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Formulation and evaluation of carrot seed oil-based cosmetic emulsions

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Abstract

The present study deals with the evaluation of antiaging potential of carrot seed oil-based cosmetic emulsions. Briefly, cosmetic emulsions composed of carrot seed oil in varying proportions (2, 4, and 6% w/v) were prepared using the hydrophile–lipophile balance (HLB) technique. Coconut oil, nonionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 80), and xanthan gum were used as the oil phase, emulgent, and emulsion stabilizer, respectively. The formed emulsions were evaluated for various physical, chemical, and biochemical parameters such as the zeta potential, globule size measurement, antioxidant activity, sun protection factor (SPF), skin irritation, and biochemical studies. The zeta potential values ranged from −43.2 to −48.3, indicating good stability. The polydispersity index (PDI) of various emulsion formulations ranged from 0.353 to 0.816. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl- (DPPH) and nitric oxide-free radical scavenging activity showed the antioxidant potential of the prepared carrot seed oil emulsions. The highest SPF value (6.92) was shown by F3 having 6%w/v carrot seed oil. Histopathological data and biochemical analysis (ascorbic acid (ASC) and total protein content) suggest that these cosmetic emulsions have sufficient potential to be used as potential skin rejuvenating preparations.
... EOs are extracted from tiny secretory structures distributed in different plant parts, e.g., leaves (eucalyptus, sage, thyme); berries (juniper); grasses (palmarosa, citronella); flowering tops (lavender); petals (rose, jasmine, ylang-ylang); roots (vetiver); fruit (orange, lemon); resins (frankincense, myrrh); wood (cedar, sandalwood, rosewood); bark (cinnamon); seeds (almond, cumin); rhizome (ginger, galangal); and peels (lemon, lime, orange) [57]. ...
... The isolation, concentration, and purification of essential oils from the above structures can be done by different physico-chemical procedures, which can be traditionally divided into three groups: (i) distillation (hydro-distillation, steam distillation or dry distillation); (ii) extraction (microwave and ultrasound assisted extraction, solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, enfleurage or maceration); and (iii) pressing (mechanical or cold pressing) [28,57,58]. Bakkali et al. [11], Copyright (2008), with permission from Elsevier. ...
... Antiacne citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus [142] palmarosa Cymbopogan martini [144] Artemisin Artemisia annua [143] Geranium Geranium rotundifolium [148] n.a. 1 Nigella sativa [146] Skin aging geranium Geranium rotundifolium [148] patchouli Pogostemon cablin [149] nutmeg Myristica fragrans [149] citronella Cymbopogon nardus [149] Clove Syzygium aromaticum [149] n.a. 1 Pluchea dioscoridis [150] n.a. 1 Erigeron bonariensis [150] shell ginger Alpinia zerumbet [151] lemon Citrus lemon [152] lavender Lavandula officinalis [153] Sage Salvia officinalis [153] rosehip Rosa canina [154] carrot Daucus carota [57] Anti-wrinkle patchouli Pogostemon cablin [149,155] nutmeg Myristica fragrans [149] citronella Cymbopogon nardus [149] Clove Syzygium aromaticum [149] ylang-ylang Cananga odorata [156] carrot Daucus carota [57] neroli Citrus sinensis [157] rosehip Rosa canina [154] Moisturizer n.a. 1 Hypericum perforatum [117] rosehip Rosa canina [158][159][160] sandalwood Santalum spicatum [161] chamomile Matricaria chamomilla [162] Oily skin geranium Geranium rotundifolium [141] neroli Citrus sinensis [157] ylang-ylang Cananga odorata [156] 1 There is no defined a name for the specific essential oil. ...
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The current consumer demands together with the international regulations have pushed the cosmetic industry to seek new active ingredients from natural renewable sources for manufacturing more eco-sustainability and safe products, with botanical extract being an almost unlimited source of these new actives. Essential oils (EOs) emerge as very common natural ingredients in cosmetics and toiletries as a result of both their odorous character for the design and manufacturing of fragrances and perfumes, and the many beneficial properties of their individual components (EOCs), e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, nowadays, the cosmetic industry includes EOs or different mixtures of their individual components (EOCs), either as active ingredients or as preservatives, in various product ranges (e.g., moisturizers, lotions and cleanser in skin care cosmetics; conditioners, masks or antidandruff products in hair care products; lipsticks, or fragrances in perfumery). However, the unique chemical profile of each individual essential oil is associated with different benefits, and hence it is difficult to generalize their potential applications in cosmetics and toiletries, which often require the effort of formulators in seeking suitable mixtures of EOs or EOCs for obtaining specific benefits in the final products. This work presents an updated review of the available literature related to the most recent advances in the application of EOs and EOCs in the manufacturing of cosmetic products. Furthermore, some specific aspects related to the safety of EOs and EOCs in cosmetics will be discussed. It is expected that the information contained in this comprehensive review can be exploited by formulators in the design and optimization of cosmetic formulations containing botanical extracts.
... Among numerous plant-derived oils, coconut oil is widely used as the base oil and has antioxidant properties thus helping in preventing premature aging and degenerative diseases (Seneviratne et al., 2009). Coconut oil also helps in treating various skin problems, including psoriasis, dermatitis, eczema, and other skin infections, and hence is a primary component of various body care products, like soaps, lotions, and creams (S. Singh et al., 2019). Coconut oil is rich in MCTs, which are considered to be structurally benign for cosmetic formulations. ...
Article
Nanoemulsions are being increasingly utilized in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. They have gained special attention in the cosmetic sector owing to their smaller size and higher kinetic stability and their ability to improve the cutaneous penetration of active ingredients. In addition, they reduce transepidermal water loss, which augments the skin’s barrier function. In recent years, the increased awareness among consumers about the health-linked benefits of natural ingredients in cosmetics has urged finding green cosmetic ingredients that are benign to the skin. One of the natural motivations for this quest is finding suitable emulsifier candidates with negligible side effects that are sourced from plants or microbes, which can serve as viable replacements to the erstwhile used synthetic surfactants. Formulating a stable nanoemulsion system for cosmetic application entails a systematic understanding of important attributes of the surfactant candidate such as critical micelle concentration, hydrophilic lipophilic balance, critical packing parameter, and Winsor ratio that are pivotal to the overall performance of the emulsion system. The current review attempts to portray the salient features of nanoemulsion systems in cosmetic formulations, by essentially capturing the important characteristics of the emulsifier that dictate the overall stability of a nanoemulsion system. The recent transition toward the use of green ingredients such as emulsifiers and oils that are dermatologically safe has been delineated, by highlighting their important properties. Furthermore, the progress made so far in the application of microbial biosurfactants in nanoemulsion formulations is presented. Finally, the factors that dictate the overall stability of the nanoemulsion are briefly reviewed.
... Certainly, based on the core-sheath nanostructures, a wide variety of drugs may be delivered through their OM dosage forms when fast actions are needed to relieve pain or bring down a fever. Besides drug delivery, the protocols reported here should be also useful for delivering nutrition in food science and engineering and for cosmetic applications [82][83][84]. ...
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The dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs has been a longstanding and important issue in pharmaceutics during the past several decades. Nanotechnologies and their products have been broadly investigated for providing novel strategies for resolving this problem. In the present study, a new orodispersible membrane (OM) comprising electrospun nanofibers is developed for the fast dissolution of diclofenac sodium (DS). A modified coaxial electrospinning was implemented for the preparation of membranes, during which an unspinnable solution of sucralose was explored as the sheath working fluid for smoothing the working processes and also adjusting the taste of membranes. SEM and TEM images demonstrated that the OMs were composed of linear nanofibers with core-sheath inner structures. XRD and ATR-FTIR results suggested that DS presented in the OMs in an amorphous state due to the fine compatibility between DS and PVP. In vitro dissolution measurements and simulated artificial tongue experiments verified that the OMs were able to release the loaded DS in a pulsatile manner. The present protocols pave the way for the fast dissolution and fast action of a series of poorly water-soluble active ingredients that are suitable for oral administration.
... PDI number ranges from 0.0 to 1.0. The best PDI value is 0.0 which indicates homogenous dispersion with respect to the vesicle size, and the PDI value 1.0 indicates an extremely polydisperse sample with multiple vesicular size populations [22]. In the case of lipid-based vesicular carriers, a PDI value of 0.3 and below is considered to be agreeable and shows a homogenous dispersion of lipid vesicles [23,24]. ...
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The present study deals with the evaluation of the age-defying potential of topical cream formulations bearing Geranium essential oil/Calendula essential oil-entrapped ethanolic lipid vesicles (ELVs). Two types of cream formulations were prepared, viz., conventional and ELVs spiked o/w creams. Essential oil- (EO-) loaded ELVs were characterized by vesicle size, polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency, and scanning electron microscopy. The cream formulations were evaluated for homogeneity, spreadability, viscosity, pH, in vitro antioxidant capacity, sun protection factor, and in vitro collagenase and elastase inhibition capacity. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was performed to ascertain skin permeation of conventional and vesicular cream. The results of in vitro antioxidant studies showed that GEO-/CEO-loaded vesicular creams have notable antioxidant capacity when compared to nonvesicular creams. GEO- or CEO-loaded vesicular creams exhibited the highest SPF value 10.26 and 18.54, respectively. Both the EO-based vesicular creams showed in vitro collagenase and elastase enzyme inhibition capacity. CLSM images clearly depicted that vesicular cream deep into the skin layers. From the research findings, the age-defying potential and photoprotective effects of GEO and CEO were confirmed. It can be concluded that ELVs are able to preserve the efficiency of EOs and have the potential to combat skin aging.
... In addition to the DTC model there has been a shift in so called green consumer behaviour, with consumers and producers being more open to the usage of natural cosmetics [2]. This can give rise to additional challenges in stabilising formulations as considered by Singh et al. with their work examining the carrot seed oil-based emulsions [3]. For the purpose of this paper, however, all cosmetic preparations ...
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Many recommended stability practices have been unchanged for decades and yet the retail landscape has considerably evolved during that time. First, as a result of the rise of social media and second in the wake of the COVID-19 global pandemic. This article reviews the published guidelines available to the cosmetic scientist when developing a suitable stability protocol and considers them in the context of a changing retail landscape. It sets the context with a background to stability testing and a summary of the relevant regulations across different territories. It outlines the current recommended guidelines for stability testing as stated in publications, including the International Federation of the Societies of Cosmetic Chemists (IFSCC) monograph and Cosmetics Europe. Modern advances in stability testing are also considered including early stability prediction techniques. The article concludes that accelerated stability testing is not a precise science, rather a prediction of shelf life. Scientists must consider the various modes of transport, sizes of shipments and regulation in the country of destination as well as the new and emerging ways of consumer production interaction when developing a suitable stability protocol for their formulation.
... These properties have also led it to be a component of some hydrogels used for tissue regeneration studies (Elizalde-Peña et al., 2017). Like many of biologically inert bacterial polysaccharides, its functionality has been improved by the incorporation of antifungals and antibacterial elements allowing the targeted treatment of infections using hydrogel formulations (Silva Santos et al., 2016;Singh et al., 2019). ...
... However, formulations containing purple carrot showed good UV blocking properties (Gause & Chauhan, 2016). Cosmetic emulsions composed of carrot seed oil were tested for sun protection and have shown potential to be used as skin rejuvenating agents (Singh, Lohani, Mishra, & Verma, 2019). Topical almond oil was tested in mice skin and was found to be capable of preventing structural damages caused by UV irradiation (Sultana, Kohli, Athar, Khar, & Aqil, 2007). ...
Article
Background The convergence of food and cosmetics in the beauty industry is a major trend in the recent years, gaining an enormous importance on consumer habits including the diet, the nutritional supplement intake and food-based cosmetics. Scope and approach An overview about the concept of nutricosmetics is here presented, and how food and skin convergence trends the cosmetic industry. Examples of recently developed products are given. Key findings Food ingredients are being included in cosmetics and other personal care products with the aim of bringing into cosmetic products certain benefits of food ingredients. Moreover, due to the recommendation of the circular economy implementation, an approach to economic growth that is in line with sustainable environmental and economic development, a large number of food industry wastes are being recovered as added-value products by more sustainable and innovative extraction processes to be incorporated into cosmetic products amongst others. Although the potential of bioactive compounds extracted from food is already known, the specific biological activity is now being studied and reported. Conclusions Natural active food-derived ingredients are marketed as having several benefits on the skin. Their incorporation in food supplements and cosmetics is a reality already marketed. The truth about the benefits of food ingredients in cosmetics is not always properly discussed. The trend of “beauty from within” by oral supplementation is now accompanying the other trend that is “from the kitchen table to the skin”, that refers to the possibility to create cosmetics with the ordinary ingredients one have in the kitchen.
... Carrot oil has been used as the inner core of nanocapsules to solubilize benzophenone-3 and has been demonstrated to have some sun protection effect on its own. The oil has been recently formulated as oil-based cosmetic emulsions, for which the authors have recorded a SPF value of 6.92 [29]. Nanocapsules alone also demonstrated capacity to absorb UV light, while a synergistic effect could be shown when combining all three ingredients i.e., the oil, NCs, and the active ingredient (BZP-3). ...
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The objective of this work was to characterize the toxicological profile of a newly developed sunscreen formulation based on polymeric nanocapsules (NCs) loading benzophenone-3 (BZP3). NCs composed of poly(ε-caprolactone) carrot oil and Pluronic® F68 were produced by emulsification-diffusion method. Their mean particle size (Z-Ave) ranged from 280 to 420 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) was below 0.37, while zeta potential (ZP) reached about |+11 mV|. No cytotoxic effects were observed in L929 fibroblast cell line for the blank (i.e., non-loaded) NCs and BZP3-loaded NCs (BZP3-NCs). The semi-solid sunscreen formulation was stable over time (centrifugation testing) and exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior, which is typical of products for topical application onto the skin. The sun protection factor (SPF) value reached 8.84, when incorporating BZP3-NCs (SPF of 8.64) into the semi-solid formulation. A synergistic effect was also observed when combining the formulation ingredients of nanocapsules, i.e., SPF of carrot oil was 6.82, blank NCs was 6.84, and BZP3-loaded NCs was 8.64. From the hen’s egg-chorioallantoic membrane test (HET-CAM) test, the non-irritation profile of the developed formulations could also be confirmed. The obtained results show a promising use of poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules to be loaded with lipophilic sunscreens as benzophenone-3.
... These properties have also led it to be a component of some hydrogels used for tissue regeneration studies (Elizalde-Peña et al., 2017). Like many of biologically inert bacterial polysaccharides, its functionality has been improved by the incorporation of antifungals and antibacterial elements allowing the targeted treatment of infections using hydrogel formulations (Silva Santos et al., 2016;Singh et al., 2019). ...
Article
Additive manufacturing or 3D printing has spearheaded a revolution in the biomedical sector allowing the rapid prototyping of medical devices. The recent advancements in bioprinting technology are enabling the development of potential new therapeutic options with respect to tissue engineering and regenerative medicines. Bacterial polysaccharides have been shown to be a central component of the inks used in a variety of bioprinting processes influencing their key features such as the mechanical and thermal properties, printability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. However, the implantation of any foreign structure in the body comes with an increased risk of bacterial infection and immunogenicity. In recent years, this risk is being potentiated by the rise in nosocomial multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Inks used in bioprinting are being augmented with antimicrobials to mitigate this risk. The applications of bacterial polysaccharide-based bioinks have the potential to act as a key battlefront in the war against antibiotic resistance. This paper reviews the range of bacterial polysaccharides used in bioprinting and discusses the potential of various bioactive polysaccharides to be integrated into these inks.
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