI provision would be an increase in ridership. [15] ...
... It is also expected that this improvement should result in a decrease of waiting time. [15][16] [21] Since it has been found that waiting time weighs heavily on public transportation usage [8], a certain provision of information would imply an increase in public transportation attractiveness. ...
Article
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In many developing cities, like Medan, the state of public transportation is considered inadequate and limited to paratransit, locally known as ‘angkot.’ While advanced mass transit systems are still far in the future, improving the paratransit is arguably the most plausible supporting solution at the moment. Paratransit users in Medan have reported to our study that reliability is one of their sources of disappointment. Technological development nowadays should ease the problem through the quality of real-time information provision. In this preliminary study, we conducted surveys to explore users’ perspective and desire for transit information services. Questionnaire responses from 350 tech-savvy users were collected from several centers of activity and terminals. It is as expected that most respondents experienced uncertainty using the current paratransit, and acknowledged the importance of having information services. Further result shows the user’s high expectancy towards information related to fleet location and arriving time estimation. In general, users were willing to use information services if provided regardless of the additional costs. This preliminary study gives a meaningful view of the opportunity to improve public likeness to this local paratransit service. This research is part of research on perception and preference of paratransit user on real-time information provision.
... Real-time transit information which is "a system of up-to-the-minute tracking using automatic vehicle location or circuit systems" (Brakewood & Watkins, 2019), is increasingly being implemented in transit networks worldwide (Cats, et al., 2011). Through automatic vehicle location (AVL) systems, the location of a vehicle is sent to a central server often located with the transit authority, and this information is subsequently disseminated to travelers either directly or through application programming interfaces (APIs) (Brakewood & Watkins, 2019). ...
... Real-time transit information which is "a system of up-to-the-minute tracking using automatic vehicle location or circuit systems" (Brakewood & Watkins, 2019), is increasingly being implemented in transit networks worldwide (Cats, et al., 2011). Through automatic vehicle location (AVL) systems, the location of a vehicle is sent to a central server often located with the transit authority, and this information is subsequently disseminated to travelers either directly or through application programming interfaces (APIs) (Brakewood & Watkins, 2019). ...
... For policymakers, GPS-based smartphone applications offer an opportunity to engage with the spatial reality of local communities and their travel patterns (Joseph et al., 2020). According to Brakewood & Watkins (2019), the sudden growth of real-time information in transportation has also been because of three primary advancements in technology. Firstly, there has been a growth in the manufacture and use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS). ...
Article
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Mobility-as-a-service (MaaS), is a concept originally developed to enhance transport accessibility through the provision of tailored mobility services that are paid for in one package. Tailored on-demand transport sharing as MaaS proposes, could allow for greater optimization of transportation resources, reduction in congestion, and a shift away from car dependence. In so doing, MaaS can create sustainable consumption and ensure the maximization of otherwise underutilized public transport assets. In the developing world, the concept of MaaS can seem abstract and challenging to implement. This is primarily because the transport forms available in these places are unstructured, informal and often, poorly regulated. Despite this, public transportation options in developing countries stand the chance of benefitting the most from the inclusion of technology in their operations. To implement MaaS in developing countries, there may be a need for a re-envisioning of MaaS itself. Additionally, gaps that can be filled with technology have to be identified, and operator and commuter willingness to adopt technological innovation, determined. This paper explores the opportunities and challenges in implementing MaaS in developing economies and makes recommendations of best-fitting technological solutions for these settings. The paper proposes as well, a conceptual business model for a paratransit-based MaaS, constructed around the current operations of paratransit.
... RTI tools enable transport operators to feed passengers reliable information, and bus users benefit the most from these tools (Harmony & Gayah, 2017). These benefits for PT passengers can be grouped into five main factors: wait times, total travel time, perceived security, satisfaction and transit use (Brakewood & Watkins, 2019). Wait time is the most widely researched factor, and consistently shows positive effects in reducing both actual wait time by 1.5-4 min and perceived wait time at bus stops (Brakewood et al., 2014;Cats & Gkioulou, 2017;Ferris et al., 2010;Ji et al., 2018;Lu et al., 2018;Watkins et al, 2011). ...
... Step 2 is based on an ad-hoc survey of bus passengers carried out in one specific corridor with two goals: to validate the results of the first step about the potential adoption of bus trips; and to investigate which types of information should be enhanced. The benefits of transport apps for passengers have been widely analyzed and also reviewed by Brakewood and Watkins (2019). However, our survey introduces a new perspective in the field: it allows to compare the utility of various PT apps according to the perceptions of metropolitan passengers. ...
Article
Mobility in metropolitan rings is often more car-dependent than in urban cores. Buses are emerging as an efficient option to promote sustainable mobility in metropolitan corridors, although they are perceived as being less reliable than rail or the car. The adoption of real-time information (RTI) tools for passengers can mitigate this issue. This paper aims (i) to explore the potential bus demand in metropolitan corridors, and (ii) to understand how bus passengers use RTI public transport mobile applications. Both aims are oriented to attract more passengers toward public transport. A two-step methodological framework has been established to perform this analysis in the Madrid Region. Data from the 2014 Household Mobility Survey reveal that metropolitan bus potential is three times the current bus ridership, and almost double in transport corridors linked to motorways than in transversal and other metropolitan trips. An ad-hoc survey of bus travelers was conducted in one corridor to capture the use of RTI mobile apps. The results show that multimodal commuters tend to consult several apps, since none of the main apps integrates all the multimodal RTI for their trips. Non-regular bus passengers are more likely to consult a general-purpose app such as Google Maps, while frequent bus commuters prefer to use the official public transport authority app. Improving the multimodal information passengers receive through transit apps could ease their trips and help materialize some of the potential bus demand in metropolitan areas.
... Although the overall impact of RTI on waiting time is well-explored, few studies investigate the variance of these impacts (Brakewood and Watkins 2019). Most studies focus on the overall average actual waiting time, perceived waiting time, or predicted time deviation; however, few studies investigated the variance of this impact on actual waiting time relative to transit system's actual on-time performance. ...
... Most previous research suggests that transit real-time information (RTI) can decrease transit users' waiting time (Brakewood and Watkins 2019). However, few studies systematically investigate the mechanisms behind this claim and the variations across time and space of RTI impact on waiting time and the risk of missing a bus. ...
Article
A claimed benefit of real-time information (RTI) apps in public transit systems is the reduction of waiting time by allowing passengers to appropriately time their arrivals at transit stops. Although previous research investigated the overall impact of RTI on waiting time, few studies examine the mechanisms underlying these claims, and variations in its effectiveness over time and space. In this paper, we theorize and validate the sources of RTI-based users’ waiting time penalties: reclaimed delay (bus drivers compensating for being behind schedule) and discontinuity delay (an artifact of the update frequency of RTI). We compare two RTI-based strategies – the greedy strategy used by popular trip planning apps and a prudent strategy with an insurance buffer – with non-RTI benchmarks of arbitrary arrival and following the schedule. Using real-time bus location data from a medium-sized US city, we calculate the empirical waiting times and risk of missing a bus for each trip planning strategy. We find that the best RTI strategy, a prudent tactic with an optimized insurance time buffer, performs roughly the same as the simple, follow-the-schedule tactic that does not use RTI. However, relative performance varies over time and space. Moreover, the greedy tactic in common transit apps is the worst strategy, even worse than showing up at a bus stop arbitrarily. These results suggest limitations on claims that RTI reduces public transit waiting times.
... Just to name a few. For more related studies, Brakewood and Watkins [12] gave a comprehensive review of the impact of real-time bus information. ...
... Will you choose to take a taxi or subway because the next bus is expected to arrive for a long time or too far away?(11) Will you choose another bus line because it is too crowded inside the next bus?(12) Will you choose to take a taxi or subway because it is too crowded inside the next bus?(18) ...
Article
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The ubiquitous intelligent transportation infrastructure in metropolitan cities has enabled bus passengers to access comprehensive (even real-time) bus information. However, the impact of different types of information on passenger behavior is still insufficiently understood. Combining with the theory of information processing path, this study partially fills this gap by adopting an elaboration likelihood model (ELM) suitable for explaining how the various types of intelligent bus information influence passengers’ choice behavior. Six types of intelligent bus information (information of bus lines, estimated travel time, estimated time of arrival, congestion inside bus, road congestion, and bus fare) are used as six independent variables, and passengers’ departure time, travel routes, and travel modes as dependent variables. Valid questionnaire assessments were collected from 285 participants at 4 bus stops equipped with intelligent bus system in Harbin, providing quantitative data to verify each hypothesis. The results show that six types of intelligent bus information to different degrees (significant influence, slight influence, and no significant influence) affect three types of passengers’ choice behaviors; the information of estimated travel time and that of road congestion are both significantly effective in all three types of choice behavior while bus fare has no significant influence. Meanwhile, other types of information have a significant or slight effect on certain behavior. The results of this study can be used to design more reasonable intelligent bus information provision strategies to meet passengers’ requirements.
... Besides that, this research will provide empirical evidence on the difference between before and after the use of the real-time GPS tracking app in the public transport sector, as there is no clear evidence indicating the perception changes in this field in Sarawak, Malaysia. Several past studies have found that the real-time GPS tracking of public transport enhanced user satisfaction [25][26][27][28]. Despite the importance of user behaviors, the existing literature mostly focused on examining the single factor or measures on certain variables only, such as waiting time, travel time, etc. ...
Article
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Public transportation is an effective method of mobility that promotes cost-saving and is environmentally friendly. Poor public transport ridership in Malaysia is due to the unsatisfactory attitude of public transport users and inaccurate information on departure and arrivals. Sarawak, a state of Malaysia, is especially poor in ridership of public transport. A real-time Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking application (app) was found to be an effective tool to increase the ridership of public transport. Hence, a mobile app named UniBus was developed to enhance the ridership of public transport in Sarawak. The determinants that affect satisfaction and customer loyalty such as accessibility, reliability, comfort, safety, and security were all examined before and after the use of real-time GPS tracking app. The data was collected in Kuching, and targeted public transport users who used the UniBus app. The result indicated that all the mentioned variables were improved after using a real-time GPS tracking app. It is suggested that future studies can consider other factors such as service quality, availability, and perceived value as well as cover other states of Malaysia.
... Information on current vehicle location, next stop and expected arrival times, and in more advanced applications, occupancy rate and possibility of planning routes/lines interactively in bus stops and intermodal stations, can affect trip planning/experience. Most of the available RTI is based on automatic vehicle location (AVL) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to predict arrival times for passengers and traffic system operators, and such information is usually provided through panels, smartphone apps and websites (Brakewood & Watkins, 2019). ...
Article
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Public transport (PT) agencies are expected to provide passenger-oriented services. There is a need to understand the user’s perception of information technologies, especially within specific socioeconomic and demographic groups. Because of this, and although public transportation agencies are integrating various systems, this work aims at assessing which type of real-time information (RTI) and display platform (DP) for PT are perceived as the most useful among different socioeconomic and demographic groups citizens. Surveys were disseminated in two different readiness level areas, to understand citizens preferences based on age, academic qualifications, public transportation usage, and access to such type of technologies. There was a total of 655 respondents, 196 in Portugal and 459 in Sweden. The most valued RTI were arrival/departure time (ADT) and trip planning (TP). Results suggest there are clear differences between the preferences of young and older users. While in Portugal, high percentage of young people prefer TP as RTI, in Sweden it was found that the percentage of respondents that prefer ADT or TP increases with the increase of age. With respect to DP, panels and apps are those with more votes. Results show in general, younger people prefer Apps and older people prefer RTI provided through panels. Moreover, the findings suggest that areas served with less technologies on information for public transport give more value of having access to RTI. These results are important to support public authorities on designing an integrated system with such technologies to be possibly implemented at a regional level.
... So that now this network of important cities such as Paris, Lyon, Madrid, it connects Amsterdam, Brussels, London and Cologne [24]. Due to the remarkable speed of this network, safety, and reduction of travel time, more attention is being paid by the general public (workers, traders, etc. [25]. ...
Article
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The importance of railway industries is an inevitable subject, which has raised several debates among scholars. In this research, by reviewing, the projects implemented in the past, and considering the advantages and disadvantages of how they were examined, we tried to reveal disciplines and ideas for the future research on this notion. So that, future researchers can adopt these results to their problem of study and use it in a way that is appropriate to their problem conditions. This research will discuss about the possibility of implementation of high-speed railway tracks in parallel with highway or freeway routes, and evaluate this proposal's pros and cons.
... The ongoing digitalization of the public transport system has lead to the emergence of several valuable technologies, including automated vehicle locations (AVL), automated passenger counts (APC) and automated fare collection (AFC) systems [9]. In recent years, many cities have started to utilize AVL data for providing real-time bus arrival time information at stops and in mobile applications [10]. Real-time arrival time information systems have positive effects on traveller satisfaction [11], perceived waiting times [12], safety and security [13], and service disruption impacts [14]. ...
Article
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The paper proposes a methodology for providing personalized, predictive in-vehicle crowding information to public transport travellers via mobile applications or at-stop displays. Three crowding metrics are considered: (1) the probability of getting a seat on boarding, (2) the expected travel time standing, and (3) the excess perceived travel time compared to uncrowded conditions. The methodology combines prediction models of passenger loads and alighting counts based on lasso regularized regression and multivariate PLS regression, a probabilistic seat allocation model and a bias correction step in order to predict the crowding metrics. Depending on data availability, the prediction method can use a combination of historical passenger counts, real-time vehicle locations and real-time passenger counts. We evaluate the prediction methodology in a real-world case study for a bus line in Stockholm, Sweden. The results indicate that personalized, predictive crowding information that is robust to varying data availability can be provided sufficiently early to be useful to travellers. The methodology is of value for agencies and operators in order to increase the attractiveness and capacity utilization of public transport.
... The proportion of respondents that were influenced by VMS or radio information accounted for 70%. Mostly, empirical studies focus on users' transportation behavior and the impact of information provision on this behavior; overall, there is extensive literature on related issues (for a complete literature review, see Ben Elia and Avineri, 2015;Clauss and Döppe, 2016;Brakewood and Watkins, 2019). ...
... Brakewood and Watkins [29] performed a comprehensive literature analysis regarding the benefits of implementing advanced RTI (Road and Traffic Information) systems with the possibility of providing information to traffic participants in real time. The authors of this review point to the fact that the use of RTI systems (as well as other systems of the same purpose) has a significant impact on the actual and expected waiting time for a public transport, the total travel time by this means, the perceived quality and level of safety during the journey. ...
Article
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During the operation of the ferry shipping different events take place that may cause ferries delays or cancellations. In these situations, it is important to provide real-time information to ferry lines customers, including road transport companies, to enable them to make the right decisions related to the further implementation of transport route. The purpose of the article is to identify improvement possibilities in the real-time data processing and IT tools to create information flow used to inform the transport companies’ operators/ drivers using ferry services about actual timetable including such disruption as delays or cancellations. As a case study, the ferry line connecting the ports of Liepaja (Latvia) and Travemünde (Germany) was analysed. The used methodology was based on market research analysis and shipping process analysis. On the basis of developed questionnaires the surveys were carried out among drivers and transport companies’ owners/operators to investigate the ways and tools used to inform them about ferries service disruption as delays and cancellations. Conducted process analysis allowed to make the conclusion that the way of analysed information flow may be improved using integrated data platform connected with mobile application that will significantly decrease time and increase confidence to the information flows for different ferry lines customers.
... It can also provide the predicted arrival time of a transit vehicle at a stop as real-time transit information. Hence, it could benefit passengers by reducing waiting time and correspondingly increase the ridership of transit as a result of elevated transit service and perceived personal security (Brakewood and Watkins, 2019). ...
Article
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Predictions on Public Transport (PT) ridership are beneficial as they allow for sufficient and cost-efficient deployment of vehicles. On an operational level, this relates to short-term predictions with lead times of less than an hour. Where conventional data sources on ridership, such as Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) data, may have longer lag times and contain no travel intentions, in contrast, trip planner data are often available in (near) real-time and are used before traveling. In this paper, we investigate how such data from a trip planner app can be utilized for short-term bus ridership predictions. This is combined with AFC data (in this case smart card data) to construct a ground truth on actual ridership. Using informative variables from the trip planner dataset through correlation analysis, we develop 3 supervised Machine Learning (ML) models, including k-nearest neighbors, random forest, and gradient boosting. The best-performing model relies on random forest regression with trip planner requests. Compared with the baseline model that depends on the weekly trend, it reduces the mean absolute error by approximately half. Moreover, using the same model with and without trip planner data, we prove the usefulness of trip planner data by an improved mean absolute error of 8.9% and 21.7% and an increased coefficient of determination from a 5-fold cross-validation of 7.8% and 18.5% for two case study lines, respectively. Lastly, we show that this model performance is maintained even for the trip planner requests with prediction lead times up to 30 min ahead, and for different periods of the day. We expect our methodology to be useful for PT operators to elevate their daily operations and level of service as well as for trip planner companies to facilitate passenger replanning, in particular during peak hours.
... Nowadays most transit systems in the world provide vehicle arrival information through intelligent transportation systems, thus passengers have almost full information on shortest paths. The availability of real-time information allows users to select their minimum paths and also applies in cases when posted schedules are not followed (Brakewood and Watkins, 2019). Reasonably, we expect that an electrified transit system will also provide vehicle arrival information. ...
Article
Electric bus networks are steadily gaining ground as the prominent option for urban public transport. However, in contrast to conventional transit systems operated by diesel buses, electric bus networks are particularly vulnerable with respect to energy supply, both in terms of power level availability and the unobstructed access to charging points. Indeed, power fluctuations can prevent buses from adequately recharging at designated points, affecting extended areas of operation. Similarly, queue formation at terminal stops can lead to poor schedule adherence and excessive delays. In this context, this study addresses research gaps by presenting a realistic and flexible design framework for fully electric public transport networks, tackling both the route network and the charging infrastructure design. To handle the uncertainty associated with power supply, Robust Optimization (RO) is employed for solving the charging infrastructure location problem while maintaining computational tractability. Queuing delays due to charging are also modeled and minimized. To address the integrated design of route networks and wireless chargers, RO is coupled with Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization within a bi-level methodological framework. Different scenarios for power supply variability are considered. Results show that depending on policy priority, the cost of robustness significantly changes.
... A wide set of studies about the use and perception of passengers' RTI tools are aimed at explaining the benefits of these tools and the main behavioural outcomes associated: wait time, travel time and transit use. These behavioural outcomes are reviewed by Brakewood & Watkins (2018). Being aware of the wait time at bus stops in real-time not only allows passengers to adjust their arrival at the stop to minimize the waiting time at stop but also reduces the wait time's uncertainty. ...
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Bus passengers require reliable and real-time information but the existing systems still do not fully satisfy their needs. Within the framework of the European project HARMONY, a transit app has been developed in Madrid Region to improve the information that passengers receive from metropolitan buses. It enables an option for passengers to send incidences to operators in real-time. A SWOT matrix has been built and a two-stage consultation to passengers has been carried out to know the current transit app market and to detect gaps in the users’ needs, leading to the features to be implemented. None of the existing apps allow a bi-directional communication between operators and passengers. Survey results reveal that apps like Google Maps do not compete with specific transit apps that include real-time information because daily commuters require that specific information of their routes.
... In addition, optimizing real-time information provided to passengers could alleviate congestions and further improve system performance during disruptions. This may become more relevant with innovative communication means becoming available such as "location aware" and "destination aware" information services (Brakewood & Watkins, 2019). ...
Article
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Critical infrastructure networks, such as transport and power networks, are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. The rising transport demand increases the congestion in railway networks and thus they become more interdependent and more complex to operate. Also, an increasing number of disruptions due to system failures as well as climate changes can be expected in the future. As a consequence, many trains are cancelled and excessively delayed, and thus, many passengers are not reaching their destinations which compromises customers need for mobility. Currently, there is a rising need to quantify impacts of disruptions and the evolution of system performance. This review paper aims to set-up a field-specific definition of resilience in railway transport and gives a comprehensive, up-to-date review of railway resilience papers. The focus is on quantitative approaches. The review analyses peer-reviewed papers in Web of Science and Scopus from January 2008 to August 2019. The results show a steady increase of the number of published papers in recent years. The review classifies resilience metrics and approaches. It has been recognised that system-based metrics tend to better capture effects on transport services and transport demand. Also, mathematical optimization shows a great potential to assess and improve resilience of railway systems. Alternatively, data-driven approaches could be potentially used for detailed ex-post analysis of past disruptions. Finally, several rising future scientific topics are identified, spanning from learning from historical data, to considering interdependent critical systems and community resilience. Practitioners can also benefit from the review to understand a common terminology, recognise possible applications for assessing and designing resilient railway transport systems.
... In other words, if the passengers are informed about delays within a reasonable time, they could update their schedule and opt for alternatives. A selective literature review of the passenger benefits of real-time transit information can be found in [202]. Moreover, data sources could be used to dynamically optimize and adapt the transit service. ...
Article
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Public transport has become one of the major transport options, especially when it comes to reducing motorized individual transport and achieving sustainability while reducing emissions, noise and so on. The use of public transport data has evolved and rapidly improved over the past decades. Indeed, the availability of data from different sources, coupled with advances in analytical and predictive approaches, has contributed to increased attention being paid to the exploitation of available data to improve public transport service. In this paper, we review the current state of the art of public transport data sources. More precisely, we summarize and analyze the potential and challenges of the main data sources. In addition, we show the complementary aspects of these data sources and how to merge them to broaden their contributions and face their challenges. This is complemented by an information management framework to enhance the use of data sources. Specifically, we seek to bridge the gap between traditional data sources and recent ones, present a unified overview of them and show how they can all leverage recent advances in data-driven methods and how they can help achieve a balance between transit service and passenger behavior.
... 38 Econometric studies indicate that large U.S. cities that instituted real-time service information increased bus and train ridership by 2%. 39 Interventions can also reduce friction by simplifying behavior, such as by decreasing the number of steps or the amount of decisionmaking required. Strategies that simplify behavior can also hasten habit formation, because simple behaviors consolidate into habits faster than more complex ones do. ...
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Public awareness and concern about climate and environmental issues have grown dramatically in the United States and around the world. Yet this shift in attitudes has not been accompanied by similar increases in eco-friendly behaviors. We propose that this attitude–behavior gap is partly driven by the difficulty of changing unsustainable habits. Governments and businesses can reduce this gap through interventions that draw on insights from research into the psychology of habits and behavioral economics. First, they can reduce or add friction, making it easier for people to engage in eco-friendly actions and making it harder to continue environmentally damaging practices. Second, they can set up action cues—prompts that trigger pro-environment actions—and deliver these cues where and when they will have the biggest impact. Finally, they can provide psychologically informed incentives and disincentives that steer people toward environmentally beneficial actions. We also describe how even initially unpopular policies can become accepted through habitual repetition. In these ways, habit psychology represents a promising addition to the policymaker’s toolbox.
... A recent literature review on RTPI by Brakewood and Watkins [29] discussed existing studies concerning the impacts of RTPI. Waiting time, route choice, ridership and passenger satisfaction are the areas that were explored by the researchers, regarding the impact of RTPI. ...
Article
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Ubiquitous real‐time passenger information (URTPI) enhances the perceived quality of service of public transport and enables travellers to make better pre‐trip and en‐route travel choices. The study presents an exploratory study of the use of URTPI. The authors analyse the popularity of this kind of information, of the sources through which it is disseminated, and of the contents that it conveys. In particular, the authors are interested in the effects of trip characteristics and socio‐demographic features of passengers. The findings are based on 1645 responses collected through a bus passenger survey in the city of Edinburgh, UK. The authors find that access to URTPI is particularly related to the perceived length of the trips and age of the traveller. The most popular source of URTPI is bespoke apps providing information on bus arrival times, although non‐residents require more detailed information. The study paves the way for further investigations into the impact of information on passengers' choices.
... According to Google [6] , the search results will be ranked based on the relevance; thus, when the number of search results is larger than 100, only the first 100 journal papers will be selected and analyzed. A similar searching process can be found in Brakewood and Watkins [7]. ...
Article
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Nowadays, the major ports around the world usually consist of multiple terminals and service centers which are often run by different operators. Meanwhile, inland terminals have been also developed to reduce port congestion and improve transport efficiency. The integrated planning of inter-terminal transport (ITT) between the seaport and inland terminals helps in providing frequent and profitable services, but also could lead to higher overall planning complexity. Moreover, the ITT system usually involves multiple stakeholders with different or even conflicting interests. Although an increasing number of studies have been conducted in recent years, few studies have summarized the research findings and indicated the directions for future research regarding ITT. This paper provides a systemic review of ITT planning: we examine 77 scientific journal papers to identify what kind of objectives should be achieved in ITT system planning, which actors should be involved, and what methodologies can be used to support the decision-making process. Based on the analysis of the existing research, several research gaps can be found. For example, the multi-modality ITT systems are rarely studied; cooperation frameworks are needed in the coordination of different actors and quantitative methodologies should be developed to reflect the different actors’ financial interests.
... Past comparisons of total travel times and access given scheduled versus actual operations (3)(4)(5) have assumed that riders have perfect information and choose the path with the shortest travel time based on foresight. While emerging real-time information systems have the potential to reduce travel time (12,13), the assumption that passengers have perfect knowledge about the future state of the system remains a strong one (14). Even if in-vehicle travel times can be predicted, door-to-door travel times for the same origin-destination pair may vary because individuals often choose the alternative, potentially suboptimal paths. ...
Article
Estimating passengers’ door-to-door travel time, for journeys that combine walking and public transit, can be complex for large networks with many available path alternatives. Additional complications arise in tap-on only transit systems, where passengers alightings are not recorded. For one such system, the Chicago Transit Authority, this study compares three methods for estimating door-to-door travel time: assuming optimal path choice given scheduled service, as represented in the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS); assuming optimal path choice given actually operated bus service, as recorded by automatic vehicle location systems; and using inferred path choices based on automated fare collection smartcard records, as processed with an origin-destination-interchange (ODX) inference algorithm. As expected, ODX-derived travel times are found to be longer than those derived from GTFS, indicating that purely schedule-based travel times underestimate the travel times that are actually available and experienced, which can be attributed primarily to suboptimal passenger route choice. These discrepancies additionally manifest in significant spatial variations, raising concerns about potential biases in travel time estimates that do not account for reliability. The findings bring about a more comprehensive understanding of the interactions between transit reliability and passenger behavior in transportation research. Furthermore, these discrepancies suggest areas of future research into the implications of systematic and behavioral assumptions implied by using conventional schedule-based travel time estimates.
... (i) Railway manager perspective: it is a useful indicator able to measure the service quality level (Veiseth, Olsson, & Saetermo, 2007). Grechi and M. Ceron Research in Transportation Business & Management xxx (xxxx) 100739 (ii) Passenger perspective: it is a central factor for the journey planning process, above all in the case of interchange between different transport modes (Nagy & Csiszár, 2015) and it can modify the future decision of passengers concerning their modal choices (Bai, Jin, & Chiu, 2020;Brakewood & Watkins, 2019). ...
Article
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Covid-19 has strongly influenced the mobility of people in several ways and the limitations of mobility in Europe and Italy have conditioned the flows of workers and travelers. Railways, which are one key transport sector, had a clear decrease in passengers all over the world. The analysis, based on six Lombard/Piedmont lines (North-West of Italy), was carried out in the periods immediately preceding and following the lockdown, in which it was possible to move without draconian restrictions, and with mostly regular railway traffic, but at the same time, the number of commuters and occasional travelers was reduced by 40–60%. Using official data from Trenitalia and Trenord, the role of load factor in the railway performance is analyzed, to verify the impact of a substantial reduction in passenger numbers on the overall performance of six railway lines with a special focus on peak hours. The results obtained are not univocal and provide interesting indications, in fact, for some lines, there is an improvement in performance while for others there are no statistically significant differences with the previous year that means a similar performance, which is a starting point for future developments of the work at the national or regional level. (Proof File)
... One of the primary metrics that measure the reliability of a public transit is the predictability of its vehicles in reaching specific pre-determined locations (bus stops in bus-based transit). A predictable and a reliable public transportation also attracts more users [1] thereby increasing the economic viability of the transit as well as reducing congestion in the road, a huge urban challenge, especially in the developing world. From the point of view of the transit operators, predictability is key to maintaining its efficiency. ...
... Research on existing and future passenger information concepts [7] has shown that innovative and new passenger information technologies represent a great benefit for providers of information services by increasing users' flow in stations. Providing passengers with accurate real-time information can lead to shortening waiting time and decreasing overall travel time due to changes in path choice and increased use of public transport and satisfaction with transit services [8]. The development of IC in the transport sector has resulted in services focusing on customers and their needs by changing passenger transport's previous perception [9]. ...
Chapter
As a service provided by transport operators to their customers, passenger information systems have become essential when planning a journey. These systems can be divided into systems before and during the trip. They are based on accurate and real-time relevant information provided to all rail and integrated passenger transport stakeholders that users can access through various user devices. It is necessary to establish an information and communication system based on modern architecture and establish the synergy effects of various modern information and communication technologies. In this paper, the authors made a snapshot of the state of the information and communication infrastructure of the railway network in the Republic of Croatia to determine possible directions and phases of development. This paper aims to give an overview of the possibilities of improving the passenger information system on the territory of the Republic of Croatia. The paper proposes modernization, i.e., improving the existing passenger information system according to the proposed phases.
... Similarly, we apply shortest-path assignment under the assumptions that passengers have full information on travel times and a common value of travel time (Roca-Riu et al., 2012). We expect that the first assumption can be reasonably applied as most transit systems nowadays provide real-time vehicle arrival information, allowing users to select their perceived minimum-cost paths (Brakewood and Watkins, 2019). This process entails the determination of all feasible paths for an origindestination (OD) pair and the computation of the associated number of transfers. ...
Article
The emergence of electromobility along with recent developments in wireless power transfer (WPT) technology offer potentials to improve the carbon footprint of bus transport, while offering quality services. Indeed, the deployment of fast charging stations and dynamic charging roadway segments (lanes) can ensure fast energy transmission to electricity-powered buses, mitigating existing energy-related concerns and limitations. Existing models for public transport network design cannot adequately capture the dependence between electric vehicle charging infrastructure requirements and route operational characteristics. In this context, this paper investigates the combined Transit Route Network Design and Charging Infrastructure Location Problem and proposes a bi-level formulation to handle both planning stages. At the upper level, candidate route sets are generated and evaluated, while at the lower-level wireless charging infrastructures are optimally deployed. A multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MO-PSO) algorithm embedded with an integer programming solver is employed to handle the complexity of the problem and the conflicting design objectives related to passengers and operators. The resulting model is applied to an established benchmark network to assess the tradeoffs arising between user-oriented and operator-oriented solutions and highlight the complex decision process associated with the deployment of electric public transport networks.
... With the advancement of LATs, movement data today are becoming available at increasingly higher volumes and variety at multiple temporal granularity collected through diverse modes such as GPS data recorders, call detail records (CDR) of smart phones, radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth sensors, and georeferenced social media applications (Batty 2012). Beside contributing to research on understanding of human mobility behavior, other applications of tracking human movement include, but not limited to mapping congestion levels in cities (Kan et al. 2018a;Stipancic et al. 2019), verifying design characteristics of built transportation infrastructure components (Deng et al. 2018), obtaining realtime provision of information about transit services such as expected arrival time of vehicles at boarding stops and stations (Shalaby and Farhan 2004;Brakewood and Watkins 2019), monitoring near real-time information for car travels (Martínez-Díaz and Soriguera 2021), planning optimal logistics distribution development (Žunić et al. 2020), estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and travel (Kan et al. 2018b;Neves and Brand 2019;Sui et al. 2019), and modeling disease spread such as COVID-19 (Fang et al., 2020;Kraemer et al. 2020;Lai et al. 2020;Tian et al. 2020;. Different applications using LAT data necessitate different degrees of precision and accuracy (Fillekes et al. 2019;Marra et al. 2019;Schneider et al. 2016;Wolf et al. 2014b). ...
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Movement is manifested through a series of patterns at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Movement data today are becoming available at increasingly fine-grained temporal granularity. These observations often represent multiple behavioral modes and complex patterns along the movement path. However, the relationships between the observation scale of movement data and the analysis scales at which movement patterns are captured remain understudied. This article aims at investigating the role of temporal scale in movement data analytics. It takes up an important question of "how do decisions surrounding the scale of movement data and analyses impact our inferences about movement patterns?" Through a set of computational experiments in the context of human movement, we take a systematic look at the impact of varying temporal scales on common movement analytics techniques including trajectory analytics to calculate movement parameters (e.g., speed, path tortuosity), estimation of individual space usage, and interactions analysis to detect potential contacts between multiple mobile individuals.
... For example, Cats et al. [24] suggested that information provision could be beneficial to PT users so that they can adapt their trip. Brakewood and Watkins [25] reviewed recurring benefits in the literature such as a decrease of perceived and actual waiting time, a decrease of the overall travel time due to change in path choice, and an increase in user satisfaction with transit service. Furthermore, RTI can be an effective way of encouraging passengers to shift from private to public transport [3] However, empirical studies of impacts have mostly focused on route choice by car drivers rather than on PT passengers' choices [9]. ...
Article
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Information is at the heart of the smooth running of a public transport network and the satisfaction of its users, particularly in disrupted situations. Information is a central element for users to continue to use this mode contributing to sustainable mobility and even attracting new users. Therefore, it is essential to understand how travellers use passenger information to adjust the way it is disseminated to actual usage. This article aims to identify the sources of information used by travellers and at what moments they consult them in order to categorise passengers according to these activities. We conducted an online questionnaire on 258 regular suburban train users of a specific branch of one particular line (with the same information material in the stations). In addition to univariate descriptive analyses, the results were analysed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Ascending Hierarchical Clustering to construct six information-seeking profiles named: Improvisers, Monitors, Planners, Circumscribed, Ultra-connected and Routinized. Based on clustering, we were able to link sociodemographic or travel characteristics to information-seeking behaviour. Differences in information acquisition and use were identified. These results suggest great information-seeking behaviour disparities and can provide interesting information to passenger transport stakeholders. The results could be further integrated into a multi-agent simulation.
... One of the primary metrics that measure the reliability of a public transit is the predictability of its vehicles in reaching specific pre-determined locations (bus stops in case of a bus-based transit). A predictable and a reliable public transportation also attracts more users [1] thereby increasing the economic viability of the transit as well as reducing congestion in the road, a huge urban challenge, especially in the developing world. From the point of view of the transit operators, predictability is key to maintaining its efficiency. ...
Preprint
Accurate expected time of arrival (ETA) information is crucial in maintaining the quality of service of public transit. Recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) has led to more effective models for ETA estimation that rely heavily on a large GPS datasets. More importantly, these are mainly cabs based datasets which may not be fit for bus-based public transport. Consequently, the latest methods may not be applicable for ETA estimation in cities with the absence of large training data set. On the other hand, the ETA estimation problem in many cities needs to be solved in the absence of big datasets that also contains outliers, anomalies and may be incomplete. This work presents a simple but robust model for ETA estimation for a bus route that only relies on the historical data of the particular route. We propose a system that generates ETA information for a trip and updates it as the trip progresses based on the real-time information. We train a deep learning based generative model that learns the probability distribution of ETA data across trips and conditional on the current trip information updates the ETA information on the go. Our plug and play model not only captures the non-linearity of the task well but that any transit agency can use without needing any other external data source. The experiments run over three routes, data collected in the city of Delhi illustrates the promise of our approach.
... 38 Econometric studies indicate that large U.S. cities that instituted real-time service information increased bus and train ridership by 2%. 39 Interventions can also reduce friction by simplifying behavior, such as by decreasing the number of steps or the amount of decisionmaking required. Strategies that simplify behavior can also hasten habit formation, because simple behaviors consolidate into habits faster than more complex ones do. ...
Article
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Recently, public transit systems have seen declining ridership levels in most American cities, and transit agencies are seeking strategies to counteract this negative trend. One emerging strategy uses mobile technologies for fare payment, which could improve the transit user experience and potentially attract or retain riders. However, there has been limited prior research evaluating the benefits of new mobile fare payment technologies after real-world deployment. Therefore, this research aims to evaluate emerging payment technologies from both the transit user and operator perspectives. Surveys of bus riders in Tallahassee, Florida were conducted before and after a two-month period in which a mobile fare payment application (“app”) was deployed throughout the bus system. Bus operators, who are responsible for fare validation, were also surveyed at the end of the study period. The results reveal that most app users reported spending less time purchasing a transit pass and less time boarding the bus, which could result in travel time savings from the user perspective. Despite these benefits, it was hypothesized that app users would increase the number of trips they made on transit; however, the user surveys provided limited evidence to support this. From the operator perspective, drivers reported spending less time collecting fares and observed that app users spent less time boarding the bus, which could lead to dwell time reductions after adoption levels increase. As transit users increasingly rely on mobile technologies, these findings are critical for transit agencies to justify initial deployment or expansion of mobile fare payment technologies.
Article
This study aims to improve the calibration procedures in mode choice modules for transit ridership forecasting through better understanding of calibrated mode constants representing unmeasured inputs. In this study, the magnitude of mode constants is examined by relative importance to measurable components of mode choice utility, using data from Philadelphia and Washington DC. In the case of walk-access modes, the mode constants in study cities account for about 41%–65% of total utilities. The results demonstrate that, in some cases, mode constants are large enough to render models insensitive to changes of important but omitted factors such as reliability, comfort, access environment, and safety. This study provides some evidence on what portion of travel cost between an origin and a destination is comprised of a fixed mode constant. By applying the approach, it is useful to identify problematic segments that have unusually large mode constants.
Article
Public Transport (PT) provides passenger mobility and contributes to sustainable transportation. To achieve this a PT system must provide continuous accessible service and connections for passengers. PT reliability is considered a major obstacle to growing its market share. Current solutions primarily address travel time reliability through methods like priority lanes and traffic signal priority. Dwell time reliability improvement, in turn, can be achieved by the use of smart cards which reduce the variability in boarding and alighting times. Another factor affecting reliability is in-vehicle crowdedness which causes delays and increases dwell time variability. To mitigate crowdedness, we propose a monetary approach that dynamically changes the fare based on the in-vehicle crowdedness level in a manner similar to congestion pricing. This approach would shift some passengers from boarding the over-crowded vehicle to waiting for the next, less crowded vehicle, while compensating them for the additional waiting. Passengers unwilling to wait might pay a penalty if the additional waiting time is reasonable. To assess the attitude of passengers towards a dynamic fare model, a stated preference questionnaire was developed to assess the factors that affect the choice of whether or not to board an over-crowded vehicle. Based on panel data and the fixed effect logit model it was revealed that the higher the waiting time, the lower the willingness to board the next vehicle. However, monetary schemes (penalties or discounts) increased the willingness to wait and board the next vehicle. Moreover, the willingness to wait was higher when a penalty was introduced compared to a discount, which is in line with the prospect theory. The results suggest that it is possible to construct a dynamic fare model that using data on vehicle crowdedness levels and waiting times obtained from advanced data collection systems, which is integrated within a mobile payment application. This approach could reduce crowdedness and increase reliability.
Article
This study analyzes the perceptions of individuals on retrospective rail punctuality indicators to determine the most useful indicator according to socio-demographic characteristics, regular trip behavior variables, and railways transportation habits variables. In choice situations, individuals must choose between four punctuality indicators and an out option. Common punctuality indicators have been selected among those proposed by the authority for quality of service in transport, as well as a new punctuality indicator from the financial literature: Delay-at-Risk. Thus, via an online survey and econometric modeling, we show that respondents appreciate the usefulness of punctuality indicators for planning their long-distance rail trips. The usefulness is reinforced by the fact that respondents employ several modes for regular trips and frequent train users. Moreover, they have already experienced missed appointments or connections. The risk attitude and prudence of respondents also play an important role but not totally in the expected direction. Lastly, Delay-at-Risk, although unknown and more complex in its formulation, exhibits some characteristics that are appreciated by users.
Article
Public transport services are often uncertain, causing passengers' travel times and routes to vary from day to day. However, since door-to-door passenger delays depend on both intended and realised routes, they are difficult to calculate , as opposed to vehicle delays which can be derived directly from the widely available Automated Vehicle Location (AVL) data of the public transport system. In this study we use three months of such historical AVL data to calculate corresponding realised routes and passengers delays in a large-scale, multi-modal transport network by formulating and implementing an adaptive passenger path choice model in an agent-based scenario of Metropolitan Copenhagen with 801,719 daily trips. The proposed model allows analysing five different levels of real-time information provision, ranging from no information at all to global real-time information being available everywhere. The results of more than 258 million (positive or negative) passenger delays show that variability of passengers' travel time is considerable and much larger than that of the public transport vehicles. It is also shown that obtaining global real-time information at the beginning of the trip reduces passengers delay dramatically, although still being inferior to receiving such along the trip. Additionally, being able to automatically obtain real-time passenger information while walking and being on-board public transport services is found not to lead to considerable improvements compared to acquiring such information manually while waiting at stops, although slight benefits are demonstrated in supplementary models run with pseudo-intelligent vehicle delay forecasting.
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Electrification of surface transportation networks has the potential to reduce oil consumption and transport-related emissions, with many relevant projects currently underway worldwide. Typically, transition to electric public transport services is gradual, as operators select specific lines to electrify during initial stages of electric vehicle deployment. In this context, this study proposes a model for the optimal redesign of an existing transit route network, so that electric buses may be deployed where possible. The proposed model seeks to minimize the implementation cost for electrification while improving the level of service provided to transit passengers. A hybridized Genetic Algorithm is employed to solve the problem at hand while the model is validated using benchmark networks. Scenario analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of important parameters such as battery capacity and charger costs. Results show that the transition to electrification may be achieved with positive impacts on the service quality of the current public transportation network.
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Transit apps are cost-efficient strategies to facilitate transit use. This study is the first systematic review that synthesises the literature on these apps’ end-user benefits. We identified limitations in the existing knowledge in terms of study methods, population, and scopes. This review offers insights to guide researchers and policymakers to unlock the potential of transit apps in promoting the use and experience of public transit. We conducted the literature searches in August 2020, covering studies published between 2010 and 2020 from TRID, Compendex, Business Source Ultimate Ebsco, and Acad Search Ultimate Ebsco. Articles were screened and reviewed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In total, 13 out of 3,812 articles met our pre-specified eligibility criteria. We identified key user benefits in three domains: perception and psychological changes, time savings on trips, and travel behaviour changes. These studies found that smartphone transit apps may improve the perceived reliability of transit services, increase perceived safety, reduce anxiety while waiting, and build a positive image of transit. Also, transit apps could help users reduce wait time at transit stops. Studies further reported that smartphone transit apps have the potential to boost ridership. After critically assessing the articles, we recommended future studies to improve study designs, adjust study populations, and expand study scopes. First, future studies about travel behaviour impacts would need to adopt more rigorous study designs and methods. Second, more studies about infrequent riders and non-riders are needed. Third, current studies have not paid enough attention to the important subgroup of captive riders, such as riders in rural areas who rely on infrequent and unreliable transit services. Fourth, more empirical evidence is needed to quantify the impacts of public sector transit apps. Trip planning and mobile ticketing functions of transit apps are overlooked. Fifth, the established theoretical framework about travel behaviours and emerging technologies could serve as solid theoretical bases and would need to be integrated into future research designs.
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Calculation of passenger travel time distributions in public transport networks is important for the evaluation of the level of service provided to passengers. Passenger travel times are deterministic for punctual and uncongested networks, but in reality usually have random fluctuations caused by vehicle delays and other incidents. Advanced methods are therefore needed to calculate the passenger travel time distribution between a given origin and destination. This paper presents a novel approach for calculating the travel time distribution from origin to destination based on vehicle delays and possible missed connections in a mixed schedule- and frequency-based public transport network. Markov chains are used to model the network, making the travel time from the origin to the destination phase-type distributed. The approach is flexible with regard to the specification of vehicle travel times and provides the distribution of passenger travel times without any need for simulation. Additionally, it facilitates detailed analyses of passenger travel times conditional on the usage of specific line segments or stops. The merits of this approach are demonstrated using a case study from Copenhagen.
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Mobility and access to social, economic, and cultural opportunities are facilitated by the availability of practical location data. Practical location data are scarce in Ghana and most of Sub-Sahara Africa where cities are typically characterized by informal settlements and a lack of standard address system. The problem is compounded by limited use of indigenous languages for travel services even though the majority of the population lacks familiarity with English. This study attempts to address these issues by developing a mobile app which takes advantage of local location data integrated into OpenStreetMap through Mapbox to provide location and travel planning services in English and indigenous Akan language. The developed mobile app called ‘myTroski’ provides key capabilities to describe landmark information, find nearby landmarks, search and find, travel routing and planning, GPS-assisted map use, and text and audio-assisted navigation. The study shows the formalizing and modernizing location data from paratransit Trotro service and landmarks to mainstream local address systems.
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Cities in the United States and across the world are investing in high-capacity modes with enhanced reliability, including light-rail transit (LRT) and arterial bus rapid transit (BRT), to regain ridership. However, the impact of replacing high-frequency bus service with these modes is not well understood. This paper investigates the ridership effect of implementing LRT and arterial BRT on corridors that were already well served by local bus routes. Using data from Metro Transit in Minneapolis/Saint Paul between 2012 and 2017, overall ridership and frequency on the corridors are evaluated to distinguish between trips that were newly generated and trips that were drawn from the local bus routes running in the same corridor. Fixed-effects models are fitted to estimate how much of the new ridership can be attributed to the high-capacity modes and to the reliability improvements they provide while controlling for covariates. Results show that the Green Line LRT generated 86% more ridership and the arterial BRT A Line generated 12% more ridership than if the transit agency had relied on local bus service. These results demonstrate the potential ridership impacts of replacing and supplementing existing bus service with reliable high-capacity modes.
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This study aimed at assessing the role of travel information provision on behavioral changes in daily mobility in the metropolis of Montpellier in France. We focused on commuter behavior using data collected through an online survey on mobility behavior during the summer of 2015. We found that while 73% of commuters respondents use travel information sources, only 31% of them declared any mobility behavior change. This study explores the impact of specific factors such as socio-demographic variables (e.g., age and gender) and transportation habits (e.g., public transportation pass, travel time, and safety margin). As an operational measure of the prudent behavior, safety margin highlights the threshold effect of travel information provision on behavioral changes. Indeed, three commuter profiles can be distinguished according to their prudence levels: chronically non-prudent, reasonably prudent, and excessively prudent. Finally, the study highlights that travel information provision alone may not be enough to induce a shift in behavioral changes among commuters toward more environment-friendly modes of transportation.
Conference Paper
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Information helps people to go boldly around in time and space. Maps and signs help people plan 'where' to travel and 'how best to get there' with timetables helping them plan 'when' to travel and giving them an idea as to 'when' they might arrive. This paper presents user values to help planners evaluate the cost-benefit of providing and improving the quality of information at tram stops, bus stops, rail stations and on-board vehicles. Values are also provided for wayfinding information at activity hubs and on streets. The values are based on a literature review and market research undertaken in Melbourne of 2,769 people in 2014 using three types of survey. A Stated Preference (SP) survey estimated values for vehicle and station quality which included information as an attribute. A rating survey enabled the overall vehicle and stop quality values to be deconstructed into individual attributes including information. A priority evaluator (PE) survey estimate the relative importance of sources of information for familiar and unfamiliar public transport trips including wayfinding signage. By 'bridging' the PE results with the SP and Rating estimates, values for wayfinding information, which to date have been difficult to find in the research literature were estimated.
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This study assesses current needs in the implementation of real-time transit information systems. Web surveys are used to better understand information supply and demand, defined as the attitudes and experiences with real-time information of transit passengers and agencies, respectively. The most valued types of information demanded were found to be related to vehicle location while the least valued information relates to vehicle characteristics, like seating availability. Smartphone applications were found to be the preferred medium for receiving information followed by Internet/websites and dynamic message signs. The surveys also revealed that demographic and socioeconomic status influence preferences for real-time information. The information supply survey found that approximately 70 percent of surveyed agencies currently offer real-time information. The largest constraint to providing or improving Real-Time Transit Information Systems (RTTISs) was found to be funding, followed by staffing needs. A comparison between the survey results found that the information currently being provided by transit agencies is mostly in line with the information most valued by transit passengers. The few differences that exist are generally because agencies do not provide information on the media preferred most by passengers. To address these differences, several suggestions are made to improve the implementation of real-time information. This information can be used to better develop and prioritize investment in real-time information systems.
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This study reports on an experiment in downtown Seattle, Washington, to evaluate whether installing a public real-time multi-modal transportation information display screen in an office building lobby caused changes in building occupant self-reported awareness, attitudes, satisfaction, and usage of alternative transportation modes including transit, car-sharing, ride-sourcing, and bike-sharing services. Workers in the test building and two nearby control buildings were surveyed immediately before the screen was installed (N=550) and again six months later (N=455). Little evidence was found that exposure to the real-time display affected respondent travel choices, satisfaction, familiarity, or attitudes toward alternative modes. Although most respondents (70%) had noticed the screen and had generally positive reactions, two-thirds of this group never actually used it. These results, along with building occupant responses to open-ended questions, indicate limited benefits from this installation and suggest that site selection, screen placement, and marketing may help to maximize the effects of these types of displays on traveler satisfaction and mode shifting.
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One important function of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applied in tourist cities is to improve visitors’ mobility by releasing real-time transportation information and then shifting tourists from individual vehicles to intelligent public transit. The objective of this research is to quantify visitors’ psychological and behavioral responses to tourism-related ITS. Designed with a Mixed Ranked Logit Model (MRLM) with random coefficients that was capable of evaluating potential effects from information uncertainty and other relevant factors on tourists’ transport choices, an on-site and a subsequent web-based stated preference survey were conducted in a representative tourist city (Chengde, China). Simulated maximum-likelihood procedure was used to estimate random coefficients. Results indicate that tourists generally perceive longer travel time and longer wait time if real-time information is not available. ITS information is able to reduce tourists’ perceived uncertainty and stimulating transport modal shifts. This novel MRLM contributes a new derivation model to logit model family and for the first time proposes an applicable methodology to assess useful features of ITS for tourists.
Conference Paper
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IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference, LAS PALMAS, ESPAGNE, 15-/09/2015 - 18/09/2015
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Waiting time in transit travel is often perceived negatively and high-amenity stops and stations are becoming increasingly popular as strategies for mitigating transit riders’ aversion to waiting. However, beyond recent evidence that realtime transit arrival information reduces perceived waiting time, there is limited empirical evidence as to which other specific station and stop amenities can effectively influence user perceptions of waiting time. To address this knowledge gap, the authors conducted a passenger survey and video-recorded waiting passengers at different types of transit stops and stations to investigate differences between survey-reported waiting time and video-recorded actual waiting time. Results from the survey and video observations show that the reported wait time on average is about 1.21 times longer than the observed wait time. Regression analysis was employed to explain the variation in riders’ reported waiting time as a function of their objectively observed waiting time, as well as station and stop amenities, weather, time of the day, personal demographics, and trip characteristics. Based on the regression results, most waits at stops with no amenities are perceived at least 1.3 times as long as they actually are. Basic amenities including benches and shelters significantly reduce perceived waiting times. Women waiting for more than 10 min in perceived insecure surroundings report waits as dramatically longer than they really are, and longer than do men in the same situation. The authors recommend a focus on providing basic amenities at stations and stops as broadly as possible in transit systems, and a particular focus on stops on low-frequency routes and in less safe areas for security measures.
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Real-time information (RTI) is becoming increasingly available to transit travelers. This paper discusses the effects of RTI access available before the start of a journey in relation to line loads as well as passenger benefits. That RTI access can affect the choice of departure time and stop as well as the route choice is considered. Two types of travelers with access to RTI are distinguished: travelers who want to arrive at their destinations as soon as possible and passengers who prefer to stay slightly longer at their current locations if doing so can reduce their travel time. For illustration, a network with irregular service arrivals is used and the optimal strategy approach of Spiess and Florian is used as a benchmark for passengers without RTI access. As expected, results showed that travelers without RTI access travel longer but also that particular combinations of traveler strategy and RTI provision lead to counterintuitive effects. Results further illustrated that the two RTI access strategies that travelers use can lead to significant differences in loads. Implications for demand management are discussed.
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Mobile real-time passenger information (RTPI) systems are becoming ubiquitous in public transport and a plethora of studies have explored the effects they have on passengers. However, these studies mostly focus on urban areas and largely ignore rural dwellers. In this paper, we present results of a study that looks into the effects that mobile RTPI has on passengers in rural areas. The results indicate that the participants primarily used the mobile RTPI system to gain situation and geospatial awareness and to adapt their travel behaviour in disrupted circumstances. Further, we have identified that mobile RTPI significantly affects the everyday public transport travel of individuals. The outcomes of this study provide an initial understanding of the effects of a mobile RTPI system on rural users.
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Although it is apparent that providing useful information has a positive effect on transit riders, no studies to date have investigated bus operators’ reactions to real-time arrival information and other potential rider information tools. In this study, the project team surveyed 253 bus operators to determine their views and values concerning the existing use of real-time information and to ask about future transit rider information applications. Almost all operators (93 and 91 % on two separate questions) were positive or neutral to the provision of real-time information. In addition, operators were receptive to building other new information applications, with all applications in the survey being supported by at least 60 % of the bus operators. The two most widely supported potential applications in the survey were additional tools to help blind and deaf-blind riders (89 % of bus operators favored) and an application that would aid riders in identifying physical stop, shelter and bus issues such as graffiti, broken parts or a need for lights (88 % of bus operators). Applications displaying data about past performance or current bus capacity received the least support (66 and 61 % respectively). This research gives a better understanding of the impact of rider information tools on bus operators, including the views and values of the operators, and the harms and benefits of such tools.
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Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) have become common in public transit systems, particularly providing real-time transit information. For new implementations, it remains difficult to predict and quantify system and user benefits of technology implementation. Although previous studies have quantified the operational benefits of real-time transit traveler information systems, a gap in knowledge exists around passenger benefits of such systems. The objective of this research was to create a refined method for evaluating transit rider benefits from real-time traveler information and predict changes in traveler behavior. The study was conducted on a rural university campus, isolating the impacts of the system from the multiple influences that often affect transportation in larger metropolitan areas. This study uniquely integrated transit system performance, pedestrian travel times, and traffic simulation to determine travel times and predict mode split. Findings indicated that reducing passenger waiting anxiety was the most significant measure of traveler benefit from such a system. While the benefits found were specific to the study site, the methodology can be used for other transit systems evaluating real-time transit technology investments in rural or urban environments.
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This synthesis report will be of interest to transit staff concerned with implementing real-time bus arrival information systems at their agencies. Information on relevant technical capabilities, agency experience, cost, and bus rider reactions to these information systems was documented. The report describes the state of the practice, including both U.S. and international experience. It documents survey information, a review of the relevant literature, as well as interviews with key personnel at agencies that have, or are in the process of, implementing these systems. This report integrates the information obtained from the literature review and survey responses with the follow-up interviews. Case study information details specifics from agencies that have deployed these systems.
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Navigation of a transit system can be a major obstacle to new riders, especially special-needs populations and tourists. For those with cognitive disabilities (approximately 14.3 million Americans, or 6% of the population), it is challenging to plan and execute a trip without assistance. A travel assistance device (TAD) software prototype for Global Positioning System-enabled phones was developed to aid new transit riders, especially those who are cognitively disabled. When riders approach their stops, the TAD vibrates and delivers audio and visual messages to the riders to request a stop and exit the vehicle. This paper reports the results of a study that integrated communication with an automatic vehicle location (AVL) system on transit vehicles into TAD, with new features, including personalized notices of estimated vehicle arrival time and of vehicle arrival. Implementation issues addressed include the limitations of accessing AVL data for real-time consumer use, integration of different transit agency data sources, and consideration of the effects of software applications (e.g., wireless data communication) on mobile phone functionality (e.g., battery life).
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Rural communities face a range of challenges associated with accessibility and connectivity which apply in both the physical and virtual sphere. Constraints in rural transport infrastructure and services are often compounded by limitations in the development and resilience of technological infrastructures. In this context there is significant disparity between urban and rural communities. This paper will examine the context for accessibility and connectivity in rural communities highlighting key transport and technology challenges. It also explores barriers and opportunities to bringing together transport and technology solutions to enhance rural accessibility and connectivity. This is an area where current understanding is weak as most research has been focussed on urban environments. The paper focuses specifically on two issues of current research; firstly, the role of information and associated technologies in supporting rural passengers on public transport, secondly, the use of technologies to support flexible and demand responsive transport services in rural areas.
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A fundamental component of transit planning is understanding passenger travel patterns. However, traditional data sources used to study transit travel have some noteworthy drawbacks. For example, manual collection of travel surveys can be expensive, and data sets from automated fare collection systems often include only one transit system and do not capture multimodal trips (e.g., access and egress mode). New data sources from smartphone applications offer the opportunity to study transit travel patterns across multiple metropolitan regions and transit operators at little to no cost. Moreover, some smartphone applications integrate other shared mobility services, such as bikesharing, carsharing, and ride-hailing, which can provide a multimodal perspective not easily captured in traditional data sets. The objective of this research was to take a first look at an emerging data source: back-end data from user interactions with a smartphone application. The specific data set used in this paper was from a widely used smartphone application called Transit that provides real-time information about public transit and shared mobility services. Visualizations of individuals interactions with the Transit app were created to demonstrate three unique aspects of this data set: the ability to capture multicity transit travel, the ability to capture multiagency transit travel, and the ability to capture multimodal travel, such as the use of bikeshare to access transit. This data set was then qualitatively compared with traditional transit data sources, including travel surveys and automated fare collection data. The findings suggest that the data set has potential advantages over traditional data sources and could help transit planners better understand how passengers travel.
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Public transport authorities and service providers place great emphasis on information provision to travellers both before and during travel. Information provided prior to travel has included printed timetables, newspaper advertisements, telephone services and marketing campaigns. During the trip, providers have tended to offer maps at public transport stops (i.e. bus stops, train stations, ferry wharves, etc.) as well as timetables static, dynamic or real-time. Some of these channels are still used but improvements in digital technology has led to a wider range of information distributed using different digital media. Whilst Transport for NSW and transport operators continue to provide the more traditional information, there has been a plethora of third party applications which are accessible on the move. The literature recognises that the need for information and the importance of information provision differs at the various stages of the trip, from planning, to entry into the system, to wayfinding during the trip and egress from the system. However, no systematic research exists as to how information preferences and usage differ between customer segments. It is important for operators and regulators to identify the segments and their information preferences so as to promote public transport use. This paper addresses this important issue by presenting the results of an internet survey of the public’s awareness and usage of public transport information, focussing on commuters. The paper looks at awareness and usage of information sources and how this varies by stage of journey and frequency of usage of public transport. Factor analysis is used to identify segments of customers by attitudes towards public transport and usage of information sources. The paper uses an ordered choice modelling approach and finds few differences between frequent and infrequent users but confirmed the role of attitudes in framing the respondent’s identification of their satisfaction with the overall public transport trip and with the information sources provided. The paper also identifies the importance of recognising the non-homogeneity of information sources. The paper concludes how the type of information preferred by travellers varies by public transport mode and varies by trip segment.
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A two-wave survey of faculty, staff, and students at a large university was conducted to study the perceptions of and attitudes toward several dimensions of the university bus service before and after the implementation of a real-time passenger information system. In this study, community perceptions of the bus service's role in enhancing the environment and reducing traffic were investigated. Results showed that both users and nonusers of the bus service had positive perceptions of the bus service's environmental and traffic reduction roles, that those who noticed the recently implemented real-time information system had more positive attitudes, and that the effect of the information system on the perceptions was as great or greater for those who did not use the bus service as it was for those who used the service. It is hypothesized that these results, especially if confirmed in different communities, could motivate transit agencies to promote environmental and traffic reduction benefits of transit to gain public support of nonusers for transit subsidies and to market high-tech and progressive investments to increase support among nonusers.
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Provision of real-time passenger information (RTPI) increasingly is becoming a fundamental element of the service offered by transit agencies. RTPI changes how travelers perceive public transport services and can have a remarkable influence on travel choices and, consequently, system performance. Such consequences depend on the objectives pursued by the riders and the characteristics of the transit service. The existing knowledge about transit RTPI is extended by studying the decision-making process of bus passengers in the presence of multichannel descriptive and prescriptive real-time information. The use of different kinds of information, decision-making objectives, travel choices, and their associations (which define classes of travel choice behavior) was investigated by conducting a survey of passengers on Lothian Buses in Edinburgh, Scotland. Descriptive RTPI also was accessed before traveling and influenced decisions about route choice above all. The analysis demonstrated that RTPI was associated with more flexible behavior and that classes of behavior were well defined. Results emphasize the importance to transit agencies of providing RTPI that is tailored to customers. The development of models including the effects of RTPI is recommended to assess its impact on system performance.
Conference Paper
Older adults’ perspectives on public transportation-related ICT are explored across three scenarios: video surveillance (CCTV), real-time travel information (RTI), and a personal, pedestrian navigation system (NAV) with public transportation information. Swedish respondents’ perceptions indicate positive effects on one’s sense of assurance across the scenarios, particularly in situations perceived as more vulnerable, such as using the subway and traveling alone or in an unfamiliar setting. Of the three scenarios, CCTV elicits the most favorable responses, although this does not directly translate to perceived personal benefit, where RTI is rated the highest. NAV is ranked relatively lower for effects on assurance, although this pattern is broken for car and walking modes where the navigation function may be prioritized. Thus, personal control over aspects of the trip better explains responses than does personal control over ICT use, as ICT can serve to reduce (perceived) uncertainties, improving one’s sense of assurance. Significant differences are found for gender, but not for further age stratification. Overall, female respondents feel relatively less assured when traveling and rate the technological applications’ effects on their assurance more highly than men. Although men express a greater personal interest in technology, it appears that there is more potential for women to positively benefit in terms of greater perceived assurance. This calls into question the possibilities of effectively addressing user needs or concerns, especially via technologies intended for individual use, if those who potentially serve to gain more by them are not being reached or are not as interested in such “solutions”.
Conference Paper
Crowdsourced mobile sensing systems provide a counterpoint to the idea of fully automated sensing systems by transferring some or all of the sensing duties to the end users. Humans can easily sense in some ways that are impossible for machines to sense, leading to hybrid crowdsourced-automated systems. However, this transfer of sensing to humans comes with design trade-offs in terms of the sparsity of the sensed information and human entry errors. To better understand these design trade-offs, the authors developed a real-time arrival information system for a local transit agency that crowdsources the location of transit vehicles by having riders share location traces from their smart phones. The authors then deployed the system and measured the public’s use of it for 10 months, gathering data on 296,283 interactive sessions. Analysis shows that relying on users can produce very sparse information for the whole system but much better information relative to the times and places that users access the service. Reflecting on this deployment, the authors conclude that crowdsourced-sensing systems perform well when (i) the value of an observation persists over time, (ii) many people make observations, and (iii) observations would be difficult or expensive to sense with an automated sensing system.
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Bus drivers have responded positively toward real-time bus information in various surveys. However, empirical studies on their actual responses are limited. On the basis of actual automatic vehicle location data, this study quantified bus drivers' responses to real-time schedule adherence and their effects on transit reliability. Bus trips that were ahead of and behind schedule were analyzed separately at timepoint stops, regular stops, and along the roadways between stops. Results revealed that bus drivers would use real-time information to keep on schedule. Early buses were found to be more likely to make adjustments in response to information than were late buses along the roadways. Moreover, bus drivers' responses to real-time information was found to improve traasit reliability:50% of the improvement was the result of drivers' responses to schedule adherence at timepoint stops and 50% was the result mainly of drivers' responses to schedule adherence along the roadways. The likelihood that drivers would make adjustments at regular stops to adhere to schedule was low.
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The chief objective of the PATH2Go multimodal traveler information application is to improve the accessibility and the quality of real-time traveler information and to make transit a known and viable choice for travelers. PATH2Go was developed as part of a field test on the US-101 corridor in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, with the primary hypothesis that travelers would benefit from real-time multimodal traveler information and therefore would be likely to consider using transit. PATH2Go integrates a web-based multimodal trip-planning tool that uses real-time transit, traffic, and parking information; a web-based search tool that finds real-time information about transit arrivals and schedules; and a mobile application that provides personalized en route transit trip information. PATH2Go integrates these major components of traveler information in one platform and makes real-time information easily accessible to travelers. The PATH2G0 system architecture and major design considerations are described, and enabling technologies including the Global Positioning System (GPS) fusing algorithm and a scenario-parsing algorithm based on GPS location data-are introduced.
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Prior studies have assessed the impacts of real-time information (RTI) provided to bus and heavy rail riders but not commuter rail passengers. The objective of this research is to investigate the benefits of providing commuter rail RTI. The method is a three-part statistical analysis using data from an on-board survey on two commuter rail lines in the Boston region. The first analysis assesses overarching adoption, and the results show that one-third of commuter rail riders use RTI. The second part conducts difference of means tests and regression analysis on passenger wait times, which reveals that riders’ use of RTI is correlated with a decrease in self-reported “usual” wait times. The third part analyzes 12 quality-of-service indicators, which have a limited relationship with RTI utilization. The results suggest that the benefits of commuter rail RTI are modest. Despite this, many commuter rail riders choose to use this new information source, which has important implications for transit managers considering deploying RTI systems.