J Appl Adv Res 2018: 3(Suppl. 1)
Proceedings of the Conference on “Recent Trend of Teaching Methods in Education”
Organised by Sri Sai Bharath College of Education Dindigul-624710, Tamil Nadu, India
Journal of Applied and Advanced Research, 2018: 3(Suppl. 1) S29S32
ISSN 2519-9412 / © 2018 Phoenix Research Publishers
Effective oral and written communication
R. Prabavathi*, P. C. Nagasubramani
Department of Pedagogical Sciences, Tamilnadu Teachers Education University, Karapakkam, Chennai - 600 097, Tamil
(Received: 20-03- 2018; Accepted 16-04-2018; Published Online 21-04-2018)
People communicate using different methods such as sending an email, talking on the phone and placing print advertisements
in specific places. Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between two people, a person and a
group or a group to a group. Written and oral communication is used daily in meetings, lecture halls and exams. Written and
oral communication are unique in that each word used must have specific purpose, otherwise it can lead to
misunderstandings. Over 70% of our time is spent communicating with others, and that’s the one interaction every person
must do. Everyone must communicate their needs and ideas. Every organization must communicate its products and services.
Unfortunately, many people have trouble in this area. Some just don’t have the professional impact they need to get ahead in
today’s corporate world. Communication is technically defined as the process in which information is enclosed in a package
and imparted from the sender to the receiver through a medium. Communication can be of many types and can be
summarized in short as WOVEN, i.e. Written, Oral, Verbal, Electronic and Non-Verbal. Oral and written forms of
communication are the most common and frequently used forms of communication. This article is a consolidation of details
so as to help you understand in detail about oral and written forms of communication.
Keywords: Effective, oral, written, communication
Communication is just as important as what we say
because people judge us, our companies, our products, our
services, and our professionalism by the way we write, act,
dress, talk, and manages our responsibilities. In short, how
well we communicate with others. Successful people know
how to communicate for results. They know how to say what
they mean and get what they want without hurting the
people they deal with. You deal daily with peers, outside
groups, customers, employees, and managers and you must
have a good communication style. Communication is full of
risks; despite whatever precautions and plans we make, we
can never really be sure of our success. No communication
ever travels from sender to receiver in the same shape
intended by the sender. And, no matter how hard you try, the
message will never be what you say—the message is always
what they hear. But if you have a system to go by, you can at
least reduce the risk and improve your chance of being
effective. For communication to occur there must be a two-
way interchange of feelings, ideas, values; clarification of
signals; and a fine-tuning of skills.
Five universal facts about communication that you
1. Communication is related to every human activity
Communication is closely linked with every sphere of
human life. It is essential in leading a meaningful human
life. Enjoying peaceful life, developing person-to-person
relationships, building a prosperous state etc. are not
possible without communication.
2. Communication involves two or more parties
At least, two parties are involved in any communication
process. The party who sends information is called sender
and the party who receives the information is called receiver.
However, in some cases a sender can send message to a
large number of receivers.
3. Communication may be one-way or two-way process
Communication can take the shape of two-way or one-
way process. In two-way communication, the receiver sends
his feedback to the sender after receiving the message.
One-way communication refers to the flow of
information from sender to receiver only. In this process of
communication receiver does not convey his reaction to the
4. Communication in organization flows in various patterns
In organization information flows in various directions,
such as upward direction, downward direction, horizontal
5. Communication is media or channel based
Every human communication occurs by using a
particular medium. The media may be written, oral and non-
verbal or a combination of verbal and non-verbal media. In
light of the above discussion and definitions,
Communication is the transfer of information from one
person to another person. It is a way of reaching others by
transmitting ideas, facts, thoughts, feelings, and values.
Principles of making effective communication in
Effective communication is the key to mobilizing your
employees behind a new vision.
Poor communication, on the other hand, is the best way
J Appl Adv Res 2018: 3(Suppl. 1)
to demotivate your employees and stall any progress. The
six principles below will help you to avoid mistakes.
1. Establish a Warm Atmosphere
2. Actively Engage People’s Interest
3. Be Believable
4. Speak With Your Own Voice
5. Use Gestures Well
6. Remember That Your Knowledge Is Limited.
Oral communication is transfer of information from
sender to receiver by means of verbal and visual aid.
Examples of oral communication include
presentations, speeches, discussions, etc.
Though the message is conveyed through words, most
of the times oral communication is effectively carried
out with the help of non-verbal communication like
body language and tone modulations. Oral
communication is also at times mixed with visual aid
to help establish the conveyed message in a clear
Examples include usage of presentations in a seminar
or meeting to put across the message in a clear manner.
Oral communication can also be mixed with written
communication methods to ensure that maximum
effectiveness is achieved.
There are many benefits of oral communication. This
form of communication is a quick and direct method of
communication. Be it a criticism or praise or
information, it helps to convey the message
immediately to the receiver. This method of
communication enables in obtaining immediate
feedback and hence is a form in which two-way
communication can be enabled.
The other main advantage of this communication
method is that it helps in conveying the message with
the desired pitch and tone that is needed for the
message. It also saves on time in a huge way and saves
enormously on effort that is spent. Oral communication
is a less formal method as compared to others and
hence adds a personal touch to your message.
Combined with the right kind of verbal
communication, oral forms can create confidence and
loyalty on the sender from the receiver’s side.
There are many ways to create an effective oral
communication. It is important to ensure that the words
are framed properly and are delivered in the right pitch
and tone. Clarity, brevity and precision are mandatory
features of an effective oral communication system. It
is advisable to avoid complicated sentences and
jargons so as to make sure that the message is
conveyed across properly. It is important to establish
an eye contact and to modulate body language based
on the message. For example, a strict order can be
conveyed better when communicated with a formal
and stern body language as opposed to a casual and
Though it has many advantages, oral communication
has its set of limitations also. This form of
communication can be misinterpreted or
misunderstood very easily. Communicating effectively
through oral forms require high skills and is not
something that everyone can master. It is also not a
form of communication that can be used as a form of
When oral communication is more effective
Oral communication is more effective when
communication needs a human touch, establishing a direct
relationship, maintaining secrets, reaching mutual
understanding and avoiding complexities with oral consent.
1. Instant communication
Oral communication is more effective when it is needed
to communicate with someone instantly.
2. Detailed Explanation of Policies
If any direction of managers and policy or procedure of
the company requires explanation, oral communication is the
best way to communicate.
3. Developing direct relationship
If it is important to establish a direct relationship
between sender and receiver, or between workers and
management, they should communicate orally.
4. Maintaining secrecy
Oral communication is best suited when information is
to be kept secret. Written communication leaks secrecy as
the message passes from hand to hand.
5. Instant response
Where instant reply from the receiver is required, oral
communication is the best suited there.
6. Reaching to mutual understanding
Sometimes the open discussion is needed for reaching a
consensus. Such discussion is possible only through oral
7. Illiterate receivers
When the receivers are illiterate, written communication
is meaningless to them. Oral communication is only the way
to communicate with them.
8. Avoiding bureaucratic complexities
Bureaucratic complexity delays the communication. In
order to avoid any delay caused by bureaucracy or red-
tapism, oral communication should be used instead of
Causes of failure of oral communication
1. Absence of planning
If the message of the oral communication is not
properly planned, it cannot draw the attention of the
audiences. Therefore, before delivering oral message,
the speaker should prepare necessary plan.
2. Over confidence
In case of oral communication, communicator should
have self- confidence. Though self-confidence is essential in
oral communication, over confidence may collapse the
J Appl Adv Res 2018: 3(Suppl. 1)
3. Over busyness
In most of cases, oral communication occurs in a busy
situation. This may cause distortion of message. As a
result, communication becomes ineffective.
4. Quick transmission
When the communicator transmits a message or
information very quickly, the audience may not understand a
part or whole of it. In such case, if the message is not
repeated, communication will fail.
5. Poor and defective presentation
Presentation is an important prerequisite of oral
communication. Sometimes communication becomes
ineffective due to poor and defective presentation of the
Inattention is greatly responsible for failure of oral
Both the parties must pay due attention towards the
communication message. If either of the party is inattentive,
communication between them becomes ineffective.
7. Presence of emotion
Emotions of both parties may influence the
effectiveness of communication. Sometimes in oral
communication, parties may not control their emotions.
Their emotional behavior may lead the communication in
8. Status difference
Status difference of the speaker and listener greatly
affect the success of oral communication. If either of the
party boasts of his position and ignores the other party, then
communication between them will be blocked.
9. Lack of evaluation
In oral communication, there is little opportunity for
both speaker and listener to evaluate the message. This also
causes failure in oral communication.
10. Linguistic barrier
Improper language is another cause of failure of oral
communication. Linguistic barrier arises from using
unknown words, technical words, jargon’s, accent difference
11. Disregard to receiver
When superiors communicate orally with subordinates,
sometimes they may show disrespect to the subordinates.
Due to such disrespect, subordinates may show less interest
towards the message.
12. Difference in personality
In case of oral communication, listener pays attention to
the personality of the speaker. If the speaker holds less
personality, the listener will not pay attention to the
13. Receiver’s interpretation
Receiver’s interpretation of the message severely affects
the effectiveness of oral communication. Generally, listeners
try to understand the speech of the speaker from their own
emotional behavior. In such a situation, listeners may
interpret the message wrongly.
Next to oral communication, written communication is
the oldest known form of communication. Any form of
communication which is written and documented from
the sender to the receiver is known as written
communication. Examples of written communication
include letters, memos, research papers, reports, etc.
It is a very concrete form of documentary evidence and
can also be used for future reference purposes. As the
information is written, it can be easily distributed to
many people thus making it a bulk communication
method. As the information does not change from
person to person, the accuracy of the information
conveyed is same across the entire audience.
To ensure an effective written communication form, it
is a must to follow completeness, clarity and
correctness in your writing. As there is no immediate
feedback that can be received, it is important that
written communication is detailed and accurate to
ensure that the write message is communicated.
Also remember to keep the communication simple and
without any errors. Written communication also has its
limitations like lack of feedback, absence of
modulations to convey message effectively, etc. These
can be overcome effectively by mixing oral
communication with written so as to combine the
advantages of both along with eliminating the
When Written Communication is More Effective
Conveying Complex Information: When the sender
wants to convey complex information, written
communication serves better than oral communication.
Having the written document, the receiver can read it
repeatedly until he/she understands the entire message.
Need for Permanent Record: Written communication
is preferable when a permanent record is needed for
Communicating with Large Audience: When the
audiences are large in number and geographically
dispersed, written communication is fruitful there. The
sender can communicate repeatedly with the same
written document or information sheet.
Less Need for Interaction with Audience: Written
communication is also suitable when immediate
interaction with the audience is either unimportant or
Maintaining Uniformity of Application: When any
message is to be applied uniformly at different places,
the sender should prefer written communication
instead of oral communication.
Tips to improve written communication
1. Use Short and Familiar words.
2. Use Short Sentence and Paragraphs.
3. Use Technical Words with Caution.
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4. Use Active Voice.
5. Give Examples and Charts.
6. Express Thoughts Logically.
7. Avoid Unnecessary Words.
8. Avoid Discriminatory Words.
Oral Communication is an informal one which is
normally used in personal conversations, group talks, etc.
Written Communication is formal communication, which is
used in schools, colleges, business world, etc. Choosing
between the two communications modes is a tough task
because both are good at their places. People normally use
the oral mode of communication because it is convenient
and less time-consuming. However, people normally believe
in the written text more than what they hear that is why
written communication is considered as the reliable method
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