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The Resource-Based View of the Firm in Two Environments: The Hollywood Film Studios From 1936 to 1965

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... The existing literature on the resource-based view (RBV) in the motion picture industry indicates that production is the functional area that hosts the majority of unique, hard-to-imitate resources. In contrast, the resources involved in distribution tend to be more fungible, particularly in the period since the Paramount Decrees decoupled distribution from exhibition in 1948. 1 In their groundbreaking paper, Miller and Shamsie (1996) identify several unique, hard-to-imitate resources tied to movie production. These include long-term relationships with talent and various studio-level competencies. ...
... In contrast, the manner in which distribution is portrayed in the literature by authors including Mast (1992), Miller and Shamsie (1996), and Mannor et al. (2016) largely equates performance with "muscle" based on distributor scale and financial resources. This suggests that distribution resources are viewed as inherently more fungible, with the effectiveness of their utilization depending on the overall scale of the 1 STRATEGY SCIENCE portfolio. ...
... As discussed above, fungibility implies a less extensive range over which resources produce similar returns, and there are strong arguments in the existing literature on resources in the motion picture industry as reviewed above that suggest that the resources critical to production are less fungible than those involved in distribution. Industrybased insight has consistently attributed the lowest levels of fungibility to talent, technical resources, and long-term relationships involved in film production and the highest levels of fungibility to financial resources that are perceived as mainly responsible for success in distribution and marketing (Mast 1992, Miller and Shamsie 1996, Mannor et al. 2016). Karniouchina et al.: Varying Returns to Diversification Along the Value Chain Strategy Science, Articles in Advance, pp. ...
Article
This study examines whether the benefits of diversification vary across different value chain activities. The returns to diversification in product development and distribution activities are analyzed using a framework grounded in the intraindustry diversification literature and the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm. The study uses data from cocreation arrangements in the motion picture industry in which value chain activities are nearly decomposable—that is, split across producers and distributors—as a natural field study. Results based on 779 movies linked to 57 different production studios and distributed via 30 unaffiliated distributors or vertically integrated distribution branches show that greater focus in film production has a positive effect on profitability, whereas the level of focus/diversification in distribution is unrelated to profitability. This result holds regardless of whether the two functions are carried out within an integrated organization or across independent firms. Moreover, there is significant heterogeneity in the extent to which production studios benefit from increased focus which is tied to the composition of their product portfolios.
... At the same time, the strategic management literature argues that in its pure form, the resource-based view is limited in explaining variations in firm-level performance because it overlooks the impact of external environments on defining those firm resources that could be the most valuable or productive (Miller & Shamsie, 1996;Priem & Butler, 2001). This line of research suggests that a firm's competitive advantage depends not only on the valuable resources it possesses, but also on the external environment in which these resources are acquired and exploited. ...
... Indeed, as it is focused on the internal sources of competitive advantage and heterogeneity among firms (Barney, 1991;Mahoney & Pandian, 1992), the resource-based view has been criticised for largely overlooking the role of the external environment (Priem & Butler, 2001). To address these concerns, the strategic management literature has explored the role of the external environment and the opportunities it provides for extracting value from firm-specific resources (Miller & Shamsie, 1996;Peng et al., 2009;. In this research, the country environment has been demonstrated to be an important moderator of the relationships between firm-specific resources and firm-level outcomes (e.g., Kafouros & Aliyev, 2016). ...
... Furthermore, this study only focused on the country environment as a contingency for the effects of intellectual capital. Existing literature suggests that industry characteristics might be another important external contingency that could explain the effectiveness of firm-level resources (e.g., Miller & Shamsie, 1996;Chuang et al., 2013;Elango & Dhandapani, 2020). Looking at industry environmental characteristics together with country environmental characteristics (e.g., Su et al., 2016) will allow for the contextualising of the effects of intellectual capital in a more comprehensive way. ...
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This paper examines how country environment shapes the relationship between firm intellectual capital and its innovation performance. Using survey data from 649 firms in Finland, Spain and Russia complemented by archival IMD World Competitiveness Ranking data, we find that when country environment is characterised by greater availability of skilled labour and a stronger appropriability regime, a firm’s human and structural capital have a lower impact on its innovation performance. The effect of relational capital does not depend on these contextual variables. This study enriches the intellectual capital-based view of the firm by demonstrating that country-level factors moderate the performance effects of firm-level intellectual capital. It also adds to the strategic management literature by exploring the explanatory power of a combination of country-level variables and firm-level resources in understanding firm-level performance. Our findings can help practitioners focus on the elements of intellectual capital that have the greatest impact in their environment.
... Saá-Pérez and García-Almeida, 2001) • Resources linked to human capital are 'valuable and rare but also inimitable and non-substitutable' (Miller and Shamsie, 1996) • Dynamic capabilities (DC) considered as the key to competitive advantage in firms (Teece and Pisano, 2003) • DC transforms the nature of the 'ordinary capabilities' of firms into 'higher level capabilities' (Winter, 2003) • Extension of RBV to highly competitive and turbulent markets -adaptive capability, absorptive capability and innovative capability (Ambrosini and Bowman, 2009) • In turbulent markets, ability of firm managers to utilize dynamic capabilities determined whether the firm was able to sustain competitive advantage (Eisenhardt and Martin, 2000) • Strategy of modifying, altering, eliminating and creating new resources to compete in uncertain markets (Sirmon, Hitt and Ireland, 2007) • Manage volatility in the market by appropriately configuring the existing resources (Day, 1994) • Product development skills of managers or the strategic decision-making process as DC (Tondolo and Bitencourt, 2014) • Sensing the environment and seizing the opportunities for competitive advantage (Li and Liu, 2014 'managerial social capital' and 'managerial cognition' (Kor and Mesko, 2013) studied the attributes of a firm's culture which led to competitive advantage. Coyne (1986) described the conditions needed for competitive advantage to exist and its linkage to superior performance. ...
... The decade of the 1990 s extended the discussion on the resourcebased view of the firm (Boxall, 1996;Fahy and Smithee, 1999;Hart, 1995;Jarvenpaa and Leidner, 1998;Miller and Shamsie, 1996;Wernerfelt, 1995). These studies explored the application of resource-based view to different domains like human resource management, social responsibility, marketing and technology management. ...
Article
Competitive advantage has been a perpetual area of research in strategic management in different forms. Business strategies in organizations have been underpinned to the objective of attaining competitive advantage. This study explores the academic literature to track the theoretical and chronological evolution of the notion of ‘competitive advantage’. This study also examines the emerging themes with insights obtained from a bibliometric analysis of the area. The insights generated from the bibliometric mapping and decadal conceptual evolution are integrated. The results indicate that although competitive advantage has been manifested in different forms over time, the newer areas of exploration are inclined in the direction of achieving social advantage along with superior financial performance. The findings from this study would facilitate in identifying the trajectory of themes in the study of competitive advantage and isolate potential areas of explorations for future research.
... In our domain, human chess playing capabilities are valuable and rare (Barney, 1991): Valuable, because they allow players to make better chess plies, therefore ultimately increasing their chance of winning (Chassy & Gobet, 2011), and rare, because humans must endure a long learning process to develop this expertise, which creates capability differentials (Castanias & Helfat, 2001) and supply restrictions (Levinthal & Wu, 2010). Human chess playing capabilities' tacit nature also means they cannot be easily imitated or traded (Miller & Shamsie, 1996). ...
... Such experience creates persistent capability differentials across individuals (Castanias & Helfat, 2001). Furthermore, limited understanding of how exactly humans add value to machines in centaur and engine chess should create causal ambiguity, which makes transferring or imitating these capabilities difficult (Miller & Shamsie, 1996). 18 When actors compete like chess players do, their adversarial relationship and the resulting lack of motivation to share practices are additional barriers to knowledge transfer (Szulanski, 1996). ...
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We apply a resource-based view to investigate how the adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) affects competitive capabilities and performance. Following prior work on using chess as a controlled setting for studying competitive interactions, we compare the same players’ capabilities and performance across conventional, centaur, and engine chess tournaments. Our analysis shows that AI adoption triggers interrelated substitution and complementation dynamics, which make humans’ traditional competitive capabilities obsolete, while creating new sources of persistent heterogeneity when humans interact with chess engines. These novel human-machine capabilities are unrelated, or even negatively related, to traditional capabilities. We contribute an integrated view of substitution and complementation, which identifies AI as the driver of these dynamics and explains how they jointly shift the sources of competitive advantage.
... Cultural industries, such as the publishing sector (Hirsch, 1972), are a good context to examine firms' internationalization, as they are especially dynamic, pushing firms to adapt constantly to shifting environments (Lampel, Lant, & Shamsie, 2000;Miller & Shamsie, 1996) and expand abroad (Millar, Choi, & Chen, 2005). Using primary archival documentation and narrative sources, firms' and individuals' correspondence and reports, and personal interviews with key actors, in a periodization derived from the historical context (Rowlinson, Hassard, & Decker, 2014), we delve into specific historical events and tease out how they affect firms' strategies (Argyres, De Massis, Foss, Frattini, Jones, & Silverman, 2020;Klüppel, Pierce, & Snyder, 2018;Kochan, Guillen, Hunter, & O'Mahony, 2009). ...
... Because of the type of product, of the target audience and of the formal and informal contracts required (Hirsch, 2000), firms in cultural industries depend heavily on social networks (Gonzalez, Llopis, & Gasco, 2015). These network effects together with the high levels of dynamism of cultural industries (Kretschmer, Klimis, & Choi, 1999) force firms to constantly adapt their resources (Miller & Shamsie, 1996) and operations to the local context (Lampel et al., 2000). In cultural industries, expansion abroad is fundamental to respond to supply and demand evolving needs (Millar et al., 2005). ...
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This study examines how firms with scarce market and non-market resources can succeed in internationalizing, even in a host country that lacks trade and diplomatic relationships with the firms’ home country. With a hand-collected, historical database of the Spanish publishing industry’s investments in Mexico over the 20th century, we find that in a context of suspension of bilateral trade agreements and diplomatic relationships between Spain and Mexico, Spanish publishing firms leveraged Spanish emigrants to internationalize in the Mexican market, initially through exports, then through distribution and local commercial subsidiaries, and finally through local production. Spanish publishers progressively used emigrants to develop social and cultural support, to help establish formal and informal rules, procedures, and norms of institutions and to lobby in Mexico. Combining historical and inductive analyses, we offer a novel perspective on firms’ internationalization through a changing use of emigrants to endogenize the cultural, trade, and political distance between the home and the host country, and we develop new theoretical insights on the social, cultural, and political embeddedness of firms.
... Dans ce domaine, la littérature en stratégie traite, principalement de deux aspects de la flexibilité stratégique : déploiement des ressources et actions compétitives (D'Aveni, 1994 ;Eisenhardt et Martin, 2000 ;Miller et Shamsie, 1996). Ce concept fait ainsi référence à la diversité et à la fréquence des changements dans le mode de déploiement des ressources. ...
... Face à l'accroissement de la concurrence, au changement dans la durée de vie des produits et de notables modifications du comportement des consommateurs, à la globalisation des économies et au développement des technologies de l'information, il serait judicieux que les dirigeants doivent mettre l'accent, au-delà des économies d'échelle, sur la flexibilité organisationnelle. En effet, le développement et le maintien de la compétitivité passe par une adéquation harmonieuse entre contraintes internes et changements externes(Miller et Shamsie, 1996).En dépit de son importance, les types de la flexibilité ainsi que leurs définitions n'ont pas été largement acceptés(DeToni et Tonchia, 2005). Selon l'approche stratégique, une entreprise développera un avantage compétitif en créant une certaine flexibilité au prisme de choix stratégiques diversifiés.Sanchez (1993) affirme que cette phase de coordination est relative aux capacités de définir, configurer et déployer les ressources existantes grâce aux systèmes et processus organisationnels(Sanchez, 1995).En outre, bien que la flexibilité fasse l'objet d'une attention toute particulière dans la littérature du management stratégique, peu d'études empiriques traitent les antécédents mais également de ses bienfaits sur l'organisation(Dreyer et Gronhaug, 2004 ;Fiegenbaum et karnani, 1991 ;Suarez et al., 1995).Chapitre 2 : Le rôle de la planification par scénarios dans le développement des compétences organisationnelles : étudier ses effets sur la flexibilité et l'orientation entrepreneuriale. ...
Thesis
La planification par scénarios est devenue un outil organisationnel extrêmement populaire. Elle stimule la réflexion stratégique et contribue à surmonter la pensée limitée à travers l’imagination de futurs multiples. Son objectif est de comprendre l’environnement mais encore évaluer les options stratégiques en dépit des scénarios proposés. Malgré cette popularité, force est de constater que très peu de travaux ont traité ses bienfaits sur l’organisation. L’objectif de cette recherche est, donc, l’étude de son impact sur le développement de la flexibilité et l’orientation entrepreneuriale. Notre recherche s’appuie sur une étude quantitative menée auprès de 133 cadres évoluant dans le secteur social et médico-social en France. Les résultats font apparaître une relation positive entre la planification par scénarios, la flexibilité stratégique et l’orientation entrepreneuriale.
... Further, Hofer and Schendel (1978) suggest that a firm's resource profile is based on the following: financial, physical, managerial, human, organizational, and technological resources. Miller and Shamsie (1996) analyze the two categories of resources as property-based resources and knowledge-based resources. At the same time, Das and Teng (1998) have studied the following categories of resources: financial, technological, physical, and managerial. ...
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This paper aims to analyze the theoretical concepts of the resource-based view and resource dependence theory, revealing the reasons why strategic resources differ in their influence on competitive performance across family-owned and non-family-owned businesses. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, using relevant keywords and academic databases. Then, the backward search was implemented to examine the references of the selected papers, and finally, the forward search to explore the citations of the selected papers. After the selection of papers, they were classified according to their content. Finally, a thorough examination of the extant literature was done in Scopus and Google Scholar using a combination of keywords such as family-owned business, non-family business, retail business, and Los Angeles. The paper hypothesizes how ownership structure influences the performance implications of strategic resources. The results of a survey of 214 retail managers in Los Angeles indicate that financial and technological resources are key drivers of performance in the family-owned retail business. In contrast, technological and human resources are key performance drivers in non-family-owned retailers. This study provides new perspectives and examines the impact of four types of strategic resources (i.e., financial, physical, technological, and human) on competitive performance in family-owned and non-family-owned businesses. The knowledge gaps were identified regarding the impact of firm performance and competitive resources that substantially affect firm performance.
... Therefore, this resource has highly tacit characteristics and is a resource rarely discussed in PM literature within the context of PM resources. However, this study recognises this as a critical systemic knowledge-based resource that may facilitate adaptation to external environments (Miller and Shamsie, 1996). The study shows that project marketing events scored a high standardised factor loading (r 2 5 0.72, p < 0.001). ...
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Purpose The aim of this study is to examine the configuration of project resources in organizations operating in a post-conflict country environment using a Resource-Based View (RBV) perspective. Design/methodology/approach Data collection was undertaken using a quantitative survey study of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) involved in development projects in Sri Lanka, which obtained 445 responses. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and subsequent Confirmatory Factor Analysis were performed to identify and confirm the Project Management (PM) resource profile composition of these organizations. Findings The study identified resource profiles incorporated items at the team, organizational and collaborative social resource levels and did not differ significantly by organization type. This suggests that the current focus of PM RBV research that implicitly uses a competitive advantage derived framework may need to be adapted for contexts such as post-conflict environments. Research limitations/implications For organizations seeking to deliver projects in developing countries, the findings indicate that relational capacity in the form of a collaborative social resource may be required to adapt team and organizational resources to post-conflict environments. Practical implications The lessons learnt from NGOs can be of value to other organisations seeking to operate in post-conflict environments. The findings from this research reveal that organizations in Sri Lanka establish resource profiles that meet domestic and external requirements. For the management of these organizations, recognition of the inherent contradictions of this strategy can enable the optimization of resource profiles, improving organizational efficiencies. Originality/value The study has used insights from NGOs involved in international and local development projects to extend current knowledge of PM resources. While NGOs are distinctive, the critical PM resources identified here may be of value to private and public organizations seeking to develop project resource profiles adapted to emerging markets.
... A study carried out by Eisenhardt and Martin (2000) asserts that the specific dynamic capabilities allow an organization in order to create novel value-centric strategies. Some of the dynamic capabilities studied were "contracting capabilities" in the field of "Hollywood film industry" (Miller and Shamsie, 1996;Skare and Golja, 2014), "international capabilities, in case of multinational firms (Carpenter et al., 2001), and "unique bundle of human capital, in case of law firms (Hitt et al., 2001)". The concept of organizational capacity has also been dealt with "strategic capability, which corresponds to the skill set necessary for competitiveness (Leonard-Barton, 1992;McGrath, 2001;Prahalad and Hamel, 1993)". ...
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Purpose Most of the services being delivered to persons with disabilities (PwDs) in India are through non-government organizations (NGOs). The quality and effectiveness for the delivery of services to PwDs largely depends on the capacity of the NGOs involved. This study attempts to understand the linkage between various capabilities of non-profits organizations working in the field of intellectual and developmental disabilities and their value creation. Design/methodology/approach Using a mixed methodology, the study has conducted various interviews with the involved stakeholders and interviews to obtain a complete understanding and overcome the limitations of quantitative or qualitative approach alone. Findings The findings of this study exhibit that there is a significant and positive influence of financial capability, human resource capability, stakeholder capability, dynamic capability and collaboration capability on non-profit performance. However, knowledge capability has no effect on non-profit performance. Originality/value This study will help in making policies for policymakers in capacity building of NGOs. This research study is the first attempt in exploring the critical factors in capacity building of NGOs in the intellectual disability sector, particularly in India.
... According to Miller and Shamsie (1996), most organisations recognise knowledge as a valuable, yet intangible, asset for sustained competitive advantage. Kwanya and Wasinda (2019) assert that successful organisations thrive on their ability to identify, organise, share and perpetuate their unique knowledge. ...
Article
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Purpose: This paper assesses the knowledge sharing strategies used by members of Gitwe Farmers’ Cooperative Society and Coffee Research Institute in Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to: establish the types of knowledge shared; examine the knowledge sharing methods; investigate the extent to which the knowledge shared is applied; analyse the factors that influence knowledge sharing between the farmers and the research institute; and to suggest measures to enhance knowledge sharing between them. Study design/methodology/approach: Knowledge sharing involves the exchange of knowledge in the form of expertise or skills among groups, friends, families, communities or organisations. The population of the study was 2181 consisting of coffee farmers, officials of Gitwe Farmers’ Co-operative Society and officers from the Coffee Research Institute. The study employed a mixed methods research approach. Qualitative data was collected through interviews while quantitative data was collected using questionnaires. Qualitative data was analysed thematically while quantitative data was analysed by descriptive statistics using Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS). Findings: The findings have demonstrated that the farmers and the institute currently share knowledge through a mixed array of methods. However, several challenges hinder the effective use of these knowledge sharing strategies. It was also observed that currently, the symmetry of knowledge flow is lopsided since the Coffee Research Institute shares much more than it receives from the farmers. These challenges should be addressed if the farmers are to benefit optimally from the knowledge generated by the Coffee Research Institute. Originality/value: The findings of this study if adopted are likely to improve the coffee farming methods by the farmers, improve coffee marketing strategies by the farmers and also manage coffee berry diseases, among others.
... Individual employees are encouraged to learn in such firms and are highly committed to learning. Entrepreneurial orientation also implies that managers in the organization inspire critical thinking, accept shortcomings and offer incentives to innovative ideas that improve business performance (Miller & Shamsie, 2014). This encourages individuals to have an open mind because they are not limited into doing things in a certain way. ...
Article
Firm's strategic orientation enables a firm to develop optimal performance and sustain competitiveness in the market. Publicly owned hotels have however been faced with many challenges which affects their performance. These challenges included change in technology, competitive environment, social-cultural and economic challenges. The main objective of the study was to establish the influence of strategic orientation on performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya. The study was guided by three theories namely; Resource-based view, Goal-setting theory and Dynamic Capabilities View. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. The targeted institutions for the study were all the 9 existing public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya. Stratified sampling technique was used to select the sample. A total of 54 respondents formed the sample size. The study adopted the use of a questionnaire for middle level managers and an interview schedule for the general managers as the main research instruments. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Both correlation and multiple linear regression analysis was carried out. The study established that resource orientation positively and significantly influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya; entrepreneurial orientation positively and significantly influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya; market orientation positively and significantly influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya and that technological orientation positively and significantly influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya. The multiple regression findings further showed that all measures of strategic orientation combined (resource orientation, technology orientation, market orientation, entrepreneurial orientation) influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises. This study recommends that the public owned hotel enterprises should widely adopt information technology (IT) to reduce costs, enhance operational efficiency, and most importantly to improve service quality and customer experience. Public owned hotel enterprises should collect information about their current and potential guests' desires continuously. The study also recommends that public owned hotels should be keen to generate innovations that are then converted into better performance.
... New knowledge begins with cognitive metaphors that connect competing models, according to proponents of the internal view, and is generated when existing knowledge is distributed and transmitted inside an organization's staffs (Nonaka & von Krogh, 2009). Environmental differences have been shown to have an impact on a company's strategy and organizational structure (Miller & Shamsie, 1996). Quintane et al. (2011) argue that the knowledge production process allows for the collaboration and dedication of specialized expertise from multiple areas of operation. ...
Article
This study examined the influential role of knowledge creation in facilitating the effect of market-sensing on innovation. It specifically examines this phenomenon among small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria. The study hypothesized that market sensing will exogenously have a significant and positive effect on knowledge creation, which will in turn have a positive effect on innovation. Data was collected from strategic managers from the top management teams of 310 small and medium scale enterprises randomly selected from the country’s six geopolitical zones. Using covariance based structural equation modeling (SEM) carried out via version 23 of IBM’s AMOS software. Findings confirmed all four hypotheses specifically demonstrating that market sensing positively impacted knowledge creation and innovation, while knowledge creation was both found to have a positive effect on innovation and to also significantly mediate the effect of market-sensing on innovation. The study then discusses the implication of the findings for both literature and practice, while recommending areas for future research.
... But, since vertical integration increases a firm's commitment on specific investments, vertical integration decreases a firm's flexibility exactly when it is valuable (McIvor, 2009). Miller and Shamsie (1996) suggest that in an uncertain environment, property-based resources are better leased on short term contract than long-term contract: "Long-term leases on retailing space may be more of a liability than an asset when the targeted customers shift to another type of store or location (Geroski&Vlassopoulos, 1991)" (Miller and Shamsie, 1996, 524). Lieblien (2003) sums up the predictions of real option theory noting that: ...
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Commonsense suggests that buildings are the most primary resources that most organized business commends. Importance aside, firms however obtain building resources via two broad alternative paths or a combination of both: ownership and rental. Based on secondary data on 79 companies in Mekelle, Ethiopia, this paper investigates the influence of transaction cost and real option factors on firms' own or rent decision for building resources. Empirical results suggest that both transaction cost and option factors have significant influence on firms' own or rent decision. High asset specificity combined with sales uncertainty or high small numbers condition or high growth opportunities individually increase likelihood of ownership, while high sales uncertainty for firms' products increase likelihood of rental.
... The performance of such a supply chain can be enhanced through the development of organizational learning capability (Asree and Rao, 2011), elimination of excess inventory (Etienne, 2005) and the increase of supply chain flexibility (Gunasekaran et al., 2007). Demand volatility has driven manufacturing firms to shift focus from resources that are characterized by cost-effectiveness (i.e. through economies of scale) and asset-based to flexibility, learning and skill-based resources to sustain their competitive advantage (Miller and Shamsie, 1996). In particular, Lau (1996) states that flexibility has become the most critical component in securing a competitive advantage in volatile markets. ...
Article
Additive Manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing as it is frequently known, is an umbrella term for a collection of manufacturing technologies that enables products to be manufactured layer-by-layer from three-dimensional digital data. While the costs associated with AM represents a barrier to its wider adoption, its benefits outweigh its costs when considered in some contexts. Few studies have investigated the costs and benefits of this technology from a supply chain perspective, particularly in market environments characterized by demand uncertainty. In this type of scenario, it becomes necessary to adopt higher levels of internal competencies, find the optimal way to manage inventories and flexibly respond to sudden market requirements. This thesis therefore aims to address this gap by examining three key aspects: the learning effects offered by AM, the impact of AM on inventory-related costs and the impact of AM on the critical capability of flexibility. To assess learning in AM, this thesis focuses on the experimental measurement of AM operator time and improvement in operator effectiveness as a result of learning. Learning is thus assessed by measuring the reduction of labour time through operator learning within a series of build repetitions and estimates a progress ratio which captures the learning effect within this series. To assess the impact of AM on inventory-related costs, this thesis develops a conceptual model that matches possible AM scenarios with demand volume level and severity of stockout penalty. It also conducts a case study to obtain insights into the resulting model which has been developed. In this case study, an interprocess comparison is undertaken by simulating a supply chain based on data collected from a plastic products manufacturing company that produces pipe fittings using Injection Moulding (IM) technology. The simulation model produced has been built using the Arena software package for three distinct scenarios: the current configuration with IM only, iii a proposed configuration with AM only, and a proposed configuration that combines AM with IM. To evaluate the impact of AM on flexibility, a conceptual model has also been constructed that maps certain AM characteristics relevant to flexibility to key market disruption scenarios faced by managers. This aspect is also highlighted through the case study which assesses the impact of AM on four distinct supply chain flexibility types: volume, delivery, mix and new product using metrics obtained from the literature. The results obtained on learning in AM suggest that AM exhibits a learning effect for both the novice and the expert operator with progress ratios of 67.73% and 80.42% respectively. Further, results on the impact of AM on inventory-related costs revealed that utilizing IM alone showed the lowest supply chain unit cost (€0.90) compared to utilizing AM as a stand-alone (€2.72) or in a combined approach (€0.94). With regards to AM’s impact on flexibility, the supply chain employing IM showed greater volume and delivery flexibility levels (i.e. 65.68% and 92.8% for IM compared to 58.70% and 75.35% for AM, respectively). However, AM showed higher mix and new product introduction flexibility level, indicated by the lower changeover time and cost of new product introduction to the system (i.e. 0.33 hrs and €0 for AM compared to 4.91 hrs and €30,000 for IM, respectively). It is anticipated that these results can be used to inform practitioners and scholars on various contexts where AM can create value and the appropriate and timely investments needed to unlock that value.
... Work by economists has focused, for the most part, on the contracting problems faced in distribution and exhibition (see, e.g., Kenney and Klein 1983;De Vany and Eckert 1991;Hanssen 2000Hanssen , 2002Hanssen , 2010Hanssen , 2020Raskovich 2003;Gil 2015). Other social science research has explored how the studio system influenced such things as firm financial performance (Miller and Shamsie 1996) and actor typecasting (Zuckerman 2005). To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first to investigate how the vertical structure of the Hollywood studios affected incentives to experiment by casting actors to discover stars. ...
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The Hollywood studio era of the 1930s and 1940s was remarkable for its abundance of glamorous stars. In this paper, we investigate whether the vertical structure of the Hollywood studios, by ensuring studio claims to "star capital," spurred higher levels of investment in discovering stars than was (or is) achievable under alternate regimes (such as today's film-by-film contracting). The vertical structure consisted of backward integration into "talent" through long-term contracts and forward integration into exhibition through ownership of theater chains. The investment involved the experimental casting of novice actors to gauge audience appeal. Collecting data on thousands of actors whose careers span nearly three-quarters of a century and conducting several different sets of tests, we find evidence of higher levels of investment in actors working under the vertical structure of the studio era than in actors working under alternate regimes. JEL: D21, D22, D23, J41, K12, L14 For very helpful comments, we thank
... Technological capability, as an intensive knowledge-based resource, mobilizes scientific and technical resources, allowing companies to develop innovative production processes and new products to fill the needs of the market (Prasanna et al., 2019). This favors competitive strategies that create value (Prahalad & Hamel, 1990;Grant, 1999;Miller & Shamsie, 1996;Wiklund & Shepherd, 2003;Ali Qalati et al., 2020). Companies need to acquire the necessary capabilities to use, adapt, and modify technology. ...
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This work empirically analyzes the competitive factors that help make micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) successful. To do this, an empirical study with a sample of 614 companies in Guanajuato, Mexico, has been carried out. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis show that quality, technology, and innovation are the main variables that determine a company’s success. These findings could provide guidelines to help MSMEs improve their competitiveness, and they could help public administrations better support MSME growth.
... Knowledge is an essential resource for organizational growth, especially for organizations striving in unpredictable environments to sustain competitive advantage (Miller & Shamsie, 1996). Nevertheless, most organizations do not possess all the required knowledge within their formal boundaries but depend on connections outside organizations to obtain further information (Wasko & Faraj, 2005). ...
Article
Many of the employers fear a reduction in productivity when employees use social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook for non-work purposes during office hours. Employers then have started regulating SNSs usage at work, but extreme monitoring and blockage of SNSs can spoil the relationship between employers and employees and can negatively affect organizational knowledge (OK). Therefore, this study investigates the effect of using SNSs on OK by employees at work. Collecting data from employees working in national and multinational organizations and using structural equation modelling for data analysis, the results showed that using SNSs for business activities and for emotional disclosure enhanced OK. In contrast to these findings, work deviation caused using SNSs decreased OK but had no effect on productivity. Finally, the study concluded that the benefits of using SNSs at work are increasingly growing but require transparent policies to reduce employee distractions.
... Boyd, Haynes & Hitt (2007) identified moderation in form or strength (Venkatraman, 1989) such as interaction, as the most prevalent tool used to analyze contingency studies. There is little empirical research to support the assertion that control of strategic assets determines the profitability of firms (Miller and Shamsie, 1996). ...
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Elaborar un informe de investigación, al igual que una tesis para obtener el grado académico, ha sido para los estudiantes de licenciatura y posgrado una experiencia dolorosa, en vez de ser un evento gozoso y amoroso. Se cuentan muchos fracasos en el intento que reper�cute en los índices de eficiencia de los programas edu�cativos, amén de que el estudiante que no termina su tesis se siente frustrado y “muere en el intento”. Esta frustración del estudiante marca su vida profesional en el sentido de la formalidad que la sociedad otorga a los títulos en los diferentes grados académicos.
... "Open" means that new systems create an open atmosphere for individuals to share knowledge; "interaction" means that more and more people participate and interact with each other to exchange or share knowledge; "diversity" means that participants can share knowledge in many forms, including subscription, evaluation, and recommendation; and "creativity" means user relationships and a growing range of exchange systems that enable innovational and the creation of new knowledge. Knowledge has long been recognized as an important resource for organizational growth and sustained competitive advantage, especially for organizations competing in uncertain environments [74]. ...
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Governments throughout the world have set social distancing guidelines to manage COVID-19 that reduced opportunities for maintaining social connections through face-to-face interactions. For this study, we conceptualized social collaboration as an intentional social activity in which people are willing to share their knowledge, experience, and expertise. We examined the relative impacts of we-intention (WI), moral trust (MT), and self-motivation (SM) on participation in social collaboration (PSC) and knowledge sharing (KS). We distributed a questionnaire-based survey to a group of Nepalese residents who actively participated in, commented on, and posted questions on social networking sites and received a total of 239 valid questionnaires for analysis. We tested and verified the research model and variables in SPSS 20 to investigate how PSC accelerates KS intention at digital platforms. The standardized path coefficient for PSM to KS was 0.75, suggesting that social collaborator’s participation has a strong positive effect on KS purpose. The standardized path coefficients for WI to MT, WI to PSC, WI to SM, MT to PSC, and SM to PSC were 0.55, 0.72, 0.49, 0.42, and 0.67, respectively. All of the values supported the hypothesis and were significant at p ≤ 0.001.
... In fact, this issue refers to the so-called boundaries of applicability of RBV [15]. Using RBV, [67] demonstrated that the nature of the category of resources which proved strategic was different in a stable and in an unstable environment. In the same way, either a large or a small playground makes differences in the nature of the strategic resources. ...
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A major challenge of Sustainable Development Goal 12 “Responsible Consumption and Production” is to reduce food losses along production and supply chains. This is particularly critical for fresh food products, due to their perishable and fragile nature, which makes the coordination of the actors all the more crucial to avoid wastes and losses. The rise of new technologies, referred to as “Industry 4.0” powered by the internet of things, big data analytics and artificial intelligence, could bring new solutions to meet these needs. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) allow for frequent exchanges of huge amounts of information between actors in the agrofood chains to coordinate their activities. The aim of the chapter is to provide a state-of-the-art analysis on ICTs used in agrofood supply chains, with a special focus on the case of fresh fruits and vegetables, to analyze the potential and weaknesses which exist in different forms of supply chains for ICTs becoming a “resource” (precious, rare, non-imitable, and nonsubstitutable) prospect and to suggest promising ICTs in this context.
... In this framework, an organization is a bundle of resources, capabilities or routines, which create value and cannot be easily imitated or appropriated by competitors due to isolating mechanisms. Initially developed through a series of papers by several authors in the 1980s-1990s, major extensions and refinements of the RBV include the knowledge-based view (KBV) of the firm, dynamic capabilities, and the relational view, which recognize that capabilities can be developed and shared through alliances between firms [49]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had two main consequences for the organization of treatment in primary healthcare: restricted patients’ access to medical facilities and limited social mobility. In turn, these consequences pose a great challenge for patients and healthcare providers, i.e., the limited personal contact with medical professionals. This can be eased by new digital technology. While providing solutions to many problems, this technology poses several organizational challenges for healthcare system participants. As the current global situation and the outbreak of the humanitarian crisis in Europe show, these and other likely emergencies amplify the need to learn the lessons and prepare organizations for exceptional rapid changes. Therefore, a question arises of whether organizations are ready to use modern e-health solutions in the context of a rapidly and radically changing situation, and how this readiness can be verified. The aim of this article is to clarify the organizational e-heath readiness concept of Polish primary healthcare units. This study employs the triangulation of analytical methods, as it uses: (i) a literature review of e-health readiness assessment, (ii) primary data obtained with a survey (random sampling of 371 managers of PHC facilities across Poland) and (iii) the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) method, employed to estimate the structural model. The evaluation of the model revealed that its concept was adequate for more mature entities that focus on the patient- and employee-oriented purpose of digitization, and on assuring excellent experience derived from a consistent care process. In the context of patients’ restricted access to medical facilities and limited social mobility, a simpler version of the research model assesses the readiness more adequately. Finally, the study increases the knowledge base of assets (resources and capabilities), which will help healthcare systems better understand the challenges surrounding the adoption and scaling of e-health technologies.
... Since competition is less intense in the formative years of the biotechnology, when isomorphic pressures have not yet emerged, firms have more resources and freedom to pursue exploration and innovativeness (Covin and Slevin, 1990). Firms that pursue innovation achieve strong performance and build strategic competitive advantage (Miller and Shamsie, 1996). Names starting with a rare sound project an image of a company adept at developing and innovative product or technology. ...
Article
Purpose Drawing from legitimacy and institutional entrepreneurship theory, this study assesses the naming patterns of entrepreneurial firms in the US biotechnology industry. Design/methodology/approach The authors use a mixed-methods design of content analysis and regression to analyze a sample of 441 entrepreneurial biotechnology firms, for which data were obtained from Net Advantage. The authors track changes to the proportion of firms with naming attributes, such as name length and type of name. The authors also examine variability in those characteristics during the industry's evolution, comparing freestanding to acquired start-ups. Findings Start-ups select names that are longer, more descriptive, begin with rare sounds or hard plosives and have stronger discipline- or technology-specific links during nascent years of the industry. As the industry evolves, entrepreneurs are more likely to select names that are shorter, more abstract, begin with hard plosives and have stronger industry-specific links. The naming patterns of freestanding and acquired companies differ, and companies that conform to industry pressures tend to remain independent. Originality/value Unlike extant studies that assess established industries, the current study identifies shifting trends in the naming patterns of entrepreneurial firms in an emerging industry. By focusing on start-ups, the authors expand research on organizational naming practices, which focuses traditionally on name choices and name change patterns of incumbents. By using marketing and linguistics methods when analyzing organizational name attributes, naming patterns in these attributes are identified, including name length, name type, starting letter of the name and link to the industry.
... However, these differences in resources may persist, allowing the benefits from heterogeneous resources to persist over time [85]. As a result, an organization can be thought of as a collection of resources, talents, or processes that produce value that is difficult to duplicate due to unique characteristics [86]. ...
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For decades, one of the main concerns of both practitioners and academics has been the business value of dynamic accounting information systems (DAIS). A number of studies have demonstrated the positive effects of information systems capability on overall organizational performance, but our understanding of the business processes capabilities through which such gains are achieved remains limited due to a lack of focus on the turbulent business environment. As a result, the research on information systems continues to debate such a connection. The role of business process capabilities in modulating the link between dynamic AIS capability and organizational resilience was investigated in this study. Our results show that, while firm-wide dynamic AIS capability has characteristics of flexible AIS, complement BI system, and AIS-related human resource competency, the impact on organizational resilience is positively affected by mediation of business process capabilities based on 144 matched questionnaires selected from large companies from various sectors listed on the Bursa Malaysia. Our results also suggest that dynamic AIS capability has an impact on organizational resilience. According to the Resource-Based Theory (RBT) and dynamic capabilities view (DCV) viewpoints, there is a link between dynamic AIS and business process capacity to improve organizational resilience. The findings strongly support the claim that an organization’s dynamic AIS capabilities—both flexible AIS, complementary business intelligence (BI) system, and AIS-related human resource competency—can help an organization improve its resilience. This research’s practical and theoretical ramifications as well as its limitations are examined.
... Miller et Shamsie ont fait plus tard une distinction entre les ressources basées sur la propriété et les ressources basées sur la connaissance (Miller et Shamsie, 1996). ...
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ABSTRACT: Air is one of the most indispensable components that are crucial to the sustainability of life. Air pollution threatens the health of humans and other living beings on our planet. Choudhary et al., (2013). Managing air pollution has become a difficult challenge because air pollutants have become a universal concern Adams and Kanaroglou (2016). When high levels of air contaminants such as nitrogen, lead, carbon monoxide, and sulfur oxides are present in an environment, humans’ health is compromised. There are numerous countries today that are processing waste from consumers and converting it to renewable energy. The chief executive officer of Harvest Power - Chris Kasper conveyed that “Waste is a problem that can’t be ignored”. He believes that it is significant to recycle waste and make societies naturally healthy. This study will focus primarily on Riverton City and surrounding areas in Kingston, Jamaica. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the environmental health risk effect and the possible renewable energy potential of the solid waste dump site in Riverton City, Kingston, Jamaica. KEYWORDS: Waste disposal, air pollutants, environmental health risk, and renewable energy
... Miller et Shamsie ont fait plus tard une distinction entre les ressources basées sur la propriété et les ressources basées sur la connaissance (Miller et Shamsie, 1996). ...
Article
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Air is one of the most indispensable components that are crucial to the sustainability of life. Air pollution threatens the health of humans and other living beings on our planet. Choudhary et al., (2013). Managing air pollution has become a difficult challenge because air pollutants have become a universal concern Adams and Kanaroglou (2016). When high levels of air contaminants such as nitrogen, lead, carbon monoxide, and sulfur oxides are present in an environment, humans’ health is compromised. There are numerous countries today that are processing waste from consumers and converting it to renewable energy. The chief executive officer of Harvest Power - Chris Kasper conveyed that “Waste is a problem that can’t be ignored”. He believes that it is significant to recycle waste and make societies naturally healthy. This study will focus primarily on Riverton City and surrounding areas in Kingston, Jamaica. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the environmental health risk effect and the possible renewable energy potential of the solid waste dump site in Riverton City, Kingston, Jamaica. Author Keywords: Waste disposal, air pollutants, environmental health risk, and renewable energy.
... That is, if firms can find ways to reduce such frictions, their products or services may positively influence firm profitability and social welfare. Along this line, the strategy literature has examined strategies concerning various market frictions such as information costs (Dushnitsky, 2010;Gubler and Cooper, 2019;Luo, 2014;Makadok and Barney, 2001;Shamsie, 2003), search and matching costs (Chatain and Mindruta, 2017;Chatain and Zemsky, 2011), production (dis)economies (Asmussen, 2015;Levinthal and Wu, 2010;Pacheco-de-Almeida and Zemsky, 2007;Pacheco-de-Almeida, 2010;Sakhartov, 2017), uncertainty (Li, 2008;McGrath, 1997;Miller and Folta, 2002), bounded rationality (Foss, 2003;Foss and Weber, 2016;Weber and Mayer, 2014), team-based production (Chen, Elfenbein, Posen, and Wang, 2020;Gottschalg and Zollo, 2007;Makadok and Coff, 2009;Obloj and Zemsky, 2015;Postrel, 2009;Shamsie and Mannor, 2013), task complexity (Nickerson and Zenger, 2004;Weigelt and Miller, 2013), asset specificity (Chi, 1994;Elfenbein and Zenger, 2017;Jia, 2013;Kang, Mahoney, and Tan, 2009;Wang and Barney, 2006), weak property rights protection (Anton and Yao, 2002;Foss and Foss, 2005;Kim and Mahoney, 2005;Miller and Shamsie, 1996;Zhao, 2006), and resource complementarity (Adegbesan, 2009;Schmidt and Keil, 2013). Synthesizing these streams of work, an emerging body of strategy research has begun to develop a market-frictions based paradigm, encouraging more research using market frictions as building blocks to study strategic phenomena and develop theoretical insights (Mahoney and Qian, 2013). ...
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Through digitalization, online platforms facilitate suppliers to meet market demand with customized offerings, but this business model’s value-creation potential is often hampered by market frictions. Consequently, suppliers may avoid exerting efforts and so customers may be unwilling to pay a premium. This article develops an analytical model to address market frictions. We identify circumstances where the classic reputation mechanism is insufficient, and then propose a new strategy, whereby the platform accepts only a subset of suppliers. We demonstrate that this supplier-restriction strategy can support a welfare-enhancing equilibrium and accelerate the evolution even if all the suppliers are homogeneous and the customers can costlessly transact with suppliers outside the platform. At equilibrium, suppliers on the platform enjoy a higher market share than those outside and are motivated to exert effort; customers prefer to pay suppliers on the platform a premium, and seek outside suppliers only if the former are unavailable. We evaluate platform profitability and social welfare, compare different payment structures, and extend the model to accommodate issues regarding verifiability, imperfect signals, and matching costs. Our work enriches the market-frictions based perspective by showing how it can guide platform design in governing economic exchanges.
... 1. practising varied operational styles under the leadership of experienced top management; 2. being flexible towards environmental changes; 3. concentrating on results more than processes in their operations; 4. practising a cooperative, friendly culture with informal control; 5. advocated flexibility within teamwork behaviour; 6. concentrating on teamwork creativity; and 7. practicing free communication. Miller (1986) and Miller and Shamsie (1996) provided the following explanation for four types of organisational structures: simple structure (strategies are set by top management), machine bureaucracy (many formal rules, policies and procedures with high levels of power centralisation), organic (very flexible with limited hierarchy), and divisional (composed of several independent groups). ...
... Corporate-level RBV studies indicate that resources impact diversification decisions in ways that improve firm performance (e.g., Farjoun, 1994;Harrison, Hitt, Hoskisson, & Ireland, 2001), that portfolio resource-relatedness positively impacts corporate performance (e.g., Robins & Weirsema, 1995), and that R&Cs influence corporate-level strategic alliance decisions (e.g., Eisenhardt & Schoon hoven, 1996). Business-level RBV studies show that a firm's resources and capabilities influence foreign investment decisions (e.g., Collis, 1991), that resource coordination, learning capabilities, and dynamic capabilities are positively associated with firm performance (e.g., Schroeder, Bates, & Junttila, 2002), that resource management impacts first mover advantages (Henderson & Cockburn, 1994;Zott, 2003), that firms reconfigure and upgrade their resources and capabilities over time as firms interact with their competitive environments (e.g., Sharma & Vredenburg, 1998), that industryspecific competencies serve as isolating mechanisms in sustaining a firm 's competitive advantage (e.g., Brush & Artz, 1999), that environmental contexts impact the competitive value of a resource (e.g., Miller & Shamsie, 1996), that firm characteristics are better predictors of firm performance than industry characteristics (e.g., Barney & Arikan,200 I), that constructive work relationships and social capital positively impact firm competitiveness (Hitt,Bierman,Shimizu,& Kochhar,200 I), and that information technology and related competencies positively impact firm performance (Zhu & Kraemer, 2002;Zhu, 2004). In short, these and other empirical RBV studies seem to support RBV 's main prescription and underlying assumptions. ...
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There is widespread consensus that human activity has had a significant im­pact on global climatic patterns which will have important consequences for much of society. Although there has been much research on the relationship between cor­porate environmental performance and corporate financial performance, empirical testing of the association between proactive corporate climate-change strategies and financial (or accounting) performance is still in its infancy. Based on the logic em­bodied in the Natural Resource-Based View (NRBV) of the firm, firms that success­ fully implement strategies to lessen their effect on climate change should outperform competitors who are less proactive in such efforts. This study uses a matched-pair design to empirically demonstrate that firms with proactive climate change strate­gies achieved significantly higher levels of accounting performance than competi­tors that were less proactive, thus providing additional support for the NRBV.
Thesis
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Os modelos atuais de gestão do capital intelectual evidenciam seu aspecto avaliativo por meio de indicadores. Porém, a literatura aponta lacunas relacionadas à capacidade de resposta desta avaliação ao ambiente, ou avaliação da capacidade dinâmica da organização na rede, locus deste estudo. Diante do quadro descrito e das lacunas de pesquisa sobre as capacidades dinâmicas relacionadas ao capital intelectual, a presente tese objetivou propor um framework para avaliação das capacidades dinâmicas a partir do capital intelectual. Os elementos que compõem o framework foram construídos com base na abordagem teórica que considerou as dimensões do capital intelectual: capital humano, capital relacional e capital estrutural; e na perspectiva que considerou os processos: sentir as oportunidades do mercado, reconfigurar recursos e integrar recursos, das capacidades dinâmicas. O framework foi operacionalizado por meio de pesquisa quantitativa, delineamento não experimental, corte transversal, método dedutivo e tipo exploratória. Os procedimentos metodológicos utilizaram a análise de regressão linear múltipla como técnica de validação do modelo de análise da pesquisa. A área de aplicação do estudo foi representada por organizações na rede, participantes da ACATE – Associação Catarinense de Empresas de Tecnologia; APL Centro Software (RS) e APL TI Sudoeste (PR). Os resultados sugerem relação entre todas as dimensões do capital intelectual. Além disso, evidenciam possível influência do capital humano e do capital relacional no desempenho financeiro, no contexto das organizações participantes da pesquisa. Adicionalmente, fornecem suporte sobre a importância das capacidades dinâmicas relacionadas ao capital intelectual, como ponto inicial de partida dos estudos. As descobertas sugerem indicadores que contribuem em termos teóricos com um instrumento inédito de pesquisa; e, em termos práticos com o direcionamento de investimentos da organização, no conjunto adequado de recursos de capital intelectual para obtenção de vantagem competitiva.
Chapter
Chapter 1 conducts a literature review of existing studies on film companies ranging from Hollywood studios to those in Hong Kong film history. This chapter firstly examines the ways in which Hollywood studios were studied. It explores how industrial analysis became a preferred approach to understanding the operation of film companies and the studio system in the process of the refinement of theoretical frameworks and tools for writing histories of Hollywood cinema, and how studio documents and related materials replaced film texts as the main sources for charting studio histories. Considering differences between the vertically integrated Hollywood majors and small and independent production houses, this chapter explicates why an integrative approach proposed in the field of media industry studies that combines industrial analysis with discourse analysis and other approaches would be more suitable for studying contemporary independent production houses. By also looking into literature on Hong Kong-based film companies, this chapter identifies topics and themes that are particularly important in a Hong Kong context, such as identity and globalisation, and points out the lack of scholarly attention on contemporary companies. Through the historiographical survey, the chapter defines a methodological framework for this book on Milkyway.
Thesis
L’objectif de cette recherche est de déterminer la nature de la relation entrel’internationalisation et la performance (RIP) de l’entreprise, sujet débattu depuis quarante ans,mais pourtant resté sans réponse concluante. Pour y parvenir, nous élaborons une approchetridimensionnelle à deux phases d’analyses : analytique et interactive. Dans la première, nousnous focalisons sur le degré d’internationalisation et sur l’impact individuel de chaque dimensiond’internationalisation pour déterminer la nature des «parties» de la RIP. Dans la deuxième,l’accent est mis sur le processus d’internationalisation et sur l’impact interactif des troisdimensions - largeur, profondeur, dispersion - d’internationalisation pour déterminer la nature del’«ensemble» de la RIP. Cette recherche, s’appuyant sur un échantillon de 69 grandes entreprisesinternationales françaises pour la période 2001-2007, clarifie la nature de la RIP en apportant lesnouveaux éléments théoriques et empiriques suivants : (i) Chaque dimensiond’internationalisation entretient sa propre relation curvilinéaire à trois phases avec laperformance ; (ii) La nature de la RIP est essentiellement régie par la nature de la relation entrela profondeur d’internationalisation et la performance, étant par conséquent curvilinéaire, ayanttrois phases et formant un S horizontal ; (iii) La relation en S horizontal entrel’internationalisation et la performance est modérée par la largeur d’internationalisation et parla dispersion d’internationalisation ; (iv) Le processus d’internationalisation l’emporte sur ledegré d’internationalisation dans l’explication de la performance.
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Dalam buku ini mengkaji model kontingensi yang dibangun dan dikembangkan berbasis pengelolaan sumberdaya (RBV of The Firm), dan dintegrasikan dengan lingkungan bisnis eksternal yang dihadapi. Model kajian ini diterapkan pada usaha kecil dan menengah (UKM) sebagai wujud upaya-upaya strategis untuk memperkuat posisi kompetisi, serta peningkatan kinerja usaha yang berkesinambungan. Pada buku ini juga mengungkap berbagai fenomena yang dihadapi UKM, serta kajian teoritis dan empiris untuk mengonstruksi model strategi bersaing berbasis sumberdaya. Pokok bahasan dalam model strategi bersaing berbasis sumberdaya adalah peran sumberdaya strategis, orientasi kewirausahaan, dan dinamika lingkungan dalam meningkatkan ketepatan implementasi strategi bersaing untuk meraih kinerja usaha yang lebih besar dan berkesimabungan. Temuan penting dari hasil kajian, penguasaan sumberdaya strategis, pelaksanaan orientasi kewirausahaan, dan dinamika lingkungan dijadikan basis penerapan strategi bersaing, sehingga dapat meraih peningkatan kinerja usaha. Kunci sukses peningkatan kinerja usaha ditentukan oleh sumberdaya strategis dan orientasi kewirausahaan yang mendasari UKM untuk menerapkan strategi bersaing, sehingga mampu memperbaiki atau meningkatkan posisi kompetitifnya. Posisi kompetitif yang lebih baik diperoleh, karena mampu menyelaraskan dinamika lingkungan bisnis yang dihadapi, dan menghantarkan untuk meraih peningkatan kinerja usaha. Namun demikian, apabila UKM tidak menerapkan strategi bersaing yang dilandasi pengintegrasian sumberdaya strategis dan orientasi kewirausahaan, maka dinamika lingkungan yang dihadapi dapat menghambat atau menurunkan pencapaian kinerja usaha mereka.
Article
A great number of papers published on resource-based theory (RBT) have shaped its popularity and usefulness as a strategic approach. This study contributes to the literature by reviewing and evaluating the development of RBT research. Using a bibliometric analysis, we analyzed 2771 primary focal articles published between 1991 and 2020 and 103,796 secondary references. Our research reveals the status of RBT research by identifying the influential publications, authors, countries, institutions, and journals in this field. Based on the bibliometric analysis results, we suggest the future agenda of RBT research. Complementing previous qualitative literature reviews and quantitative meta-analyses, our study provides a systematic and dynamic understanding of RBT research.
Article
The emergence and rapid evolution of additive manufacturing have led to disruptive changes in the business landscape. However, empirical research on how additive manufacturing creates value for firms is still limited. This study, therefore, examines the relationships between additive manufacturing, new product development performance, and competitive advantage with moderating role of environmental dynamism. The sample consists of 226 manufacturing firms in Turkey. The results indicate that additive manufacturing is positively related to new product development performance and competitive advantage. For these relationships, a positive moderating effect of environmental dynamism is found. It is further demonstrated that new product development performance fully mediates the association between additive manufacturing and competitive advantage.
Chapter
This chapter contains a collection of organizational transformation stories in the digital era. These typically happen in rapidly growing, changeable, and highly competitive environments, which complicate their business landscapes and clearly are potential crisis triggers. Same as in the previous chapters, these critical and dramatic transformations are presented as case studies, each of which includes a walkthrough and a set of questions providing food for thought and further discussion. The IT-intensive business domains examined include publishing businesses, and fast-food production and delivery, to name a few. Among other particular concerns for these cutting-edge businesses, franchising, and outsourcing approaches are discussed. The business stories presented are based on real-world cases. These include both well-established companies such as Microsoft, Huawei, and more recent startups.
Thesis
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Strategic alliances and mergers & acquisitions are theoretically now considered as real levers of value creation. This value creation takes different forms, essentially strategic value, substantial value, institutional value and financial value (including shareholders). This latter holds our attention specifically. The objective of our research, after analyzing the results of empirical works focused on the acquisition announcements impact on the stock market performance, is to answer two fundamental questions. The first question is to know that if, on a more or less distant horizon, the stock market performance of acquisitions coincides with the actual performance and so if this form of acquisitions can be justified by the financial motivation of CEOs or shareholders. The second question is to know that if this hypothesis is also true in the case of alliances, establishing by the way an advantageous comparison in favor of one or other of the external growth options. Our final results show that in the short term the announcement of an alliance has a negative impact on performance as opposed to the announcement of a merger & acquisition, while other hand on the long-term, there is no positive impact (neutral impact) on financial performance whether it be the strategic alliance or merger & acquisition. We explain this result by the phenomenon of "creation of compensatory value" in the context of a strategic and financial plan.
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Knowledge as an organizational resource in media businesses has become increasingly important in a competitive environment. There is a growing interest in developing new techniques to enhance knowledge sharing between people, that is conducive to media entrepreneurs. One of the main barriers to knowledge sharing in communicating entrepreneurs is the lack of motivation which can be improved by using gamification. The aim of this research is to achieve a better understanding of the gamified knowledge sharing process to improve organizational entrepreneurship among TV employees. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 employees and managers of the IRIB organization. Qualitative analysis of the research data was conducted in three steps: transcribing data, coding and organizing categories. Most of IRIB’s employees inspired by intrinsic motivations include status, power, learning, autonomy, and community. Security is the only and most critical extrinsic motivation in IRIB organization. Moreover, we have found four categories of user types, namely achiever, socializer, discoverer, and survivor. Our study identified the main motivators of media staff that create a sense of happiness and motivation to participate in organizational entrepreneurship via knowledge sharing. Finally, we offer new insights about the media employees’ user types in the gamified knowledge sharing system.
Thesis
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As redes interorganizacionais são destacadas como uma forma das empresas acessarem uma variedade de recursos estratégicos. Os recursos estratégicos, por sua vez, podem auxiliar as empresas em seu desempenho e inovação. Neste sentido, objetivou-se identificar os recursos estratégicos que influenciam a inovação e o desempenho das empresas, em contexto de redes interorganizacionais. Para o atendimento do objetivo, foi realizado um estudo quantitativo, descritivo, através de uma survey. Como instrumento de coleta de dados utilizou-se um questionário aplicado a 182 empresas pertencentes a três tipos de redes interorganizacionais: redes horizontais, franquias e aglomerados produtivos locais. Na análise dos dados empregou- se a estatística descritiva, a análise fatorial, análise de regressão linear e a análise de variância. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que as redes interorganizacionais permitem o acesso a recursos físicos, organizacionais, humanos e reputacionais. Além disso, há diferenças significativas no acesso a recursos estratégicos entre os tipos de rede analisadas. As empresas associadas a redes horizontais e as franquias obtiveram médias maiores para o acesso a recursos estratégicos organizacionais, humanos e reputacionais em comparação as empresas integrantes de aglomerados produtivos. Ademais, apenas os recursos organizacionais e reputacionais influenciaram positivamente o desempenho organizacional das empresas analisadas, enquanto que os recursos organizacionais e humanos influenciaram positivamente a inovação. Este achado indica que as empresas podem se valer das relações que estabelecem com outras empresas para acessar recursos estratégicos e obter ganhos competitivos, como a melhoria na inovação e no desempenho. No âmbito gerencial, os resultados deste estudo auxiliam os gestores na tomada de decisão de que tipos de recursos podem ser acessados por meio de redes interorganizacionais e que podem também contribuir para o desempenho das empresas. Além disso, contribui para a construção de políticas de incentivo para o desenvolvimento de recursos específicos que auxiliem as redes interorganizacionais na obtenção de melhor desempenho e de inovação.
Chapter
Entrepreneurial Orientation is a prominent topic within the field of management research as it has been subject to more than four decades of theoretical and empirical inquiry, and is widely acknowledged as a strong predictor of firm performance. Therefore, with the aim of continual development of the theory and research on this topic of interest, the current chapter portrays and identifies the determinants of Entrepreneurial Orientation and its implications on firm performance through its five dimensions: namely innovativeness, proactiveness, risk-taking, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness. Studies exploring the antecedents of Entrepreneurial Orientation and the factors that nurture it are scarce, especially when tackling the context of SMEs. Hence, its origins remain unclear, constituting a promising research direction and a fertile area that requires further development. Thus, this chapter draws on prior research to suggest and develop a theoretical framework concerned with SMEs’ strategic orientation and entrepreneurial practices, seeing the immense and inevitable contribution of SMEs to their local and regional economies.
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The purpose of this research is to carry out an in-depth exploration of the causes of the family firm's success over short and long term, analysing which capabilities are the most valuable sources of sustainable competitive advantage in every time horizon. The results confirm only functional capabilities have a positive and significant effect on short-term economic performance, whereas dynamic capabilities are the only ones that have a positive and significant impact on long-term economic performance.
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This article shells on CRM (Customer Relationship Management) theory and explores the association between e-CRM (electronic customer relationship management) and e-customer (electronic customer) e-loyalty (electronic loyalty) in the banking sector. The emergence of the information technology and its widespread usage has provided an opportunity for the banking sector to deploy technology for Electronic Customer Relationship Management. Banks today realized the fact that the customer has become the driving force for the success and survival. The new technology revolution has brought many expectations for the customer than before. Understanding the differences and the ability to capitalize on it will hold the key to success. The emerging of computing and communication technologies have redefined banking erasing traditional boundaries of time, geography and creating new virtual communities of customers. This article is to understand and analyze the perception of Electronic-Customer Relationship Management in Banking Sector The main objective of the study is analyzing the opinion of customers about e-CRM services of banks in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh and also to offer suitable suggestions on the basis of findings of the study. The data required for the study has been collected from the sample customers of Chittoor and analyzed to capitalize on the range of benefits that emanate from the use of e-CRM. This study is both descriptive and analytical in nature. This study covers both Primary data and Secondary data. The Primary data have been collected from various customers in Chittoor District with the help of pre-tested interview schedule and questionnaire respectively. The Secondary data have been collected from the records of banks, published books, journals, reports and circulars issued by the Reserve Bank of India, encyclopedia and through web sites. The researcher has used mean, standard deviation, t-test and F-test throughout the report to express the opinion of the respondents and in order to test the opinion of customers about the e-CRM services.
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We apply a resource-based view to investigate how the adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) affects competitive capabilities and performance. Following prior work on using chess as a controlled setting for studying competitive interactions, we compare the same players’ capabilities and performance across conventional, centaur, and engine chess tournaments. Our analysis shows that AI triggers interrelated substitution and complementation dynamics, which make humans’ traditional competitive capabilities obsolete, while creating new sources of persistent heterogeneity when humans interact with chess engines. These novel human-machine capabilities are unrelated, or even negatively related, to traditional capabilities. We contribute by providing an integrated view of substitution and complementation, including the description of AI as a driver of the two, eventually explaining substantial shifts in the sources of competitive advantage.
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Objetivo: O estudo buscou propor um framework para avaliar as capacidades dinâmicas sob a perspectiva do capital intelectual. Design/Metodologia/Abordagem: O framework foi operacionalizado por meio de pesquisa quantitativa, abordagem não experimental, do tipo exploratória, transversal e método dedutivo. O processo metodológico utilizou uma regressão linear múltipla como validação do modelo de análise da pesquisa. A área de aplicação do estudo foi representada por organizações em rede de Tecnologia da Informação e Comunicação do sul do Brasil. Resultados: Os resultados mostram uma possível influência do capital humano e do capital relacional sobre o desempenho financeiro, no contexto das organizações que participaram desta pesquisa. Originalidade/Valor: Os resultados da pesquisa fornecem suporte para a importância das capacidades dinâmicas relacionadas ao capital intelectual. As descobertas sugerem indicadores que contribuem, em termos teóricos, com um novo instrumento de pesquisa; e em termos práticos, com a alocação de investimentos da organização para o conjunto adequado de recursos de capital intelectual, a fim de obter vantagem competitiva. Palavras-chave: Framework. Capacidades Dinâmicas. Capital Intelectual. Organizações em Rede.
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This chapter looks into the sustainability factors of Barangay Micro Business Enterprises (BMBEs) in Laoag City from the Resource-Based View (RBV). Primary data were gathered through a survey questionnaire and interview. Secondary data were collected from the Department of Trade and Industry-Ilocos Norte Provincial Office and Laoag City Licensing Office. The findings show that the BMBEs in Laoag City, particularly the hotel accommodation and food service activities group, have valuable, rare, inimitable, and organized resources that sustain their operations. Having excellent local market knowledge, customer loyalty, established relationships with suppliers, owner’s motivation, daily recording of financial transactions, separating business money from personal money, and high social media presence with positive reviews are the resources that give them a sustainable competitive advantage. By maximizing these resources, they overcome the problems encountered in business operations, especially amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Valuable and rare but can be easily imitated resource such as differentiated product provides a temporary competitive advantage. Valuable resources that are not rare and can easily be imitated, such as offering affordable meals, financial resources, employees, sales on a cash basis, and a simple organizational structure, provide competitive parity. The BMBEs should strategize to make all valuable but not rare and easily imitated resources into valuable, rare, inimitable, and organized to become a sustainable competitive advantage.
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The strategy and knowledge creation process help entrepreneurial SME managers achieve sustainable competitive advantage and firm performance. This study aims to investigate the multiple mediating roles of competitive strategies and knowledge creation processes implemented by Chinese SMEs in Thailand between their entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance. Structural equation model is used to analyze data collected from Chinese SMEs in Thailand. Results showed that (1) there is a positive relationship between perceptions of entrepreneurial orientation and perceptions of firm performance, (2) competitive strategy and knowledge creation process individually play a mediating role between entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance, and (3) competitive strategy and knowledge creation process play a chain mediating effect between entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance. This hypothesis is verified by a chained multiple mediation model, and this model has theoretical significance for understanding the relationship between perceived entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance. The competitive strategy has positive effects on SME performance and knowledge creation expands the firm’s valuable resources and actively updates firm performance.
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You can reach my book, 'Digital Marketing' via the following link: https://www.morebooks.shop/store/gb/book/digital-marketing/isbn/978-613-8-96557-2
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A newly competitive environment is developing in Nigeria, the business environment has altered rapidly and unpredictably, and new knowledge and capabilities are consequently needed to survive in such a turbulent environment. This study suggests market-focused strategic flexibility as one survival strategy needed. Though a fair amount of literature exists on strategic flexibility and the performance of a firm the extant literature has been somewhat silent on market-focused strategic flexibility since it was conceptualized by Johnson, Lee, Siani and Grohnmann (2003). The mixed relationship of market orientation and firm performance (for example as found in studies by authors such as Jaworski and Kohli (1993), Zhou et al.2005, and Ellis 2006) causes one to suspect that certain moderating variables may be responsible; market-focused strategic flexibility is suggested as one of them. The effect of environmental variables on market-focused strategic flexibility and sales growth was also studied. In order to investigate these issues, the research instrument, a questionnaire, was distributed to the chief executive officers and marketing managers of five hundred firms in Nigeria. A 58.4% response rate was achieved. The psychometric properties of the instrument showed it to exhibit a good fit with the model. The data was then analyzed and tested using factor analysis, correlational and regressional analysis. The overall results suggest that market-focused strategic flexibility is a driver of organizational positioning in a dynamic environment, and it is also found to moderate the market orientation – sales growth relationship studied and environmental variables influence its relationship with sales growth in most firms. The results also established that while firms operating in a dynamic environment may gain advantage by adopting market-focused strategic flexibility, firms operating in a relatively stable environment may not achieve particularly good results if they do so. If most firms in a particular industry operating in a dynamic environment adopt market-focused strategic flexibility, they are not likely to achieve competitive advantage. The need for skills relating to selection of options, identification of resources, deployment capabilities, and sense-making capacities constitute an impetus to the implementation of effective market-focused strategic flexibility. It is recommended that research into the key characteristics of industries and market-focused strategic flexibility be carried out to further explain the differences in the results obtained for different industries, and that this study be repeated for other countries to facilitate comparative analysis.
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Returnee managers, a scarce human resource for emerging market multinational enterprises in the past, are becoming increasingly abundant, and their value is at risk of diminishing. The analysis of Chinese cross-border acquisitions (2008–2017) reveals that only returnee managers from the same country in which an acquisition is targeted facilitate the acquisition, whereas the others fail to make a difference. The impacts are stronger when the acquiring company has less international experience and when the target country has a weak institutional environment. Thus, returnee managers as an asset should be deployed where they are most needed and least substitutable.
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ABSTRACT The low performance of small and medium scale enterprises deprives their multiple contributions to the economies in their mobility towards the development. Though the issue has attracted the attention of many researchers, even today it is compelling due to the emerging global competition in the context of developing countries. The previous findings on the understanding of the complex relationships among factors influencing firm performance remain fragmented and unexplained. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test a research model for investigating the effect of cognitive factors and strategic orientation on firm performance. The research model incorporated achievement motivation, personal goal setting, and mastery experience as cognitive variables while entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and learning orientation were configured as strategic orientation. The mediating role of self-efficacy and the moderating effect of absorptive capacity were also examined. The survey questionnaire translated into the native language was administered to a sample of 800 owner managers in the small and medium scale hotel and restaurant industry in Sri Lanka resulting in 350 usable responses. The stratified random sampling was the method used for the selection of the respondents to the sample. Data analysis was carried out by applying the structural equation modeling method. The findings widened the knowledge of the complex relationships among variables concerned indicating that the synergetic effect of cognitive variables and strategic orientation on firm performance is indispensable. Self-efficacy was found to be a significant mediating mechanism in the relationship between cognitive dispositions and firm performance. Strategic orientation of the organizations with higher level of absorptive capacity was found to be strongly related to firm performance. The results also extended the contextual validation of the research model in the developing countries. Keywords: cognitive factors, strategic orientation, firm performance, self-efficacy, absorptive capacity. (PDF) MEDIATING AND MODERATING EFFECTS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SELF-EFFICACY AND ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY ON THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG COGNITIVE FACTORS, STRATEGIC ORIENTATION AND FIRM PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE HOTEL AND RESTAURANT INDUSTRY IN SRI LANKA HERATH MUDIYANSELAGE ARIYARATHNE DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/351428056_MEDIATING_AND_MODERATING_EFFECTS_OF_ENTREPRENEURIAL_SELF-EFFICACY_AND_ABSORPTIVE_CAPACITY_ON_THE_RELATIONSHIP_AMONG_COGNITIVE_FACTORS_STRATEGIC_ORIENTATION_AND_FIRM_PERFORMANCE_OF_SMALL_AND_MEDIUM_SCA
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