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Political theatres in the urban periphery: Medellín and the Library-Parks Project

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Los Parques-Biblioteca de Medellín son cruciales en el proyecto de ‘mejoramiento urbano y social’ de esta ciudad. Ellos consisten en una combinación de programas culturales y generosos espacios exteriores y interiores para uso público, construidos con la intención de producir un nuevo sentido de comunidad y ciudadanía mediante la arquitectura y su apropiación. Este hecho abre una serie de preguntas sobre el uso instrumental de la arquitectura dentro de proyectos más amplios de transformaciones urbanas. En particular, estos proyectos urbanos intentaron transformar áreas que hasta ahora eran periféricas en la economía, la cultura y la política de esta ciudad. Este artículo intenta abordar cómo el ‘Proyecto de Parques-Biblioteca’ materializa y produce ideologías de política y cultura en contextos de periferia (cultural, económica y política).
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... Ballent (2005) la analizó también en la vivienda peronista, usada como un vehículo de aproximación al gusto de la clase media. Puede ser leída en múltiples estrategias de mejoramiento urbano no exentas de contenidos más amplios sobre ciudadanía y democracia, como la instrumentalización de la arquitectura en tanto detonante de cambio social en el programa de parques-biblioteca de Medellín (Capillé, 2018). Como plantea Findley (2005), la arquitectura puede ser concebida como una herramienta que encarna y acelera una agenda social, interviniente aun en la redistribución del poder. ...
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... Nesse sentido, se considerarmos todo o investimento para assegurar que os Parques-Biblioteca funcionem como extensões do espaço público, isto é, sejam abertos a todos (acesso livre) e permitam certo nível de liberdade de uso, eles não podem ser considerados como meras instalações educacionais ou culturais. Estudos (por exemplo, o de Ortiz Arciniegas (2012) Em outro artigo (Capillé, 2017;2018b), descrevemos detalhadamente a implementação dos Parques-Biblioteca, considerando os recursos oficiais utilizados (documentos e estratégias públicas) e as principais pesquisas que têm avaliado o uso desses equipamentos. Explicamos, por exemplo, que a implementação dos cinco primeiros Parques-Biblioteca (San Javier, España, La Ladera, La Quintana e Belén) está fortemente associada à intenção de alterar simbolicamente a imagem de Medellín como exemplo de violência urbana para o mundo, por meio do uso de contrastes arquitetônicos e históricos. ...
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