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Analysis of the morphological changes in beginning bodybuilders due to resistance training Department of weightlifting and box, Kharkov state academy of physical culture, UKRAINE

  • Kharkiv state academy of physical culture
  • Харьковская государственная академия физической культуры


Bodybuilding is the kind of sport in which a sportsman's body shape influences the competition results[1;23]. In spite of scientific researches in the sport anthropology there is the lack of information about morphological changes of beginner bodybuilders as a result of resistance training [17]. The aim of this study was to trace changes of somatotype of bodybuilders of first and second class during mass gaining period. Materials and methods involved: a total of 22 male first and second class bodybuilders aged from 19 to 26 year old participated in this study. Body weight, Height, Skinfolds thickness (Triceps, Subscapular, Abdominal and Medial calf, Girths of tensed arm and calf, and two Breadths (Biepicondylar Humerus Breadth and Biepicondylar Femur Breadth) from each participants were measured before and after the basic period. The Height was 180±1.11sm. The body mass in the beginning of study was 78.9±1.29kg, in the end it was 79.64±1.22kg (t=2.91, p<0.01). Measurement indicators of skinfolds in the beginning and the end of study were: Triceps-4.55±0.27mm; 4.59±0.21mm (t=0.25, p>0.05), Subscapular-6.91±0.51mm; 6.86±0.40mm (t=0.23, p>0.05), Abdominal-10.05±0.95mm; 9.14±0.67mm (t=2.3, p>0.05), Medial calf-4.68±0.26mm; 4.64±0.22mm (t=0.29, p>0.05). The Morphological level before and after study was: Endomorphy-2.45±0.20; 2.36±0.14 (t=1.05, p>0.05), Mesomorphy-5.20±0.13; 5.58±0.14 (t=4.7, p<0.001), Ectomorphy-2.08±0.11; 1.76±0.07 (t=3.03, p<0.01). The Girth of tensed arm was 41.3±0.33mm; 42.6±0.31mm (t=4.12, p<0.001), The Girth of Medial calf-40.23±0.27mm; 41.09±0.37mm (t=3.07, p<0.01). Our study has showed the changes of somatotype of bodybuilders 1st and 2nd class during the basic period of preparation. Bodybuilders shifted their somatotype towards mesomorphic type during mass gaining period.
Journal of Physical Education and Sport
(JPES), 18 Supplement issue 1, Art 52, pp. 382 - 386, 2018
online ISSN: 2247 - 806X; p-ISSN: 2247 – 8051; ISSN - L = 2247 - 8051 © JPES
382 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Corresponding Author OLEKSANDR TYKHORSKYI, E-mail:
Original Article
Analysis of the morphological changes in beginning bodybuilders due to
resistance training
Department of weightlifting and box, Kharkov state academy of physical culture, UKRAINE
Published online: April 30, 2018
(Accepted for publication March 25, 2018)
Bodybuilding is the kind of sport in which a sportsman’s body shape influences the competition results[1;23]. In
spite of scientific researches in the sport anthropology there is the lack of information about morphological
changes of beginner bodybuilders as a result of resistance training [17]. The aim of this study was to trace
changes of somatotype of bodybuilders of first and second class during mass gaining period.
Materials and methods involved: a total of 22 male first and second class bodybuilders aged from 19 to 26 year
old participated in this study. Body weight, Height, Skinfolds thickness (Triceps, Subscapular, Abdominal and
Medial calf, Girths of tensed arm and calf, and two Breadths (Biepicondylar Humerus Breadth and
Biepicondylar Femur Breadth) from each participants were measured before and after the basic period. The
Height was 180±1.11sm. The body mass in the beginning of study was 78.9±1.29kg, in the end it was
79.64±1.22kg (t=2.91, p<0.01). Measurement indicators of skinfolds in the beginning and the end of study were:
Triceps - 4.55±0.27mm; 4.59±0.21mm (t=0.25, p>0.05), Subscapular - 6.91±0.51mm; 6.86±0.40mm (t=0.23,
p>0.05), Abdominal - 10.05±0.95mm; 9.14±0.67mm (t=2.3, p>0.05), Medial calf - 4.68±0.26mm; 4.64±0.22mm
(t=0.29, p>0.05). The Morphological level before and after study was: Endomorphy - 2.45±0.20; 2.36±0.14
(t=1.05, p>0.05), Mesomorphy - 5.20±0.13; 5.58±0.14 (t=4.7, p<0.001), Ectomorphy - 2.08±0.11; 1.76±0.07
(t=3.03, p<0.01). The Girth of tensed arm was 41.3±0.33mm; 42.6±0.31mm (t=4.12, p<0.001), The Girth of
Medial calf - 40.23±0.27mm; 41.09±0.37mm (t=3.07, p<0.01). Our study has showed the changes of somatotype
of bodybuilders 1st and 2nd class during the basic period of preparation. Bodybuilders shifted their somatotype
towards mesomorphic type during mass gaining period.
Key words: - bodybuilding, anthropometry, somatotypes, off-season period
Anthropometry plays an important role in athlete selection and performance criteria in most kinds of
sport [8; 9].
The peculiarity of bodybuilding is that it is a kind of sport which involves development of muscle groups
that are estimated during the competition. The main aim of bodybuilding training is to develop muscles mass and
body symmetry with the lowest possible fat percent. Body composition one is the most important factors for
bodybuilders [12; 4]. Nevertheless, athletes with different somatotypes achieves outstanding performance during
competition [3;5]. Sportsmen in bodybuilding are judged not by performance but by appearance, therefore body
composition, muscle size and definition are critical elements of success. (J. Funct)
Somatometry is fundamental research method in anthropology. It can help to understand current
morphological condition of a sportsman, expressed through 3 basic components of body composition. The
somatotype is defined as the quantification of the present shape and composition of the human body [2; 22]. The
theory of somatotypes was developed by American physiologist William Herbert Sheldon in 1940. According to
this study, human body is related to three different biotypes and combinations of their components [20].
The Heath-Carter method of somatotyping is the most commonly used today [15; 16]. Endomorphy,
Ectomorphy and Mesomorphy may be determined by using mathematical formulas which have been described
by Carter [2]. According to Grasgruber and Cacek, 2008, the somatotype of bodybuilders is the closest to the
ideal mesomorph and often achieves extreme points of mesomorphy.
The appearance and body shape of a person is known to be determined by his genotype as well as
influenced by his environment, lifestyle, diet ets [8].
In scientific literature there are several data that show anthropometry of elite and low-profile sportsmen
who specialize in different kinds of sport. According to Gutnik, 2015, the range of mesomorphy for football
players was from 0 to 4.6, for basketball players from 4,5 to 5,9, and for kayaking 5,9 and higher.
Novoa-Vingnau shows that mesomorphic component was dominant in group of elite climbers, however
the level of ectomorphy also was significantly different from non-climbers group [13].
Mohd Irman [11] investigated comparison between somatotypes of Indian bodybuilders and
weightlifters. The result of this study showed that weight lifters have much more fat percentage than
bodybuilders [7]. Although there was no significant difference between this sportsmen in mesomorphy status,
bodybuilders showed slightly more developed muscles than weightlifters. Furthemore, ectomorphy status of
weightlifters tend to be less ectomorph than sportsmen who do bodybuilding. The research has also proven that
bodybuilders have rate of anthropometry (2.9; 5.95; 1.56), which affirmes that bodybuilders have strong level of
It is well known [24] that one of the most effective way to shift anthropometry towards mesomorphy is
gaining muscle mass. Now it is widely believed that hight-volume, multiple-set training is effective with respect
to muscle hypertrophy. The reason may be in a great total muscle tension, metabolic stress or damage of
muscles. Furthermore, it may be the result of the combination of all these factors [17; 21].
Existing data confirms that periodization is the most important aspect of the training in the kinds of sport
such as bodybuilding or powerlifting. Several basic training principles which are overload, variation, specificity,
and reversibility make a substantial effect in training process outcomes. In order of using the principles presented
above sportsmen can avoid overtraining, optimize adaptation and increase their performance.
Bodybuilding is usually planned in two phases: off-season which is requires mass gaining on account of
muscle hypertrophy and pre-competitive period, during which sportsmen try to develop muscle definition [14].
The mass-gaining period consists of anaerobic training with a high caloric and protein intake. Nevertheless,
nowadays bodybuilders try not to gain too much body fat during this phase, given the complexity of losing it in
the pre-competitive phase [18].
In spite of scientific researches in the sport anthropology there is the lack of information about
morphological changes of beginner bodybuilders as a result of resistance training. The aim of our study is to
observe alterations in body composition of first and second class bodybuilders during three months of mass-
gaining phase.
Materials and methods
Participants: 22 male 1st and 2nd class bodybuilders aged from 19 to 26 years old took part in the study
Methods: Body mass was measured on digital scales BEURER BG 17 with accuracy of 100g and height
with a vertical metric RPV-2000 with a 1mm accuracy; skinfold thickness was obtained by a Digital Body Fat
Caliper with a 0,2 mm accuracy; the girths were measured with a Lipoelastic Tape Technique with 1 mm
accuracy scale, breadths with a 1mm accuracy Rosscraft Campbell-type bone caliper.
For determination of a somatotype we used method of Carter and Heath [6]. Level of Endomorphy (EN)
was calculated by application of the formula:
EN = 0.7182 + 0.1451(X) - 0.00068( ) + 0.0000014( ,
Where X = ,
Where BH - body height (sm), TS - triceps skinfold (mm), SbS - Subscapular skinfold (mm), SpS -
Supraspinal skinfold (mm).
The formula for determine the level of Mesomorphy is:
M = 0.858(EW) + 0.061(KW) + 0.188(BC) + 0.161(CC) - 0.131(BH) + 4.5,
Where EW - Width of the elbow joint (sm), KW - Width of the knee joint (sm), BC - Circumference of
the flexed biceps (sm), CC - Circumference of the calf muscle (sm);
The level of Ectomorphy was calculated by the formula:
EC = 0.732 (HWR) - 28.58,
Where HWR is height-weight ratio:
HWR = ,
Where BH - Body height (sm), W - Weight (kg).
We used the formula above for calculate level of Ectomorphy, because HWR was in all cases.
All measurements were made in the beginning and in the end of study.
Statistical analysis. The results are presented as the Mean Standard Deviation (M SD). Since a
normal distribution was confirmed, a t-test for dependent samples was performed to define differences between
results. The data were analyzed with the licensed computer program Microsoft EXEL. Significant levels in all
tests were set at P 0.05.
Results can be seen in the table I.
Table I.
Results obtained before and after three months of off-season period among bodybuilders first and second
Before After
Mean ±
SD Mean ±
t p
Weight, kg 78.9 ±
79.6 ±
Triceps skinfold, mm 4.55 ±
4.59 ±
Subscapular skinfold, mm 6.91 ±
6.86 ±
0.4 0,23
Supraspinal skinfold, mm 10.05 ±
9.14 ±
2,3 <0.05
Calf skinfold, mm 4.68 ±
4.64 ±
Circumference of the flexed biceps, sm 41.3 ±
42.6 ±
Circumference of the calf muscle, sm 40.23 ±
41.09 ±
Endomorphy level 2.45 ±
0.2 2.36 ±
Mesomorphy level 5.20 ±
5.58 ±
4,7 <0.001
Ectomorphy level 2.18 ±
02.08 ±
The results of analysis show us that bodybuilders have significantly shifted their anthropometry towards
mesomorphic somatotype. It occurs due to gaining sportsmen`s body mass. Indeed, there were observed
increasing of circumference of flexed biceps (p <0,001) and calf muscle (p <0,01), however, significant changes
of skinfold thickness were not discovered, except supraspinal skinfold (p <0,05). Furthermore, ectomorphic level
has decreased significantly (p <0,01). The change of level of endomorphy was not discovered.
The figure shows that sportsmen after basic period are nearer to the center of somatochart and higher than
Fig. 1. Location of measured results in somatograph
Despite the growing interest in bodybuilding research, there is still scant evidence about the
morphological factors that determine success in this kind of sport. The objective of the study was to describe
changes of somatotype of bodybuilders of the 1st and 2nd class during mass gaining period, which lasted three
month. In our study, we found significant positive shifting of anthropometric parameters towards
mesomorph [16]. It has been assumed that bodybuilders change their anthropometry parameters along with
increasing their mastership. This study can be considered actual has never before been researched changing of
bodybuilder’s anthropometry in the off-season period.
Toth showed the average value of bodybuilder`s somatotype as 6.03, that means localization in endo-
mesomorphic area. Similar result was obtained by Nikbakhsh [12], who showed low endomorphism
(0.92 0.24), high mesomorphism (6.86 0.89), and low ectomorphism (1.84 0.79) among Iranian
bodybuilders, which can be classified as a balanced mesomorphism. However, Brazilian sportsmen had
significantly higher level of mesomorphy (8.10 1.10). As a result, it can be suggested that low proportion of fat
and high proportion of muscle, is great advantage in kind of sport as a bodybuilding.
These results were proved by Irman, who compared somatotypes of bodybuilders and Weight Lifters. It
was showed that bodybuilers have level of mesomorphy as 5.95 0.92, Endomorphy - 2.90 0.49, Ectomorphy
- 1.56 1.19.
The question of body physique and dominant somatotype regarding the level of sportsmen within
different specialization have been investigated by Gutnik [8]. It was showed that the athletes of the elite groups,
unlike the groups of low profile sportsmen, demonstrated a higher variability of endomorphic and mesomorphic
level. Chatterjee proved this results and showed difference between constitution of low and high level athletes.
The index of mesomorphy depends on skeletal muscle mass in the human body. There are many kinds of
sport where mesomorphic index is dominant. The average somatotype in elite sportsmen is balanced
mesomorph. It has been shown that highly trained athletes demonstrate significantly greater measures of
mesomorphy than beginners or non-trained men. The training process in most kinds of sport includes strong
contractions of muscles that leads to increasing of muscle mass. Nevertheless, bodybuilders are interested in
gaining muscle mass without percentage of fat growing. For this aim sportsmen use aerobic exercise and special
diet which requires low carbohydrate [19].
Oroles’s [14] study shows the improvement of fitness level under the influence of weight training.
Sportsmen underwent the experiment during 40 weeks, and covered different training stages which included
resistance from 75% RM to 85%RM and amount of reps was from 6 to 10 for each set. The Standart split system
was used:
- Monday: pectoral, triceps, anterior deltoid;
- Wednesday: back, biceps, lateral and posterior deltoid
- Friday: things, calves, abdomen.
Exercises were changed and modified depending on goals of each stage. The improvement of strength
ability in the bench press exercise was shown.
The results of this study confirmed the conclusion made by O. Tykhorskyi [23], in which elite
bodybuilders during competitive period took part. According to this research percentage of body fat decreases in
order to improvement level of sportsmen. It occurs due to increasing lean muscle mass and decreasing amount of
fat in sportsmen’s body. A special training program and supplementation were used to achieve these goals.
The study has several notable limitations that must be taken into account. First, under observation were
male sportsmen so data does not apply to females. Second, in this study bodybuilders of 1st and 2nd class took
part so the results for higher level sportsmen may be different. Third, observation carried out during three-month
time however it would be useful to track changes during annual period. All of these last limitations point to
necessity of exploring these problems in future studies.
It has been found that first and second class sportsmen who specialized in bodybuilding have changed
their anthropometry indicators during mass gaining period which lasted three month. Monitoring of
morphological changes showed significant increase in mesomorphy level on account of resistance training.
Anaerobic exercises can be recommended for sportsmen of different specialization whose aim is to gain muscle
mass and increase level of mesomorphy.
Conflict of interest – The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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... Not only segment circumference, but also muscle definition and symmetry are another important factor that has been defined as a key bodybuilding competition factor (Gaines 2001). In novice group, the flexed biceps circumference and calf circumference of this study were lesser than beginning bodybuilders before and after three months of off-season period resistance training among beginning bodybuilders (Tykhorskyi et al., 2018). This is just another finding that is in line with the findings of segmental lean. ...
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Research purpose. This study aims to compare anthropometric characteristics between elite and novice bodybuilders. Materials and methods. Twenty bodybuilders consisted of 10 elites and 10 novices were recruited. Percent body fat, segmental lean mass, and segmental fat mass were measured by a bioelectrical impedance analysis device. Other measure includes the circumference of body segment and body height. Results. Results of the study indicated that significant differences were found in terms of upper arm (flexed) circumference, upper arm circumference, and chest circumference, with the elite, were bigger than the novice. Elite bodybuilders also had significantly lower body fat percentage, with a better segmental lean mass of the right arm, left arm, and trunk. Interestingly neck, arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf circumferences were not significantly different between groups. Similar insignificant differences were also found in body mass index, a segmental lean mass of right leg and left leg, a segmental fat mass of left and right arm, trunk, and left and right leg. With regards specifically to the group of bodybuilders that participated in this study, the non-significant differences variables may indicate areas that can be improved in terms of training in both elite and novice. The variables with significant differences may indicate the area that may have been over-emphasized by the elite group, which may also contribute to their better (winning) performance. Conclusions. In a conclusion, the results also correspond well with bodybuilding judging criteria, where one of them such as size (circumference) may be similar, but bodybuilders with lean and well-defined bodies will be in the winning group.
... Bodybuilding is a kind of sport where athletes are judged by their aesthetics [ [6], [13]]. One of the main goal in bodybuilding is muscle mass growth and reduction of body fat percentage. ...
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Bodybuilding is characterized by sportsmen aesthetic and ability to develop lean body mass. Bodybuilders prepare for a competition using strict diet and resistance training. In these conditions, sportsmen tend to lose body mass (BM), hence, ability to perform absolute strength is mitigated. Therefore, changes of elite bodybuilders`bodybuilders`body mass (BM), lean body bass (LBM), fat mass (FM), fat percentage and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) results in bench press (BP) and dead lift (DL) were tracked. Output of absolutely (AS) and relative (RS) strength were obtained. Furthermore, the number of repetitions in pulling up was measured. Twenty one elite sportsmen used hypo-caloric diet (3,5 g/kg BM of protein, 1-1,5 g/kg BM of carbohydrates, 0,5-1 g/kg BM of fat) during 7 weeks of preparation. The results showed significant decrease in BM (p<0,001), FM (p<0,001) and LBM (p<0,001). Although absolute strength tended to decrease in bench press (t=9,5, p<0,001) and in dead lift (t=8,54, p<0,001) while losing body weight, relative strength had grown both in bench press (t=11,4, p<001) and dead lift (t=8,0 p<0,001). It has been also showed that results in pulling up improved due to decreasing of BM. The article offers important findings regarding bodybuilders`bodybuilders`diet and its influence on strength results. Sportsmen and coaches should consider the reported information when developing a plan of preparation to the competition.
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Objective: Training has different adaptive effects on muscle architecture and body types in the long term. The purpose of this study was to compare rectus femoris architecture and somatotypes of well-trained bodybuilders and soccer players. Material and Methods: A total of thirty male athletes (15 bodybuilders and 15 soccer players, with at least 5 years of training experience) were included in the study. The thickness of the rectus femoris muscle (MT), pennation angle (PA), and fascicle length (FL) were measured using B-mode ultrasound and somatotyping has been performed by the Heath-Carter method. Results: PA (19.1%, p=0.007) and MT (11.5%, p=0.039) were greater in bodybuilders than soccer players, while FL was similar (5%, p=0.220) between athletes. A moderate effect size (ES) was found at MT (ES = 1.06; 95% CI) and a large ES at PA (ES = 1.55; 95% CI). Somatotyping has revealed that bodybuilders were endomorphic mesomorph (3.01-5.74-2.05) and soccer players were mesomorph-ectomorph (2.52-3.58-3.80). Conclusion : Training affects muscle morphology and somatotype of athletes with regard to sport specific training patterns in long term. Revealing the adaptive characteristics of muscle architecture and somatotypes may help sports scientists and coaches in train planning and modification.
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Problem statement. Karate is part of the Deaflympic Games program, however, the problems of the training process in Deaflympic sports have not been sufficiently studied. Approach. The study involved an elite female karate player, a three-time deaflympic champion. During the annual macrocycle, in shock microcycles, the athlete performed a specific aerobic test for karatekas (KSAT), which includes a series of strokes: kizami zuki, mawashi geri, gyaku zuki, kizami mawashi geri. The following indicators were studied: speed of striking, time to exhaustion, level, blood lactate level, heart rate during the test. Purpose: to find out the speed abilities, time to exhaustion, and their correlation of an elite karateka with hearing problems during KSAT. Physiological indicators of fatigue while test performing have been also studied and compared with the data of healthy athletes. Results: The athlete completed 27 KSAT series during the year. The heart rate was 191.6±5.2 , the lactate level was 13.3±0.9 mmol, and was 48.4±2.05. The period before exhaustion was 642.3±33.8 s, the speed of striking was: kizami zuki - 5.9±0.27; mawashi geri - 9.27±0.24; gyaku zuki - 7.41±0.35 , kizami mawashi geri - 6.3±0.3 . The correlation relationship indicators between the speed of striking and the time to exhaustion were equal: kizami zuki - r=0.89; mawashi geri - r=0.87; gyaku zuki - r=0.91; kizami mawashi geri - r=0.82 (p <0.001 for all indicators). Conclusions: There is a strong correlation between the speed of striking during the performance of KSAT and the time to exhaustion. High levels of lactate in the blood and heart rate indicate work in the anaerobic zone during striking. The results shown by a deaf elite athlete supplement the previous research data, in which karatekas of different qualifications and sex took part.
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Purpose: In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of eight weeks exercise on body composition and some blood values in women. Methods: A total of 16 volunteer women with an age mean of 30,81 ± 9,44 years and an age mean of 159,44 ± 6,61 cm were participated in the study. Blood samples of the participants were taken at the health facility while they were hungry before starting the exercise program. After applying the eight-week and 3 days a week exercise program, blood samples of subjects were taken again. The results which obtained from the study were analyzed with the SPSS 23.0 package program. In the analysis of the data, independent samples t test was applied to determine the difference between the groups. Results: As a result of the analyzes, while no significant difference was found between glucose and urea, creatine, total crystallinity, pre-test and post-test values of direct crystallization (p>0,05), body weight, BMI, chest circumference, waist circumference, waist circumference / height ratio, baseline area, and uric acid were significantly different between the pretest and posttest measurements (p<0,05). Conclusion: As a result of the study, it was observed that the eight-week exercise had differences in body weight, BMI, chest circumference, waist circumference, waist circumference, and baseline region and uric acid levels. It can be said that the exercise played an important role in the formation of this difference.
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Many bodybuilders use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) to potentiate muscle mass gain as a result of specific resistance training and nutrition. The case we describe hereafter outlines alterations in body composition of an amateur bodybuilder during his pre-competitive period (11 weeks). The Participant was a 28-year old Caucasian male who was aiming to participate in his first bodybuilding competition under the "Men's Physique" category. The Participant self-administered AAS for the whole pre-competitive period, followed a 13 set-meal plan consisting of 10 daily meals interspersed by approximately 2 h, and performed six high-volume resistance-training sessions a week. Body mass and anthropometric variables were measured at the beginning, during and at the end of his pre-competitive period. Dietetic analysis revealed a reduction in protein intake at the 10th (% decrease: −51.3%) and 11th weeks (% decrease: −64.5%) and in calorie intake at the 10th (% decrease: −57.9%) and 11th weeks (% decrease: −59.5%) in comparison to the 1st week. As a result, the Participant reduced both total body mass and fat percentage. However, there was a reduction in absolute fat free mass, despite the use of AAS. Apparently, the combination of excessive volumes of training with inadequate protein consumption was responsible for this outcome.
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Sport climbing has become a very popular and competitive sport. Despite growing interest in the research of climbing, there is still scant evidence regarding the adaptations it produces in the anthropometric characteristics of climbers. The objective of this study was to provide descriptive data about the anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of a group of elite and recreational climbers and compare them with a group of healthy non-climber volunteers. Twelve elite climbers (9 males and 3 females), 10 recreational climbers (7 males and 3 females), and 10 healthy non-climbers (6 males and 4 females) were assessed. Body mass, height, body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measurements were used to obtain body fat percentage (BF%) and somatotype according to the Heath-Carter protocol. We found that females and males elite climbers (EC) have a significantly lower BF% and endomorphic component (p < 0.05) than non-climbers (NC). EC males also showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) BMI than NC males. No differences were found between the anthropometric characteristics of EC and recreational climbers (RC); however, the EC had significantly higher mean results (p < 0.05) in climbing ability level and years of experience. The mesomorphic component was dominant in both groups of climbers. We concluded that EC, both males and females, are thin individuals with a predominance of musculoskeletal development, significantly less endomorphic characteristics, more ectomorphic characteristics and a lower BF% than the general population.
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Kinanthropometry is a fundamental tool to lead training program in bodybuilding. Bodybuilding is a sport that certainly focuses body appearances, muscles configuration and shape, trying to achieve supramuscular physique. However, few studies so far, in Iran and other country, have addressed this issue. The purpose of this paper is to describe body composition, somatotype and proportionality of 12 Iranian elite bodybuilders in the year 2009, and comparison of them with Brazilian and Belgian elite bodybuilders. The all measurements were taken Breadths (Biepicondylar Humerus Breadth and Biepicondylar Femur Breadth) from each subject were assessed 24-h before the competition and after 9-12 hours of fasting, 7-8 am, in clinical exercise physiology laboratory. The bodybuilder's age and body mass index were be 23.41 ± 1.56 (years), 23.75 ± 2.18 (kg.m-2); respectively. The sum of the eight skinfolds was 28.20 ± 2.22 mm. The somatotype was 0.92-6.86-1.84, which can be classified as a balanced mesomorphism. Our study showed a similarity between the Iranian, Belgian and Brazilian elite bodybuilders, with superior muscle type, a decisive factor for success in bodybuilding. This group of Iranian elite bodybuilders showed lower body fat and bigger muscular mass when compared to the other bodybuilders, with their body structure similar to the elite international bodybuilders. Thus, Iranian elite bodybuilders showed the Excellency level of bodybuilding in IRAN.
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Background: Muscle strength and endurance in children are very important to develop physical activities and cardiorespiratory functions, so factors that might affect their development must be studied; thus the aim of this study is to identify if there is a relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance time in healthy normal and obese children. Subjects and methods: A group of 75 healthy children without orthopedic, perceptual or cognitive problems were selected from Awlady Association in Maadi, Cairo, their ages ranged from 10 to 13 years old from both sexes. They were divided into three groups according to their body mass index percentile where group (a) is equal to or more than 5% percentile yet less than 85% percentile, group (b) is equal to or more than 85% percentile however under 95% percentile, while group (c) is equal to or more than the 95%th percentile. Two assessments had been carried out with respect to the peak torque for triceps muscle and quadriceps muscle, they were surveyed by Biodex isokinetic dynamometer at an angular velocity of 60°/s in concentric contraction mode while abdominal muscles were evaluated by manual muscle testing. A stop watch was utilized to calculate the length of time to fatigue to evaluate endurance time. The results: A significant distinction in muscle strength and endurance time among the obese, overweight groups comparing to the normal weight groups was identified. Additionally there was a positive correlation between muscle strength and body mass index percentile while muscle endurance time had a negative correlation with it. Conclusion: The study shows that the BMI of children had a positive correlation with the muscle strength of quadriceps, triceps, and abdominal muscles while a negative correlation with the endurance time of these muscles.
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The process of strength–power training and the subsequent adaptation is a multi-factorial process. These factors range from the genetics and morphological characteristics of the athlete to how a coach selects, orders, and doses exercises and loading patterns. Consequently, adaptation from these training factors may largely relate to the mode of delivery, in other words, programming tactics. There is strong evidence that the manner and phases in which training is presented to the athlete can make a profound difference in performance outcome. This discussion deals primarily with block periodization concepts and associated methods of programming for strength–power training within track and field.
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Planning training programs for strength–power track and field athletes require an understanding of both training principles and training theory. The training principles are overload, variation, and specificity. Each of these principles must be incorporated into an appropriate system of training. Conceptually, periodization embraces training principles and offers advantages in planning, allowing for logical integration and manipulation of training variables such as exercise selection, intensification, and volume factors. The adaptation and progress of the athlete is to a large extent directly related to the ability of the coach/athlete to create and carry an efficient and efficacious training process. This ability includes: an understanding of how exercises affect physiological and performance adaptation (i.e., maximum force, rate of force development, power, etc.), how to optimize transfer of training effect ensuring that training exercises have maximum potential for carryover to performance, and how to implement programs with variations at appropriate levels (macro, meso, and micro) such that fatigue management is enhanced and performance progress is optimized.
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Background and objective: Somatotyping is helpful in sports in which the body shape could influence the resulting performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of high profile Lithuanian athletes in kayaking, basketball and football and to compare between disciplines and with low level sportsmen of the same age. Materials and methods: A total of 72 young male sportsmen aged from 18 to 24 years were divided into three groups (kayakers, basketball and football players). Each group contained almost equal numbers of low level and elite, international level sportsmen. Anthropometric measurements of the players were used to establish somatotypes. Results: The greatest difference was observed in the mesomorphic component of elite kayakers compared to the low profile sportsmen. Mesomorphy could also be used to predict sport ability. The range of mesomorphy for elite footballers was from 0 to 4.6, for basketball players from 4.6 to 5.9, and for kayaking, from 5.9 and higher. Individual groups of elite sportsmen displayed different modes of somatotype. The kayakers were predominantly endomorphic; the basketball players mostly endomorphic and the footballers most often ectomorphic. No distinguishable patterns of somatotype were displayed by the low level sportsmen. Conclusions: Morphometric characteristics of the athlete's body and the fractional somatotype can be used as guiders and markers of the chosen sport and method of training. The results emphasize the necessity for a specific somatotype to reach a high profile in the selected area of sport and thus support morphometric oriented studies. Further studies could elucidate differentiation by age and sex.
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Bodybuilding competitions are becoming increasingly popular. Competitors are judged on their aesthetic appearance and usually exhibit a high level of muscularity and symmetry and low levels of body fat. Commonly used techniques to improve physique during the preparation phase before competitions include dehydration, periods of prolonged fasting, severe caloric restriction, excessive cardiovascular exercise and inappropriate use of diuretics and anabolic steroids. In contrast, this case study documents a structured nutrition and conditioning intervention followed by a 21 year-old amateur bodybuilding competitor to improve body composition, resting and exercise fat oxidation, and muscular strength that does not involve use of any of the above mentioned methods. Over a 14-week period, the Athlete was provided with a scientifically designed nutrition and conditioning plan that encouraged him to (i) consume a variety of foods; (ii) not neglect any macronutrient groups; (iii) exercise regularly but not excessively and; (iv) incorporate rest days into his conditioning regime. This strategy resulted in a body mass loss of 11.7 kg's, corresponding to a 6.7 kg reduction in fat mass and a 5.0 kg reduction in fat-free mass. Resting metabolic rate decreased from 1993 kcal/d to 1814 kcal/d, whereas resting fat oxidation increased from 0.04 g/min to 0.06 g/min. His capacity to oxidize fat during exercise increased more than twofold from 0.24 g/min to 0.59 g/min, while there was a near 3-fold increase in the corresponding exercise intensity that elicited the maximal rate of fat oxidation; 21% V ̇ O 2max to 60% V ̇ O 2max. Hamstring concentric peak torque decreased (1.7 to 1.5 Nm/kg), whereas hamstring eccentric (2.0 Nm/kg to 2.9 Nm/kg), quadriceps concentric (3.4 Nm/kg to 3.7 Nm/kg) and quadriceps eccentric (4.9 Nm/kg to 5.7 Nm/kg) peak torque all increased. Psychological mood-state (BRUMS scale) was not negatively influenced by the intervention and all values relating to the Athlete's mood-state remained below average over the course of study. This intervention shows that a structured and scientifically supported nutrition strategy can be implemented to improve parameters relevant to bodybuilding competition and importantly the health of competitors, therefore questioning the conventional practices of bodybuilding preparation.